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Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Curriculum

Competency 1. Lead DMAIC Projects – Apply Leadership

Performance Criteria Evidence Guide

1.1: Understand leadership
responsibilities in the
deployment of Six Sigma:

  • Providing resources
  • Managing change
  • Communicating ideas
  1. Describe the responsibilities of executive leaders and how they affect the deployment of Six Sigma in terms of providing resources, managing change, communicating ideas, etc.
  2. Describe and use various techniques for facilitating and managing organizational change.

1.2: Describe and identify
organizational roadblocks:

  • Lack of resources
  • Management support
  • Recovery techniques
  • Change managementtechniques
Describe the impact an organization’s culture and inherent structure can have on the success of Six Sigma, and how deployment failure can result from the lack of resources, management support, etc.; identify and apply various techniques to overcome these barriers.

1.3: Use team formation theories:

  • Team types and constraints
  • Team roles
  • Team member selection
  • Launching teams
  1. Describe and apply techniques that motivate team members and support and sustain their participation and commitment.
  2. Facilitate the team through the classic stages of development: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning

Competency 2: Lead DMAIC Projects – Manage Projects

Performance Criteria Evidence Guide

2.1: Define benchmarking, performance and financial measures:

  • Best practice
  • Competitive
  • Collaborative
  • Score cards
  • KPI’s
  • COQ
  • ROI
  • NPV
  1. Define and distinguish between various types of benchmarking, including best practices, competitive, collaborative, etc. Business performance measures
  2. Define various business performance measures, including balanced scorecard, key performance indicators (KPIs), the financial impact of customer loyalty, etc.
  3. Define financial measures, such as: revenue growth, market share, margin, cost of quality (COQ), net present value (NPV), return on investment (ROI), cost-benefit analysis, etc.
2.2: Utilize time management for teams. Employ various time management techniques including publishing agendas with time limits on each entry, adhering to the agenda, requiring pre-work by attendees, ensuring that the right people and resources are available, etc.
2.3: Understand management and planning tools Define, select and apply tools such as: affinity diagrams, tree diagrams, process decision program charts (PDPC), matrix diagrams, interrelationship diagrams, prioritization matrices and activity network diagrams.

2.4: Collect customer data using various methods:

  • Surveys
  • Focus groups
  • Interviews observations
Use various methods to collect customer feedback (e.g., surveys, focus groups, interviews, observation) and identify the key elements that make these tools effective.

Competency 3: Lead DMAIC Projects – Coaching

Performance Criteria Evidence Guide

3.1: Understand team facilitation:

  • Team motivation
  • Team stages
  • Team communication
  • Team Dynamics
  1. Identify and use appropriate communication methods (both within the team and from the team to various stakeholders) to report progress, conduct milestone reviews and support the overall success of the project.
  2. Identify and use various techniques (e.g., coaching, mentoring, intervention, etc.) to overcome various group dynamic challenges, including overbearing/dominant or reluctant participants, feuding and other forms of unproductive disagreement, unquestioned acceptance of opinions as facts, groupthink, floundering, rushing to accomplish or finish, digressions, tangents, etc.
3.2: Define and use team performance evaluation and reward Measure team progress in relation to goals, objectives and other metrics that
support team success and reward and recognize the team for its

3.3: Analyze customer data using various methods:

  • Graphical
  • Statistical
  • Qualitative tools
  1. Use graphical, statistical, and qualitative tools to analyze customer feedback.
  2. Assist in translating customer feedback into project goals and objectives, including critical to quality (CTQ) attributes and requirements statements.

Competency 4: Lead DMAIC Projects – Facilitate Change

Performance Criteria Evidence Guide
4.1: Identify resistance to change Conduct an analysis to find restrainers and drivers to change.
4.2: Implement a plan to counter resistance to change

Outline steps taken that address issues identified at analysis, discussing:

  • Stakeholder management
  • Communications plans
  • Organizational readiness for change

4.3: Identify customers:

  • Identify customers
  • Classify customers
Identify and classify internal and external customers as applicable to a particular project, and show how projects impact customers.

Competency 5: Lead DMAIC Projects – Define

Performance Criteria Evidence Guide

5.1: Outline process

  • Components
  • Boundaries
Define and describe process components and boundaries. Recognize how processes across various functional areas and the challenges that result in process improvement efforts.

5.2: Identify owners and

  • Process owners
  • Suppliers
  • Internal customers
  • External customers
Identify process owners, internal and external customers, and other stakeholders in a project.

5.3: Analyze customer data using various methods:

  • Graphical
  • Statistical
  • Qualitative tools
Use voice of the customer analysis tools such as quality function deployment (QFD) to translate customer requirements into performance measures.

5.4: Outline the project charter and project statement:

  • Project elements
  • Problem statement
Define and describe elements of a project charter and develop a problem
the statement, including baseline and improvement goals.

5.5: Develop the project
scope using:

  • Definitions
  • Pareto charts
  • Process maps
Undertake the development of project definition/scope using Pareto charts, and
process maps.

5.6: Develop the project metrics using:

  • Primary metrics
  • Consequential metrics
  • Key project metrics
Undertake the development of primary and consequential metrics (e.g., quality, cycle time and cost) and establish key project metrics that relate to the voice of the customer.

5.7: Apply project planning

  • Ghantt charts
  • CPM
  • Pert
Use project tools such as Gantt charts, critical path method (CPM), and program
evaluation and review technique (PERT) charts, and activity network diagrams.

5.8: Record project

  • Spreadsheets
  • Story boards
Provide input and select the proper vehicle for presenting project documentation
(e.g., spreadsheet output, storyboards, etc.) at phase reviews, management reviews and other presentations.

5.9: Define and utilize project risk analysis:

  • Purpose
  • Benefits
  • Impacts
Describe the purpose and benefit of project risk analysis, including resources,
financials, impact on customers and other stakeholders.

5.10: Project milestones:

  • Objectives vs outcomes
  • Lessons learned
  • Opportunities
  1. Describe the objectives achieved and apply the lessons learned to identify
    additional opportunities.
  2. Present findings in a clear, concise manner.
5.11: Define, select, and use management planning tools. Define, select, and use affinity diagrams, interrelationship digraphs, tree
diagrams, prioritization matrices, matrix diagrams, process decision program (PDPC) charts, and activity network diagrams.
5.12: Calculate process performance
  1. Calculate process performance metrics such as defects per unit (DPU), rolled throughput yield (RTY), cost of poor quality (COPQ), defects per million opportunities (DPMO) sigma levels and process capability indices.
  2. Track process performance measures to drive project decisions.
5.13: Define Tollgate review Present findings of the define stages in a concise manner.

Competency 6: Lead DMAIC Projects – Measure

Performance Criteria Evidence Guide

6.1 Define and describe measurement and metrology:

  • Continuous data
  • Discrete data
  • Elements of metrology
  • Calibration
  • Traceability to reference standards
  • Standards and measurement devices
  1. Define and describe measurement methods for both continuous and discrete data.
  2. Define and describe elements of metrology, including calibration systems,
    traceability to reference standards, the control, and integrity of standards and measurement devices, etc.
6.2 Identify use of measurement systems in enterprise Identify how measurement systems can be applied in marketing, sales, engineering, research and development (R&D), supply chain management,
customer satisfaction and other functional areas.

6.3: Describe and apply basic probability concepts:

  • Independence
  • Mutually exclusive
  • Multiplication rules
Describe and apply concepts such as independence, mutually exclusive, multiplication rules, etc.
6.4: Implement a measurement systems analysis tool. Calculate, analyze, and interpret measurement system capability using repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R), measurement correlation, bias, linearity, percent agreement, and precision/tolerance (P/T).
6.5:Use appropriate software for analysis and project completion Understand advanced techniques for analysis using statistical and other data
analysis software.
6.6: Measure Tollgate review Present findings of the measure stages in a concise manner.

Competency 7: Lead DMAIC Projects – Analyze

Performance Criteria Evidence Guide

7.1: Undertake hypothesis testing:

  • Basics
  • Tests for means, variances, and
  • Paired-comparison tests
  • Single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA)
  • Chi-square
  1. Define and distinguish between statistical and practical significance and apply tests for a significance level, power, type I, and type II errors. Determine the appropriate sample size for the various tests.
  2. Define and describe paired-comparison parametric hypothesis tests.
  3. Define terms related to one-way ANOVAs and interpret their results and data plots.
  4. Define and interpret chi-square and use it to determine statistical significance.
7.2: Select and use contingency tables. Select, develop and use contingency tables to determine statistical
7.3: Ability to handle nonnormal data.
  1. Recognition of non-normal data.
  2. Select, develop and use various non-parametric tests, including Mood’s
    Median, Levene’s test, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, etc.

7.4: Use various tools and techniques to analyze data:

  • Gap analysis
  • Root cause analysis
  • Waste analysis
  1. Use various tools and techniques (gap analysis, scenario planning, etc.) to
    compare the current and future state in terms of pre-defined metrics.
  2. Define and describe the purpose of root cause analysis, recognize the issues involved in identifying a root cause, and use various tools (e.g., the 5 whys, Pareto charts, fault tree analysis, cause and effect diagrams, etc.) for resolving chronic problems.
  3. Identify the 7 classic wastes (overproduction, inventory, defects, overprocessing, waiting, motion and transportation) and other forms of waste such as resource under-utilization, etc.
7.5: Analyze Tollgate review Present findings of the analyze stages in a concise manner.

Competency 8: Lead DMAIC Projects – Improve

Performance Criteria Evidence Guide

8.1: Define and Describe the Design of Experiments (DOE):

  • Basic terms
  • Main effects
  • Design principles
  • Planning experiments
  • One-factor experiments
  • Two-level fractional factorial experiments
  • Full factorial experiments
  1. Define and describe basic DOE terms such as independent and dependent
    variables, factors, and levels, response, treatment, error, repetition, and
  2. Interpret the main effects and interaction plots.
  3. Apply to design the DOE principles, including power and sample size,
    balance, repetition, replication, order, efficiency, randomization, blocking,
    interaction, confounding, resolution, etc.
  4. Plan, organize and evaluate experiments by determining the objective,
    selecting factors, responses, and measurement methods, choosing the
    appropriate design, etc.
  5. Design and conduct completely randomized, randomized block and Latin
    square designs and evaluate their results.
  6. Design, analyze and interpret these types of experiments and describe how
    confounding affects its use.
  7. Design, conduct and analyze full factorial experiments

8.2: Select and apply various reduction, elimination and mitigation tools:

  • Waste elimination
  • Cycle-time reduction
  • Kaizen and kaizen blitz
  • Risk analysis
  1. Select and apply tools and techniques for eliminating or preventing waste,
    including pull systems, kanban, 5S, standard work, poka-yoke, etc
  2. Use various tools and techniques for reducing cycle time, including
    continuous flow, single-minute exchange of die (SMED), etc
  3. Define and distinguish between these two methods and apply them in various situations.
  4. Use tools such as feasibility studies, SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses,
    opportunities and threats), PEST analysis (political, environmental, social and
    technological) and consequential metrics to analyze and mitigate risk.
8.3: Develop plans for implementing the improved processes. Develop plans for implementing the improved process (i.e., conduct pilot
tests, simulations, etc.), and evaluate results to select the optimum solution.

Competency 9: Lead DMAIC Projects – Control

Performance Criteria

Evidence Guide

 9.1: Using other tools for control and maintenance:

  • TPM
  • Visual factory
  • Measurement system reanalysis
  • Control plan
  1.  Define the elements of TPM and describe how it can be used to control the
    improved process.
  2. Define the elements of a visual factory and describe how they can help
    control the improved process.
  3. Review and evaluate measurement system capability as process capability
    improves, and ensures that measurement capability is sufficient for its intended use.

9.2: Understanding how to sustain improvements:

  • Lessons learned
  • Training plan deployment
  • Documentation
  • Ongoing evaluation
  1. Develop a control plan for ensuring the ongoing success of the improved
    the process including the transfer of responsibility from the project team to the
    process owner.
  2. Document the lessons learned from all phases of a project and identify how
    improvements can be replicated and applied to other processes in the
  3. Develop and implement training plans to ensure continued support of the
    improved process.
  4. Develop or modify documents including standard operating procedures
    (SOPs), work instructions, etc., to ensure that the improvements are
    sustained over time.
  5. 5Identify and apply tools for ongoing evaluation of the improved process,
    including monitoring for new constraints, additional opportunities for
    improvement, etc
9.3: Financial Review/Validation Describe methods of Savings/Improvement validation by an independent
entity (Financial Analyst)