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  • THE OPEN QUESTION on the forum right now is on Sigma LevelThis is part of our TWO QUESTIONS PER WEEK initiative. One question is launched on Tuesday and the other on Friday, both at 5 PM IST. Best answers are recognized well on this most active Lean Six Sigma forum. (Benchmark Six Sigma Forum ranks first on Google Search based on popularity) 

     

    The most recent answered question along with the best response(s) can be seen here - Shainin DOE.  All questions can be seen here. The entire Dictionary of Business Excellence terms is here.

     

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    Online SRPAP May 2022
  • ALL TIME GB TOP SCORERS

     

    Name

    Score (%)

    City/Year

     
     

    Purvi Gupta

    100

    Del 2019

     

    Bhawana Sethi

    100

    Del 2015

     

    Adyan Prabhakaran

    100

    Hyd 2014

     

    Thirumoorthi.M

    99

    Chn 2019

     

    Sneha Vivek More

    99

    Mum 2019

     

    Sumita Maiti

    99

    Kol 2017

     

    Vidula Valavalkar

    99

    Hyd 2014

     

    Vishal Tillu

    99

    Mum 2014

     

    Yashwanth J G

    99

    Bng 2013

     

    Jyothi Kanuri

    99

    Hyd 2013

     

    Vrajesh Parekh

    99

    Mum 2013

     

    Gnanasekaran D

    99

    Chn 2012

     

    Benoy Ramachandran

    99

    Chn 2012

     

     

    Muthu Naveen S

    99

    Mum 2012

     

    Ketan Trivedi

    99

    Mum 2012

     

    Piyush Mangal

    99

    Del 2011

     

    Sourav Thakur

    99

    Del 2011

     

    Tushar Chaudhari

    99

    Mum 2011

     

    Komal Bansal

    99

    Mum 2011

     

    Parag Suresh Kamble

    99

    Mum 2011

     

    Ritik Gupta

    99

    Pun 2011

     

    Amit Kumar Makkar

    99

    Del 2010

     

    Shaifali Singh

    99

    Del 2010

     

    Clarence Wong

    99

    Hyd 2010

     

    Devendra Singh Baghel

    99

    Hyd 2010

     

    Varun Hemrajani

    99

    Pun 2010

     
         

    Here is the complete list of all time Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Top Scorers

  • ALL TIME BB TOP SCORERS

     

    Name

    Score (%)

    City/Year

     
     

    Kunal Obhrai

    98

    Del 2019

     

    Mahesh P K

    98

    Bng 2017

     

    Balaji M

    97

    Bng 2017

     

    Rohit Arora

    97

    Bng 2017

     

    Amit Kumar Makkar

    97

    Del 2015

     

    Kanishk Jain

    97

    Bng 2014

     

    Akshay Khatri

    97

    Del 2013

     

    Rahul Kumar

    97

    Mum 2013

     

    Sairam Balakrishnan

    97

    Hyd 2011

     

    Ashish Sharma

    96

    Pun 2019

     

    Sunil M. Bhat

    96

    Bng 2017

     

    Rohan Chavali

    96

    Del 2017

     

    Apoorve Arya

    96

    Mum 2014

     

    Sandeep P.R. 

    96

    Chn 2013

     

    Awojide Martins Olabisi

    95

    Mum 2020

     

    Zeshan Abubacker

    95

    Bng 2019

     

    Kumar Kaushal

    95

    Del 2019

     

    Vishal Kanojia

    95

    Hyd 2019

     

    Swati Malhotra

    95

    Mum 2019

     

    Nithin Sandhyala

    95

    Bng 2017

     

    Abhishek Arora

    95

    Del 2017

     

    Satishkumar Jain

    95

    Mum 2017

     

    Atirakshit Bhatt

    95

    Mum 2017

     

    Narendra Anil Murdeshwar

    95

    Pun 2017

     

    Rupinder Kaur Narang

    95

    Del 2016

     

    S Sujay Kumar

    95

    Mum 2016

     

    Kuljinder Kaur

    95

    Del 2015

     

    Vetrivendhan K P

    95

    Bng 2014

     

    Sunil Bissa

    95

    Chn 2013

     

    Mayank Gupta

    95

    Pun 2011

     

    Here is the complete list of all time Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Top Scorers

  • Posts

    • P Balakumaaran has highlighted the ease of using Shainin DOE along with the associated risks. Hence, his answer has been selected as the best answer.
    • DOE was first proposed by R.Fisher in 1920s. As all factors should be taken into account, Full Factorial Designs (FFD) will undoubtedly give the most accurate results. However, this method is not practically preferred, as it includes too much experiments, which is time consuming and costly.               For example, when 4 factors with 2-levels, we have to manage 16 experiments (2^n  = 24). But in practice, the number factors may not be as small as 4. For example; 15 factors with 2-levels need 2^15 = 32768 experiment to do. Therefore, to reduce the number of experiments, fractional factorial design has been developed.   1. Taguchi Method (TM)                   Genichi Taguchi simplified classical DOE by using orthogonal arrays (OA). Taguchi created new methods on the improvement of product and process, which includes, "Taguchi Loss Function" and product/process design with three approaches - "System, Parameter and Tolerance Design". He simplified the Fisher's DOE by using Orthogonal Arrays (OA).                   He used the signal/noise (SN) ratio to reduce variation  in the experimental design.  TM also used the SN ratio, which is used to predict the loss of quality, to maximize the robust design’s objective function. SN ratio takes the test results’ mean and variance.   2. Shainin Method (SM)                   The modern approach to the DOE is Shainin Methodology. This strategy is based on detection of the one, two or three dominant causes of the process variations by focusing on a problem response.                   Dorian Shainin developed this method to reduce the process output variability, It is simple, relatively easy to understand and implement, but uses the combination of powerful statistical techniques, to make it more reliable and faster to achieve results.                   In this method, the problem of the poor quality and causes of this problem are identified by the colors of Green, Red and Pink. These parameters, named Red X, Pink X and Pale Pink X, are ranked based on Pareto Principle.   Green Y: Indicates special quality characteristics that are important to customers Red X: Indicates the dominant cause of the variation and it contains at least 50% of the causes of variation (Green Y)  Pink X: Indicates the secondary cause to the overall variation. It includes 20-30% of the Green Y. Pale Pink X: Indicates the tertiary important reason. It causes to 10-15 % of the Green Y .   With SM, the analysis variation can be reduced by 75% to 95% for the causes of the Green Y (Red X, Pink X and Pale Pink X). SM has mainly 12 techniques, of which, 9 are  problem solving and 3 are controlling and preventing any repetition of the solved problems.     Comparison between Taguchi DOE Vs Shainin DOE methods:   Also, the Pro's and Con's of the 2 methods are listed below and it helps to choose the best appropriate method, based on the requirement   Some of the risks associated with Shainin DOE method is listed below:   1. This method focuses only on the analysis of mean response and does not take into account the variability of 2 different responses. 2. It can help only upto 70%-80% reduction of the problem, as it focuses on Vital few. The impact of the remaining causes are to be accounted with further more iterations. 3. Grouping of the causes and progressive elimination method, may result in eliminating some significant causes.  
    • Design of experiments (DOE) is a powerful data collection and analysis tool that can be used in many types of experimental situations with planning, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting controlled tests to assess the factors that control the value of parameters.   The Shainin DOE indicates to a gathering of principles which make up the framework of a constantly developing approach to quality. Shainin DOE tools are used significantly to solve the problem of process optimization. The Shainin DOE delivers the simplest, easiest and most effective ways to get the solution. It is simple to be assumed by both the engineers and shop floor workers since its logical based on basic science and engineering knowledge.   The methodology is divided into 4 steps:   1)      Detection of factors and decision limits 2)      Departure of significant and insignificant factors 3)      Validation of important factors 4)      Factorial exploration & optimal setting   The Shainin DOE used to take the less number of runs to perform the test comparing to Classical DoE which is more complex in term of using high statistical analysis and need a lot of experiments to confident the conclusion. The ease of implementation of Shainin DOE is another added value than classical DOE approach.  Shainin technique depends on nonparametric statistics (which make no expectations about the shape of a distribution).   The disadvantage of Shainin DOE is the skill and knowledge required to carry out two tasks: (1) to identify the variables correctly and (2) to allocate those variables to the experiment.  
    • Shainin Design of Experiments Shainin Design of experiments methodology was developed by the Dorian Shainin.   Shainin DOE techniques are primarily known to produce continuous improvement by very effective solving the chronic quality problems and process optimization in manufacturer industries. Shainin techniques are highly effective in pinpointing root cause and validating it. Statistical software like Minitab etc.. is not required to analyze the data. In fact, Shainin DoE tool does not even require any knowledge in difficult statistical tool. It involves very simple operations like counts, additions, subtractions, etc. The Shainin DOE techniques success of the Six Sigma project using Shainin method could lead to a very positive impact on the morale of the engineer and employees in terms of convincing them to Six Sigma can be implemented very easily without any knowledge in complex statistics.   1. Shainin DOE tools are very simple and to understand by both the engineers and shop floor workers. 2. Semi-skilled workers to understand and handle Shainin DoE tools very easily in manufacturing firms. 3. Shainin DOE ensures continuous improvement in manufacturing industries.   Comparison of Classical, Taguchi, and Shainin DOE Techniques   There is a risk in that, if multiple failure modes contribute/involve to a problem, and hence outcome / result in different dominant causes for each mode. It is also very important to select appropriate DoE tool for dealing with different situations as there is a need to identify the suitable DoE tool that could be used to increase the predictability and consistency in Process and Product Quality improvement. It is also useful and advisable to evaluate the Shainin DoE techniques for maintaining Six sigma level in Product and Process Quality in the selected manufacturing companies.    
    • Q 472. Some professionals claim that "Sigma Level for a process cannot be calculated if there are zero defects". Is that a correct statement? Explain your response using continuous data as well as discrete data.      Note for website visitors - Two questions are asked every week on this platform. One on Tuesday and the other on Friday. All questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ Please visit the forum home page at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/ to respond to the latest question open till the next Tuesday/ Friday evening 5 PM as per Indian Standard Time. Questions launched on Tuesdays are open till Friday and questions launched on Friday are open till Tuesday.  When you respond to this question, your answer will not be visible till it is reviewed. Only non-plagiarised (plagiarism below 5-10%) responses will be approved. If you have doubts about plagiarism, please check your answer with a plagiarism checker tool like https://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/ before submitting.  The best answer is always shown at the top among responses and the author finds honorable mention in our Business Excellence dictionary at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ along with the related term
    • Customer Satisfaction is the one the CTQs for the organization at the all levels. Organization are looking at different improvement methodologies to get delighted their customers and meet their expectations and Six Sigma process proves the capability to control the process within customer specification that determine the accessibility of the process, service, product being manufactured or offered. Industries’ focus nowadays shifted to quality improvement activities especially in the service and manufacturing to reduce process deviation to meet customer demands. When I say variability that is meant to a) Process variation b) Measurement variation. To overcome such variability, we need to dive deep into statistics and Six Sigma served the purpose as it is statistical and scientific approach. Design of Experiment (DOE) is the one which deal with input factors responsible for the variations in the Output. 1. Objective of Design of Experiment (DOE) An Experiment in which purposeful changes are made to the certain parameters of a system so that one may observe and quantify the changes in the outputs in the most efficient way to meet our purpose. 1.1 Six Sigma majorly classified into 03 category by Pyzdek as follows:   1.2   There are 03 approaches for the Experimental Design: Ø  Why is Shainin DOE considered a simpler alternative to Classical DOE? Shainin DOE approach is the simple and easy to understand among all approaches that why considered over Classical DOE. It is best to find vital few causes of Problem which have significant impacts and universally applicable across all type of industries. Shainin approach basically is considered to demonstrate continuous improvement by reducing issues to identify root causes and best part of this technique without using statistical software. In fact, Shainin DOE does not even require any knowledge of difficult statistical tools. Chronic Quality issues has been classified by Shainin Doe into 03 Xs which contribute over 80% of the variation altogether are as follows: 1.    The Red X 2.    The Pink X 3.    The Pale Pink X Shainin believes in 02 strategy: 1.       Vital Few 2.       Talk to the Parts followed by Workers         Comparison Table between Classical vs Shainin Characteristic Classical Shainin Tools and Technique Factorial DOE Full Factorial, Multi Vari, Paired Comparison etc. Statistical Knowledge High Almost Low Complexity High Low Ease of Implementation Moderate High Cost Moderate Low Time Moderate Low Effectiveness Moderate Highly   Risk associated with the use of Shainin DOE 1 Limited use in case of complex problem 2 Not best in term of Low to Moderate Volume Production 3 Less Effective for the controllable Factors 4 No use of statistical Tools 5 Less effective when high degree of optimization required 6 Unsubstantiated and Exaggerated   Conclusion: Shainin DOE gives edge over the 02 DOE approaches within the world of Six Sigma DOE.
    • Very detailed answers by all respondents. There are 2 winners for this question - Chandrashekhar Hande and Saurabh Dhaked for providing the explanations for the 3 tenets of Juran Trilogy along with an example.
    • Q 471. Why is Shainin DOE considered a simpler alternative to Classical DOE? What are the risks associated with use of Shainin DOE?      Note for website visitors - Two questions are asked every week on this platform. One on Tuesday and the other on Friday. All questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ Please visit the forum home page at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/ to respond to the latest question open till the next Tuesday/ Friday evening 5 PM as per Indian Standard Time. Questions launched on Tuesdays are open till Friday and questions launched on Friday are open till Tuesday.  When you respond to this question, your answer will not be visible till it is reviewed. Only non-plagiarised (plagiarism below 5-10%) responses will be approved. If you have doubts about plagiarism, please check your answer with a plagiarism checker tool like https://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/ before submitting.  The best answer is always shown at the top among responses and the author finds honorable mention in our Business Excellence dictionary at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ along with the related term
    • Juan Trilogy method is to manage a quality improvement cycle targeted at decreasing the cost of poor quality products/ services by planning quality into the whole process was presented by Dr. Joseph M. Juran in 1986. Juran sets out a process to focus on quality management and best practices to yield the best possible results for customers.   The core focus is quality, when producing products/services it is important to ensure they are fit for the purpose they are created for. Juran based everything around three core processes or elements as below:   1.       Quality Planning: Designing for quality to advance products and process quality.     a)      In this stage, it is important to define (1) who the customers are? (2) Define voice of the customer?   b)      After the customer needs are identified, define the desires for the product, process, service or system.   c)       Develop them for operations along with the corresponding stakeholder expectations   d)      Planning activities are finished through a multidisciplinary team, with the contribution of key stakeholders   2.       Quality Control:  Process evaluations aspect involved in production from process control to Regulatory requirements. Actions that adhere to a standard set of quality criteria concerned with identifying defects.     a)      In this stage, define what needs to be measured and set a goal for performance   b)      Gain feedback by measuring actual performance and act on the gap between performance and goal   c)       There are several tools that could be used like 7 QC tools and other statistical process control methods in this phase of the Juran Trilogy   3.       Quality Improvement: Continuous Improvement using Lean Six Sigma methodologies. Eliminating all failure points is the purpose of quality improvement. There are 4 different approaches to be applied for improvements:    a)      Repair: Responsive approach - fix what is broken    b)      Refinement: Proactive approach - repeatedly improve the process that isn’t broken    c)       Renovation: Improve through innovation or technological expansion    d)      Reinvention: Abandon all current practices and start over with a new approach   Juran’s diagram is always represented with time and cost of poor quality on horizontal and vertical axis.     Juran model have been widely recognized, practiced and progressed over time to suit organizations with quality improvement plans/programs/initiatives: 1.       Build awareness of necessity for improvement a)      Survey the employees, find why mistakes or errors are made b)      Select the top ten reasons after 1 week c)       Take decision how mistake-causing steps are not repeated d)      Have track of no. of mistakes being made and ensure they are decreasing   2.       Set goals for improvement a)      Decide specific goals and plans to be reached b)      Allocate clear accountability for meeting the goals c)       Base the rewards on outcomes realized   3.       Organize to reach the goals a)      Establish quality councils b)      Identify problems and select projects c)       Appoint teams and designate facilitators   4.       Provide training a)      Investment in education and training will fetch rewards   5.       Execute projects to solve problems a)      Break-through improvements through cross-functional teams b)      Handle the chronic problems and vital few problems created the innovations   6.       Document the progress a)      Progress expected vs actual progress achieved b)      Act to improve the operative status to decrease variance c)       Provides confidence on quality improvement projects with Information on progress   7.       Offer recognition a)      Team/Individual Morale booster   8.       Communicate outcomes a)      Awareness on the approach used, likelihood to learn and improve further b)      Imitate success in other areas   9.       Retain score a)      Observe progress, Report accomplishments and deficiencies   10.   Sustain momentum with inclusion of annual improvement in the regular processes  a)      Individual and Team oriented
    • In 1986, Dr. Joseph Juran presented “The Juran’s Trilogy” also called as Quality Trilogy, as a means for Quality Management. Though the traditional method was Quality Control based on the specifications and the requirements, Juran introduced the best practice and the an improved approach.   Some of the Juran's definitions / phrases about quality: “quality does not happen by accident” “Quality means fitness for use"   The basic concept is that Quality Management consists of 3 processes: •           Quality Planning (Quality by Design) •           Quality Control (Process Control & Regulatory) •           Quality Improvement (Lean Six Sigma)   The Juran Trilogy diagram is presented as a graph (as below), with time on the X-axis and cost of poor quality (COPQ) on the Y-axis.   Explanation on the Juran’ Trilogy Chart:           The initial activity is quality planning, in other words, ‘Quality by Design’ .This could be applicable to a new product, service, process, etc. On a practical scale, getting a 100 percent defect free product/ service is not possible. This is mainly because, there are inherent errors or process variations that require rework.            In the diagram, more than 20 percent of the work must be reworked due to errors. This is a chronic problem / waste (from Lean perspective) —it continues until we find its root causes and remove it - the Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ).            In the diagram, we can see a sudden sporadic spike against the failure level to more than 40 percent. This spike is due to some unforeseen event such as a power failure, process breakdown, or human error. In order to control the process , the operating team group together and take the necessary action to restore the status quo. This is often called corrective action or troubleshooting. The objective is to restore the error level back to the planned chronic level of about 20 percent.            The diagram also shows that in due course the chronic waste was reduced down to a level far below the original level. This benefit was obtained from the third process in Juran’s Trilogy—improvement.   Quality Planning (Quality by Design):            The design process is an innovative process in designing the products, process etc., based on customer defined specification limits and functional limits. This is the process where we strive to meet the functional requirement of the product / service, which is also called as DFSS – Design for Six Sigma (DFSS).   Implementation Steps – Quality Planning:   To determine the Consumer for whom the product / service is designed and categorize in different horizons. Determine what consumers need or want. We must be able to identify consumer needs that have been determined in the first stage. Example : Performance, Features, Reliability, and Conformity with specifications, durability, service, aesthetics, and perceived quality. To develop products with features that respond to customer needs To develop systems and processes that enable organizations to produce these features: SMEs must think and plan all components of the process that determine the quality features or dimensions needed by consumers. The final step is to spread the plan to the operational level     Quality Improvement (Lean Six Sigma):                   Incremental improvements is the key approach for every organization to strive in the competitive environment. Among the day-to-day improvements done, Breakthrough Improvements  require special methods, approach & leadership commitment to attain the results.                   The first step is to understand what is preventing the process form meeting the customer requirement and needs. This step follows the Pareto Principle to identify the vital Breakthrough improvements that can help the organization to outperform its competitors and meet stakeholder needs.   Implementation Steps – Quality Improvement:   The Quality Improvement should be continuous and continual. The different steps involved in the implementation of Quality Improvement: To Develop the infrastructure to make annual quality improvement: to invest in machines or tools needed for product quality development. To Identify the specific areas of improvement and implement projects: to determine what priority dimensions should be developed to assign key performance indicators. To establish a project team with responsibility for completing each improvement projects within the targeted timeline To Provide teams with what they need to diagnose problems to determine root causes, develop solutions and establish control that will maintain results achieved.   Quality Control (Process Control & Regulatory):             The concept was to widen the approach from detection control to prevention / proactive control. Earlier, the word “control” had a broad meaning, which included the concept of quality planning. The formulation of SQC gave the impression that quality control consisted of using statistical methods.             Nowadays, “quality control” in general means quality control and compliance. The objective is to comply with international standards or regulatory authorities such as ISO 9000. The traditional terms / functions  are QC, QI and QP while recent development has given rise to the new terms / functions QA/QC, CI and DFSS.   Implementation Steps – Quality Control:   The Quality control involves the following steps: To assess actual quality performance - to measure the product quality directly in the field, set the sample analysis, record and process it into information. To compare performance against the customer specification - to compare with the criteria set in the planning stage to analyze whether there are deviations. To work on differences between the actual performance and the customer specification.     Understanding the application of Juran's Trilogy in Nokia - Microsoft Collaboration:   1. Financial Practices:          The accounts transaction between Microsoft and Nokia aims to prevent wastes and at the same time not affect any opportunity to invest into future innovative projects, which is done through meticulous planning. Hence, Nokia referred to Juran’s method on “Quality Planning” because if they do not have proper planning, their products might be too costly and it is not economically affordable by many consumers.   2. Performance Practices:          This practice is related to Juran’s “Quality Improvement” approach. However Nokia has slightly lose out because even though the product has been maintaining its durability feature, it is still not up to current consumer’s trend. Nokia faces strong competition for example, Samsung is famous for its mobile features, user friendly & reliability. This may be the reason for Nokia to depend on Microsoft.   3. Product Practices:         The Product practices of Nokia are related to Juran’s “Quality Improvement”. Nokia has done an excellent job on this by having the manufacturing facility across different countries. Therefore, if one country gets affected with natural disaster, Nokia can still depend on other country to continue its production. This a continual improvement process that helps maintain the business continuity of Nokia.   4. Strategic Practices:          Windows Phone 8 came as a product of Nokia and Microsoft. Nokia understood that the only way to compete with its competitors is to collaborate with a company that has wide spread presence geographically and demographically, Microsoft. Hence this implies to Juran’s “Quality Control”.   5. Functional Practices:           Nokia has a very direct organization structure that plans its department to handle and organize Nokia’s business activities to assemble devices, produces software and sales etc. This practice is based on Juran’s “Quality Planning”.  
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