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    THE OPEN QUESTION on the forum is on Recency Bias. This is part of our TWO QUESTIONS PER WEEK initiative. One question is launched on Tuesday and the other on Friday at 5 PM IST. Best answers are recognized well on this most active Lean Six Sigma forum. (Benchmark Six Sigma Forum ranks first on Google Search based on popularity). 

     

    The most recently answered question and the best response(s) can be seen here - Software Testing and DMAIC. All questions can be seen here. The entire Dictionary of Business Excellence terms is here.

     

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  • ALL TIME GB TOP SCORERS

     

    Name

    Score (%)

    City/Year

     
     

    Purvi Gupta

    100

    Del 2019

     

    Bhawana Sethi

    100

    Del 2015

     

    Adyan Prabhakaran

    100

    Hyd 2014

     

    Thirumoorthi.M

    99

    Chn 2019

     

    Sneha Vivek More

    99

    Mum 2019

     

    Sumita Maiti

    99

    Kol 2017

     

    Vidula Valavalkar

    99

    Hyd 2014

     

    Vishal Tillu

    99

    Mum 2014

     

    Yashwanth J G

    99

    Bng 2013

     

    Jyothi Kanuri

    99

    Hyd 2013

     

    Vrajesh Parekh

    99

    Mum 2013

     

    Gnanasekaran D

    99

    Chn 2012

     

    Benoy Ramachandran

    99

    Chn 2012

     

     

    Muthu Naveen S

    99

    Mum 2012

     

    Ketan Trivedi

    99

    Mum 2012

     

    Piyush Mangal

    99

    Del 2011

     

    Sourav Thakur

    99

    Del 2011

     

    Tushar Chaudhari

    99

    Mum 2011

     

    Komal Bansal

    99

    Mum 2011

     

    Parag Suresh Kamble

    99

    Mum 2011

     

    Ritik Gupta

    99

    Pun 2011

     

    Amit Kumar Makkar

    99

    Del 2010

     

    Shaifali Singh

    99

    Del 2010

     

    Clarence Wong

    99

    Hyd 2010

     

    Devendra Singh Baghel

    99

    Hyd 2010

     

    Varun Hemrajani

    99

    Pun 2010

     
         

    Here is the complete list of all time Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Top Scorers

  • ALL TIME BB TOP SCORERS

     

    Name

    Score (%)

    City/Year

     
     

    Kunal Obhrai

    98

    Del 2019

     

    Mahesh P K

    98

    Bng 2017

     

    Balaji M

    97

    Bng 2017

     

    Rohit Arora

    97

    Bng 2017

     

    Amit Kumar Makkar

    97

    Del 2015

     

    Kanishk Jain

    97

    Bng 2014

     

    Akshay Khatri

    97

    Del 2013

     

    Rahul Kumar

    97

    Mum 2013

     

    Sairam Balakrishnan

    97

    Hyd 2011

     

    Ashish Sharma

    96

    Pun 2019

     

    Sunil M. Bhat

    96

    Bng 2017

     

    Rohan Chavali

    96

    Del 2017

     

    Apoorve Arya

    96

    Mum 2014

     

    Sandeep P.R. 

    96

    Chn 2013

     

    Awojide Martins Olabisi

    95

    Mum 2020

     

    Zeshan Abubacker

    95

    Bng 2019

     

    Kumar Kaushal

    95

    Del 2019

     

    Vishal Kanojia

    95

    Hyd 2019

     

    Swati Malhotra

    95

    Mum 2019

     

    Nithin Sandhyala

    95

    Bng 2017

     

    Abhishek Arora

    95

    Del 2017

     

    Satishkumar Jain

    95

    Mum 2017

     

    Atirakshit Bhatt

    95

    Mum 2017

     

    Narendra Anil Murdeshwar

    95

    Pun 2017

     

    Rupinder Kaur Narang

    95

    Del 2016

     

    S Sujay Kumar

    95

    Mum 2016

     

    Kuljinder Kaur

    95

    Del 2015

     

    Vetrivendhan K P

    95

    Bng 2014

     

    Sunil Bissa

    95

    Chn 2013

     

    Mayank Gupta

    95

    Pun 2011

     

    Here is the complete list of all time Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Top Scorers

  • Posts

    • Very interesting answers specially with respect to usage of testing methods in DMAIC. Strongly recommend to review all answers.   The best answer has been provided by Nethaji. Well done.
    • Q 671. What is Recency Bias? How does it impact decision making in projects? What are some methods to avoid its impact and instead make well informed decisions?   Note for website visitors - This platform hosts two weekly questions, one on Tuesday and the other on Friday.  All previous questions can be found here: https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/.  To participate in the current question, please visit the forum homepage at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/. The question will be open until Tuesday or Friday at 5 PM Indian Standard Time, depending on the launch day.  Responses will not be visible until they are reviewed, and only non-plagiarised answers with less than 5-10% plagiarism will be approved.  If you are unsure about plagiarism, please check your answer using a plagiarism checker tool such as https://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/ before submitting.  All correct answers shall be published, and the top-rated answer will be displayed first. The author will receive an honorable mention in our Business Excellence dictionary at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ along with the related term. Some people seem to be using AI platforms to find forum answers. This is a risky approach as AI responses are error prone as our questions are application-oriented (they are never straightforward). Have a look at this funny example - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/topic/39458-using-ai-to-respond-to-forum-questions/ We also use an AI content detector at https://crossplag.com/ai-content-detector/. Only answers with less than 15-20% AI-generated content will be approved.
    • Software testing is a process of evaluating and validating the software for identifying the errors/bugs/defects, conformance to the requirements and for enhancing the quality of the software. There are different types of testing approaches applied based on focus area required for validation by different types of testing - Manual, Automated, Functional and Non-functional.  Different types of Testing approaches and applicability to DMAIC Black Box Testing: Black Box testing focuses on software’s external attributes and behavior without knowledge of its internal workings. Testers evaluate the application from a user’s perspective. This is a Low granularity approach. This is applicable/suitable for functional or business testing which is based on requirements and functional specifications, and this is less exhaustive than other approaches. Steps of testing Define test cases based on user stories or requirements. Execute tests without knowledge of internal code. Verify expected outcomes.                                Example: Validating checkout process by testing user flows and expected outcomes in an online website/application focused on clothing e-commerce. For a mobile app, test login, navigation, and data retrieval White Box Testing: White Box testing examines the internal code, data structures, and logic flow. It’s also known as glass-box testing or structural testing. This is a high granularity approach. This is suitable for algorithm testing and provides better variety and depth in test cases due to knowledge of internals.  Steps of testing Review code and identify paths. Create test cases targeting specific code segments. Execute tests with knowledge of internals.                          Example: Validating analytical model/algorithm built to provide insights on prediction of stock movement in capital markets Test a function that calculates shipping costs Gray Box Testing: Gray Box testing merges elements of both Black Box and White Box testing. It uses inputs and outputs for testing but considers information about the code. This is a medium granularity approach. This is suited well for web application testing and considers high level design and compatible conditions Steps of testing Understand high-level design. Create test cases considering both inputs and code. Execute tests with partial knowledge Example: Testing a web-based CRM system, considering both user interactions and database queries Testing an API by sending valid and invalid requests DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) is a structured Lean Six Sigma approach for process improvement.  Define: Identify project goals and customer requirements and also define the test objectives. Example: To develop an application/website with an easy and effective UI for customers for seamless purchasing of apparel with secure payment platform integrated with robust testing. Measure: Gather data and determine current performance for baseline Example: Identify the number defects relating to failed purchases   Analyze: Identify root causes of defects or inefficiencies by using Gray box or White box testing approaches Example: Primary root causes are frequent website/application down and payment issues Improve: Develop and implement solutions post validation using relevant testing approaches Example: Payment API integration testing and Mobile app development testing for more reachability Control: Establish controls to sustain improvements by monitoring ongoing performance Example: Secured and high-performance website for avoiding frequent payment/website related crashes In DMAIC projects, Black Box Testing is often suitable for defining requirements and measuring performance, while Gray Box Testing can help analyze and improve processes. White Box Testing may be less common in DMAIC projects but could be useful for specific scenarios, such as algorithm validation in software development. Remember that the choice depends on the specific context and goals of the project.    
    • Differences between White Box / Black Box / Gray Box software testing: White Box testing Black Box testing Gray Box testing Testers have sufficient knowledge of algorithms, codes, and logic Testers do not know the codes/logic and internal structures/algorithms. This is mostly business user acceptance testing where business units may not have any IT background and try to check all desired functionalities for an external user perspective Testers have partial knowledge of codes/logic Thorough testing can be possible due to the availability of  information Limited testing can be possible and support from AI tools can help to do more effective testing This is in between the white box and black box testing but more effective output is possible using AI-enabled tools Detailed code-level testing by internal IT organization user Functionality-based testing with no code knowledge – mostly for business users The middle ground – combining partial code insights with functional testing     In DMAIC, the suitability of white box, Gray box, or black box testing depends on the specific phase and nature of the tech-enabled solution. Please find some examples Real-life example: Consider that you are renovating an old house to sell DMAIC: is like renovating the house: First, you figure out what needs fixing (Define), measure how bad it is (Measure), diagnose the root problems (Analyze), make the improvements (Improve), and then maintain the new and improved house (Control) Box Testing: White Box: You're the handyman with the blueprints, poking into the walls and checking the wiring. Gray Box: You're the inspector with partial blueprints, checking both the visible structure and peeking into the attic. Black Box: You're the potential buyer, looking at the house from the outside, trying to see if the doorbell works and if the lights turn on without caring about what's behind the walls.  Software Development Industry: DMAIC Project Objective: Improve the reliability and performance of a financial software application.   Define: The problem is identified as frequent software crashes and slow performance during peak usage times. Measure: Collect data on crash frequency, response times, and user complaints and perform MSA Analyze: Examine the software development process, code quality, and user interaction patterns Testing Approaches: White Box Testing: Developers conduct thorough code reviews and unit testing. They look at the software’s internal structure to find inefficiencies, bugs, and areas for optimization. Gray Box Testing: Quality assurance teams with some knowledge of the codebase perform integration tests and simulate real-world user scenarios. They check how different modules interact and ensure overall system stability. Black Box Testing: End-users test the application’s functionality without knowing its internal workings. They focus on the user interface, performance, and overall user experience. Improve:  Refactor code, optimize algorithms, and enhance the software architecture based on the testing insights. Control: Implement continuous testing using white, gray, and black box methods to ensure sustained performance and reliability.   Healthcare Industry: DMAIC Project Objective: Enhance the accuracy and efficiency of a medical diagnostic system in a hospital. Define: The problem is identified as inconsistencies and errors in diagnostic results from a medical imaging system. Measure: Gather data on diagnostic accuracy, error rates, and turnaround times and perform MSA Analyze: Investigate the diagnostic process, from image capture to diagnosis. Testing Approaches: White Box Testing:  Medical technicians and IT professionals dissect the diagnostic system's software and hardware components, ensuring each part works correctly and efficiently. They analyze the algorithms used for image processing and diagnosis. Gray Box Testing: Healthcare IT specialists with partial knowledge of the system evaluate the interaction between the software, hardware, and medical staff. They perform tests to ensure data integrity and accuracy of the diagnostic results. Black Box Testing: Doctors and nurses use the diagnostic system without understanding its internal workings. They focus on the output, ensuring that the diagnostic reports are accurate and user-friendly. Improve: Based on findings, upgrade the diagnostic software, train staff, and refine data processing protocols. Control: Regularly test the system using all three approaches to ensure ongoing accuracy and efficiency.  
    • Software testing: In every industry Quality testing is the most important phase, once the product cleared from this phase it will be sent for customer. In most of the companies, quality function is considered as the customer face in the business. In software development, testing is also one of the crucial phases, before releasing the developed product to users.  In manufacturing, products are checking using some sampling method, which represent the population. In any software product the life cycle is very high, hence it has been rigorously tested against the user requirement, the quality of code and the external access (penetration test) etc. Here the testing done for each requirement in multiple ways. Here sampling cannot be considered as the client might have use the products in various ways in their day-to day business. White box, Black box and grey box three kind of testing techniques used in software testing.             All these types of tests are important to verify the functionality & integrity of the software. Black box testing: This test is performed by the software testers. The code internal structure is unknown to the tester. The focus more about the user requirement, functionalities are fulfilled or not. This test can be carried out easily(quick) and it can be performed by testers with no knowledge of the code. This is sometimes performed by the independent teams (out sourced). It is also called as behavioral testing. In this test we only focus on input and Output. This test doesn’t consider about the how the it is processing. The tests performed are broadly categories into function & non-functional. The details are as below. Function testing – Smoke testing, sanity testing, Integration testing, System testing, Regression testing, user acceptance testing Non-functional testing – Usability test, load test, performance test, compatibility test, stress testing, scalability testing. The black box testing techniques are mentioned below Graph based testing - All objects(node) have the expected relationship to one another. Equivalence partitioning – In this step, divides the input domain into classes of data Boundary value analysis -Not completely clear, a more no. of errors will occur at the boundaries Comparison testing – To minimize the redundant errors occurs in hardware or software Orthogonal array test – which the input domain is relatively limited White Box testing: This test performed by the developers with detailed knowledge of codebase itself. The code internal structure is known to the tester. It is about to comparing how the system actually functioning against the how the systems should function. It is very comprehensive testing (more time & high cost). If this is done during development, the bugs can be avoided during deployment. (Preventive). As it is very technical test, there may be chance of missing simple bugs (low level). This tests sometimes referred as clear test, transparent testing. Testing process include the below steps: Identify the which features to be tested Plot all possible paths in the flowgraph Identify all possible paths Create test cases Execute the test cases Repeat the cycle as necessary. The White box testing techniques are mentioned below Decision coverage – This is the most important once in white box, because it provides data on the true of false results of Boolean expressions in the source code. Condition coverage – It covers the expressions Multiple condition coverage – This verifies the different combinations of conditions and evaluate the decision that the code make for each combination Finite state machine coverage Control flow testing – Seeks to establish the execution of the program by using a simple control structure. Statement coverage – The testers should cover as much as possible of the source code Branch coverage – This part basically talks about how wide the coverage of particular elements of the cod Path coverage – Assess paths within a software application Grey Box testing: It is a combination of black and white box testing, where the internal structure of the code is partially known. The focus more about the how the system is working and whether this meets the end-user requirement. The Grey box testing techniques are mentioned below Matrix testing – States the port of the project Regression testing – Re running of test cases, if any new changes made in code Pattern testing – Re running of test cases, if any new changes made in code Orthogonal array testing – subset of all possible combination Based on the above detailed understanding, if any DMAIC project is associated with digital/tech solution, then as a business excellence professional, we should focus on black box, grey box testing to ensure that the given solution is giving the correct output also fulfilling the project outcome. But we need to take help of company IT team to go through the white box testing. By Black box, grey box testing, we will ensure that the solution is delivering the value to the business. But the underlaying model design, language used in the code, structure of the code should be flexible enough for the upgradation of IT systems as well as aligned with the company IT guidelines & futuristic scenarios. To ensure that the solution is sustainable for long term, we should do the white box testing. For example, we are working a project which predicts the sheet break in the paper machine, which is resulting into low productivity & low OEE. After doing the historical analysis & found the root cause at multiple places, which is very difficult to monitor & control by the shop floor operators. Then the team come up with the tech solution, which identify the variation in the critical causes and suggest operator about the adjustment of the parameters. In this case, as BE professional, we will ensure that the tech solution is properly identifying the variation of critical causes and timely giving the alerts to operators (Black box). But this prediction tool is designed and developed by the third-party vendor. Hence it is very difficult to know, what language they write the code, what are logic they built inside the code. Then we should involve the IT/SF professional to understand the technical details (such as conditions, logics, version control, scalability, performance) which refers as white box. As BE professional, we can play role, while building the models and at the end we should also focus on the in what condition, the crucial KPIs are identifying (Grey Box). In Summary, if any DMAIC project associated with tech solution, BE professional will do the Black box, grey box testing to ensure the projects out come are matching with the business expectation. Also take help of IT/SF professional to carry out the white box testing, to ensure that the developed solution is sustainable, capable enough.
    • Excellent answer from Nethaji. The answer very clearly explains how CLR can help us make effective fishbone diagrams.   P.S. - Many participants had responded to this question, however only 2 answers were published as the other answers were incorrect.
    • Q 670. Compare White Box / Black Box / Gray Box software testing approaches against each other. Which of the these is most suitable to do with tech enabled solutions in DMAIC projects? Justify your answers with examples.   Note for website visitors - This platform hosts two weekly questions, one on Tuesday and the other on Friday.  All previous questions can be found here: https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/.  To participate in the current question, please visit the forum homepage at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/. The question will be open until Tuesday or Friday at 5 PM Indian Standard Time, depending on the launch day.  Responses will not be visible until they are reviewed, and only non-plagiarised answers with less than 5-10% plagiarism will be approved.  If you are unsure about plagiarism, please check your answer using a plagiarism checker tool such as https://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/ before submitting.  All correct answers shall be published, and the top-rated answer will be displayed first. The author will receive an honorable mention in our Business Excellence dictionary at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ along with the related term. Some people seem to be using AI platforms to find forum answers. This is a risky approach as AI responses are error prone as our questions are application-oriented (they are never straightforward). Have a look at this funny example - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/topic/39458-using-ai-to-respond-to-forum-questions/ We also use an AI content detector at https://crossplag.com/ai-content-detector/. Only answers with less than 15-20% AI-generated content will be approved.
    • Thanks for your valuable suggestion.    
    • Starting a new Six Sigma project is an exciting opportunity to enhance quality and efficiency. Given your role in leading the quality process for the repair and refurbishment of banking products, you have several potential areas to focus on. Here are a few suggestions based on similar projects in other companies: Defect Reduction in Cash Dispensers: Analyze common defects or failures in cash dispensers and implement a Six Sigma project to reduce these issues, improving reliability and customer satisfaction. Process Optimization for Printer Refurbishment: Identify bottlenecks or inefficiencies in the printer refurbishment process. A Six Sigma project can help streamline operations, reduce turnaround time, and improve overall efficiency. Improving First-Pass Yield for Card Readers: Focus on increasing the first-pass yield. By reducing rework and enhancing quality control measures, you can significantly cut down on waste and increase productivity. Enhancing Quality Control for Motherboards: Given the complexity of motherboards, a Six Sigma project aimed at improving the quality control process could lead to significant reductions in defects and returns. Customer Complaint Reduction: Analyze the root causes of customer complaints across all products and address these issues systematically. This can lead to improved customer satisfaction and loyalty. Inventory Management Optimization: Improve inventory management practices to reduce holding costs and prevent stockouts or overstock situations. This can be particularly beneficial in a repair and refurbishment setting. Before you begin, consider conducting a detailed analysis to identify the most critical pain points in your current processes. Gathering data on defect rates, process cycle times, and customer complaints can help you pinpoint the most impactful project to start with.   I hope these suggestions help you identify a suitable project. Good luck with your Six Sigma initiative!
    • An MBB will usually like add one more step in the sequence (before finalizing and presenting findings)    Perform Sensitivity Analysis: Evaluate how changes in key assumptions (e.g., labor savings, efficiency gains) impact the cost-benefit results. Assess different scenarios to understand the range of possible outcomes and their implications.
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