Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Sample Paper 2: Measure This sample paper will check your knowledge on Measure phase for LSS Black Belt Click on 'Next' to start 1. What is an Operational Definition?It is a clear, concise and unambiguous definition of the CTQIt provides a unified understanding of the data for all involved before the data are collectedIt includes the formula (if any) that is used to calculate the metricIt is all of the above2. Which of the following statement is NOT true?For long term capability, the variation is generally higher than that with short term capabilityShort-term capability is calculated from the data collected from stable processes, monitored for approximately 20 to 30 subgroupsMeasurement system reliability does not affect process capability assessmentFor a short interval, the variability is often relatively small due to a focus on specific equipment, a set of trained people, homogeneous material, the same measuring system, etc.3. September 23, 1999, after a 286-day journey from Earth to Mars, NASA lost the $125 million Mars Climate Orbiter, after the spacecraft entered into an orbit 100 kilometers closer than planned. NASA used the metric system, while its partner Lockheed Martin, the organization that designed the navigation system, used English units. This is a classic example of the absence of____________an operational definitiona measurement systemdue diligencerisk analysis4. Measurement value = ?True valueTrue value + Measurement errorTrue value + Systematic errorTrue value + Calculation error5. In case of “Data Collection”, which of the following has the advantage of high data integrity and opportunity to seek clarification?Mystery shoppingOnline surveysFocus groupsAll the above6. Which of the following is NOT matched correctly?Repeatability: Variation in measuring equipment when measured by one appraiser in the same setting at the same timeBias: Difference between absolute value and true valueStability: Accuracy of measurement at various measurement points of the measuring range in the equipmentReproducibility: Variation in measurement when measured by two or more appraisers multiple times7. What is the formula for DPO?Defects/Units *1000000Defects/Opportunities*1000000Defects/OpportunitiesDefectives/Opportunities8. Identify the correct sequence for conducting a Gage R&R study.Select 3-5 parts > select the operators > collect data > calculate Gage R&RSelect the operators > select 3-5 parts > calculate Gage R&R > collect dataCalculate Gage R&R > select the operators > select 3-5 parts > collect dataSelect the operators > collect data > select 3-5 parts > calculate Gage R&R9. All the statements below are false, except ____________In both Pp and Ppk, the lower the value, the betterCp is always equal to or smaller than CpkA Ppk below 1, indicates the process average is outside one of the engineering specificationsThe Pp and Ppk values will be equal if the process is perfectly centered10. Which of the following is NOT an error while doing a Gage R&R study?It is recommended to even pick samples outside the specification limitsRandomize the samples during measurementInvolve appraisers who perform the measurements in the process on a regular basisAll of the above11. In case of automated data collection with no human intervention in the measurement, _______________operational definition is not requiredMSA is not requiredLogical validation can be performedMSA is impossible12. Gage R&R study for a measurement system gave the following outcome. What is a suitable inference?Measurement System is accepted but with cautionMeasurement System is acceptedMeasurement system is rejectedMore data is required13. All the statements below are correct, except ___________________A Cp, Cpk value ≥ 1.33 shows that the process is capableA Cp, Cpk value = 1.0 means that the process barely meets the specificationA Cp, Cpk value < 1.0 means that the process is producing units outside engineering specificationsAbnormally high Cp, Cpk (> 3) shows that the specification is very tight14. Which of the following does NOT warrant an action?Process in statistical control and meets specificationsProcess not in statistical control but meets specificationsProcess in statistical control but does not meet specificationsProcess not in statistical control and does not meet specification15. While performing Attribute Agreement Analysis (AAA) which of the following is true?AAA can only be performed if the standard is knownTo assess the ability of an appraiser to consistently evaluate the same sample, each appraiser should rate each sample at least twice in random orderMore replicates (Trials) for the same samples is a better choice while conducting AAA rather than more samplesTo ensure that the data collection order does not influence the results, each appraiser should evaluate all samples in a non-random order16. What is the correct sequence for activities given below?Measurement System verification> Process stability evaluation> Rational subgrouping> Process capability evaluationProcess stability evaluation> Rational subgrouping> Measurement System verification> Process capability evaluationMeasurement system verification> Rational subgrouping> Process stability evaluation > Process capability evaluationRational subgrouping> Measurement System verification> Process capability evaluation> Process stability evaluation17. Which of the following combinations is incorrect?Nominal (Binary) data from appraisers – Fleiss’ Kappa statisticsOrdinal data from appraisers - Kendall’s coefficient of concordanceGage R&R- % Team accuracyNone of the above18. A document requires 10 essential entries for further processing. In a sample of 100 such documents, defects (missing entries/incomplete entries/incorrect entries) were evaluated. 20 defects were found in 2 documents. What is DPMO, DPU and Yield respectively?20000, 1, 98%20000, 0.2, 98%0.02, 0.2, 98%20000, 1, 90%19. If your data is not normal, then the most appropriate sequence to perform process capability is -i. Transform the non-normal data to normal data using Box-Cox transformation or Johnson's transformationii. Identify the non-normal distribution that fits your data and perform capability analysis for non-normal dataiii. One must investigate the reason for non-normality to check for erroneous data/extreme valuesi > ii > iiiiii > i > iiiii > ii > ii > iii > ii20. Which of the following is correct?Z.benchST : Overall standard deviationZ.benchLT : Within standard deviationZshift: Difference between Z.benchST & Z.benchLTZ.benchST = Z.benchLT + 1.5, always21. What is the probability of observing at least one defective in a random sample of size 10, drawn from a population that has been producing, on the average, 10 percent defective units?0.650.350.730.2722. Errors in invoice’s follow Poisson distribution with DPU of 0.5. What the probability that an invoice will have zero errors?0.50.60123. Given process average = 1.65, standard deviation =0.05, assuming statistical control and a normal population, what proportion of the population will meet specifications of 1.65 ± .05?68.27 %99.73 %31.73 %100.0 %24. If Z_{LT}=1, what will be Z_{GOAL} if the target is 50% reduction in defects?0.51.4121.525. A process is normally distributed with, USL = 24 and LSL = 18. It has a mean of 20, short-term standard deviation of 1 and long-term standard deviation of 1.5. What will be Cp, Ppk respectively?1, 0.671, 0.440.67, 0.440.67,0.67Time is Up! Time's up