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Q4 - Explain the meaning of Kaizen, Kaikaku and Kakushin. How are the three different from each other? How do they complement each other? What would a company lose if one of these as a concept was not utilised? 

 

You may like to carry out research over the internet, talk to your partner, and colleagues while framing your response. Each club may submit maximum two responses, one by each member. Please write the answer in your own words. Please do not copy and present someone else's explanation as your own. As Excellence Enthusiasts, we are against plagiarism. 

 

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This is the Excellence Ambassador Episode 1 - Only registered and approved club members will be able to respond to questions between 4th September and 29th September 2017. One daily question is announced at 4 PM on each working day and will be closed for responses at 4 PM on the next working day. Once responses are locked at 4 PM on next day, they will be made visible to everyone. Each Excellence Ambassador (and other readers) will be asked to vote on the answers of the day by upvoting or downvoting. The voting will close at 6:30 PM and best response will be selected out of ranked responses at 7 PM. One response will be marked as the best answer and will remain on our forum as a reference for future visitors. Together, the Excellence Ambassadors will build the best Business Excellence Glossary.

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Kaizen refers to small improvements in work place. Most popular methodology for Kaizen is Quality circles or Small Group Activities.

 

Kaikaku refers to a larger revolutionary change. it could be an enterprise wide ranging project, that brings in a large savings or improvement to the process or product.

 

Kakushin refers to an innovative change of a higher order than the above. it could be a total newly conceptualized product.

 

As explained above, each of the three terms refer to change, but at significantly different order of change and usually carried out  by different levels of employees. They are connected to one another in the sense that to have the innovative spirit evolved in the organization, it is important to have the thinking process at all levels. At any stage, Kaizen may be encouraged and driven in the organization and it applies to all employees at all levels. Kaikaku could be a good BlackBelt type of project that brings a major process change, and could be impactful enterprise wide. While Kaizen would apply basic tools like the 7 QC tools, Kaikaku projects would need more advanced tools for data analysis and process analysis. Kakushin calls for " out of the box" thinking and could lead to discovering new product or disruptive game changers.

 

What would a company lose if any one of them is not practiced? Absence of Kaizen will leave process to stagnate and erode competitiveness. More important, it will deprive the employees from using their brains to improve their own work place and could leave them demotivated. Absence of Kaikaku will deprive the organization from opportunities of simplifying processes, such as lean application, major Quality improvements and customer value adds. it may also be noted that the absence of Kaizen and Kaikaku could potentially leave the company unprepared for Kakushin. Kakushin leads the organization towards being an industry leader and radically changing its market position.

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  • 7

Kaizen :  It is a combination of two Japanese words , kai and zen . Kai means “Change” and Zen means “for the better” resulting in the meaning as “Change for the better”. It refers to any continuous improvement done in workplace, using small incremental changes

Kaikaku:  It is the Japanese  term for ‘ radical change’ . It talks about the fundamental cum radical changes that we make to the system, in which we are working

Kakushin:  In Japanese it means ‘Innovation’ .  It talks about the fact that changes done in the system (that we work upon) can sometimes lead to a paradigm shift in the working of the system such that that we need to realign our thinking to be more innovative

 

S.No

Kaizen

Kaikaku

Kakushin

1

Focuses on elimination of waste (Muda), Productivity improvement and Over hard working of employees (Muri ) with small continuous improvements

Focuses on radical or revolutionary changes with big improvements

Focuses on Breakthrough ideas /products /services

2

Cultural change is slowly  imbibed into the working DNA of the employees .

Cultural change happens explicitly and drastically changes

Cultural change happens consciously due to focused thinking

3

Participation(involving in the activity) of all workers normally happens as kaizen activities deals with process kaizen  (Individual workstands)and flow kaizen(material and information)

Not necessarily all workers need to be involved

Not necessarily all workers need to be involved

 

How do they complement each other ?

Kaizen is the base . Its the building block on top of which Kaikaku and Kakushin can be done. 

Objective is to remove any non-value adding work by doing a kaizen and then see what needs to be done.   When too many Kaizen activities are not yielding any results , then we go got Kaikaku. This is akin to DMAIC and DMADV. If we think that DMAIC is not going to work, then no point in trying to improve the existing process.  So we opt for DMADV as we think old process cannot be improved. Same way, we move to Kaikaku and hence that becomes a radical shift in our approach (again think of DMADV for analogy).   Now this is done . What next ?  What if we find a better way to optimise our benefits . Our system then should be in a transformed state with our thought process realigned with innovative approach.  So Kakushin comes into picture . This is akin to DMAODV in Six Sigma parlour.  

Conclusion:All the three are a must so that an organisation can stay competitive in the market.

 

What would a company lose if one of these as a concept was not utilised? 

Case 1: If Kaizen not utilised:

 

If thats the case, it would be like building a house without a strong base.  Kaizen helps in setting up individual standards and also helps in eliminating waste/non-value added activities.  Also it helps in controlling the over work of employees. By not having Kaizen, the disadvantages would be

 

a). Impact of other two type of improvements may not be effective as still the processes would be weak because non-value added activities would be present because those 2 improvement types may not have addressed this aspect

 

b). Kaikaku and Kakushin focus on system improvements primarily and will not focus on individual standards unlike Kaizen .  As a result, employee focus would be missing

c). Employee morale may go down as cultural challenge is thrusted upon and as there is no Kaizen which speaks about Muri .  Employee might spend long hours to adapt to the cultural changes brought by other 2 types of improvement

 Case 2: If Kaikaku not utilised:

 

1.       1. Potentially it could happen that small changes might keep on happening eternally for ages with not much impact

         2.  Management/Key stakeholders may not be able to take decisions on issues/problems

 

Case 3: If  Kakushin not utilised:

 

1.       1. The Organisation will not be competitive in its business

2.       2.  Difficult to grow in niche market

         3.  Business growth and hence revenue will be stagnated
 

         4.  Morale of top management will go down

 

Example for Kaizen, Kaikaku, Kakushin:

Assuming we are in a primitive age of  IT , explaining the concepts of Kaizen, Kaikaku and Kakushin

Problem Statement

Before Kaizen

Kaizen

Results

Often multiple developers working on same code/functionality creates instability and also delays deployment of files

 Code written by one developer is inadvertently overwritten by another.  This happens at times on the delivery date creating customer escalation

Have a Version Control System which will alleviate the problems

Version control eliminates overwriting. Latest code is always used for delivery and right file is deployed eliminating customer escalation

 

Now Version control available . Next issue.

Problem Statement

Before Kaikaku

Kaikaku

Results

As more than one developer working on same file and multiple files, changes need to be frequently deployed in the code repository which is not happening  

Due to time pressure , code deployed in the code repository throws error while testing the application  . Tester would not be able to test in such a case

Do a Continuous Integration (CI).

Have an Integration Server which can seamlessly integrate all codes and provide a build (compilation of the code –ready for consumption by the users)  and also intimate whether build is failed or passed

Tester and Developer can get notification about the success or failure state. It makes easy for testers to test

 

In today’s environment , Time to Market is the key. So the sooner we make the changes , the faster we should deploy it in the production environment . Else business would be lost.

 Now as we frequently make changes and deploy it in our local environment and test the application, do we have the capacity to deploy those changes in real time(production environment?)  

Problem Statement

Before Kakushin

Kakushin

Results

As frequent changes are done to the code and tested in local environment , it becomes difficult to deploy the changes everytime in production as the environments are different and we need to make changes in various places including code so that northing gets broken in production

Takes 2 days of effort to do the manual changes .

 

Also the stress in doing these changes (staying at office for long hrs) takes its toll on the health of the individual .

 

More SMEs required to do this job since its for more than 1 day

Automate the deployment part  

Avoids manual effort for deploying the changes

 

1 SME who knows automation is alone required

 

If automation sequence is done properly, no mental stress or boredom will happen

 

 

 

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Kaizen, Kaikaku and Kakushin are three approaches within Lean which have their roots from Toyota. They work well together and have different areas of focus and magnitude of impact/risk. The table below provides differentiation and tips for their implementation.

 

 

Kaizen - Kai – Change, Zen – Good

Kaikaku – Radical Change

Kakushin – Innovation

Definition

Evolutionary change for better focused on incremental improvements

Revolutionary change focused on radical improvements

Innovation, transformation, reform and renewal

Focus Area

Continual improvement of their processes

Transformation of their organizational culture

Bringing something new into existence

People

All levels including workers

Executives and top management

Top Management

Risk / Impact

Low

Medium

High

Steps / Tips / Techniques

·         5 S

       o    Seiri – Sort out

       o    Seition – organize

       o    Seiso – shine the workplace

       o    Seiketsu – standardization

       o    Shitsuke – self-discipline

·         7+1 Wastes

       o    Transportation

       o    Inventory

       o    Motion

       o    Waiting

       o    Over-processing

       o    Over-production

       o    Defects

       o    Skills under-utilization 

·         Look for ways to make maximum                   contribution to ideal state – “What                 would be ideal customer experience”

·         Search for opportunities for radical                 improvements

·         Apply 80-20 rule to do more with less

·         Creative problem solving

·         Challenge assumptions

·         Ask What and why questions – think             differently

·         Brainstorm creative solutions

·         Know how to sell radical ideas –                     overcome resistance

·         Think positively and act promptly

·         Follow radical improvements with                   continual improvements (Kaizen)

·         Attribute listing

·         Biomimicry

·         Brainwriting 6-3-5

·         Challenge assumptions

·         Osborn checklist

·         Harvey cards

·         Lotus Blossom Technique

·         Redefinition

·         Reverse Brainstorming

·         Systematic Inventive Thinking

·         COCD Box

·         Force Field Analysis

·         Six Thinking Hats

·         Follow it with radical and                           incremental improvements 

Eg.

·         Reduce production time by implementing 5 S

·         Usability improvement in software that’s allows people to enter data with reduced no. of values to enter

·         Introduce new lighter material for vehicle body  - reform production processes

·         Upgrade software with new technology which allows faster development, better performance and more features  

·         Make simplified cars by cutting the number of parts in half

·         Extending software on multiple media allowing ease of access and seamless collaboration and eliminates duplication throughout the supply chain

 

Conclusion: All the three techniques have different role in the lean journey and allows organization to identify and implement changes at different levels and magnitude of impact. Each of them are necessary and must be run in tandem for an organization to be truly lean and successful cause by just being innovative, a company may not be successful in long run as it may lose out on efficiency nor by just being a company which is strong on efficiency sustain itself in long run as lack of innovation will allow competitors who are innovative to beat it down in market.

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  • 3

 

 

Kaizen(change + better)

Kaikaku (change + revolution)

Kakushin (new or innovation + revolution)

Definition

Kaizen => Kai (change) + Zen (better) => Change for better.

It is Small incremental changes for continuous improvement / evolutionary improvement.

Kaikaku => Kai (change) + kaku (revolution) => Change for revolution.

 

More radical, step changes needed to improve the process/business on existing system

Kakushin => Kaku (revolution) + Shin (new or innovation)

 

When we need about innovation, reform, transformation and renewal from present situation. Some change will form a complete departure from the current situation.

Description

Those activities which helps organisation to improve a process or business constantly.
 
Improvement / continuous improvement


Implement 5S and removes 7+1 types of Muda/waste

In a process or business where transformations needs a big/global redefinition of the system.
 

Transformation / reform / big improvement

Allows organisation to reform and transform their culture and work habit

Those discoveries that allow changing the status quo of a business. 

innovation / reform / renewal

 

Allows organization to adapt with new changes/ new things

Process to Follow/ Steps

1.    Identify an opportunity.

2.    Analyze the process.

3.    Develop an optimal solution.

4.    Implement the solution.

5.    Study the results.

6.    Standardize the solution.

7.    Plan for the future.

 

1.    Set based

2.    3P Kaizen

3.    Plan Execution

4.       Lean Transformation Support

DMAIC

Example

Update in current software

Change both the technical basis and functionality in current software

Create new software on the basis of new technology and new business process

Comparison

1.    Took less time

2.    Less costly

3.    Continuous process

1.    Takes more time than Kaizen

2.    More costly than Kaizen

3.    Non-Continuous

1.    Takes more time than Kaikaku

2.     More costly than Kaikaku

3.     Non-Continuous

 

 

 

  59b26e2b121b9_kaizen_kaikaukaishin.jpg.90c7a58a93b504dc08ede73b4eba76ae.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How do they complement each other?

In any organization Kaizen is the integral part by which we keep the continuous improvement. When we need any big changes to adapt say like in car industry we are moving from LIQUID fuel to GAS/CNG to ELECTRIC car, then we are choosing Kaikaku. But when a car company going to open a new segment say SUV or more luxurious car segment they will choose Kakushin. So if a company want to survive and want compete in each section these three are clearly complement to each other.

 

What would a company lose if one of these as a concept was not utilised?

 

Well change is the only constant in life, if we believe it then we have improve ourselves to everyday, everywhere to survive or to stay up to date. If a company don’t change themselves with Kaizen they will become static/monotonous and loose its charm will lead to death eventually.

 

If we don’t adopt with new things/changes, i.e Kaikaku then we will become like Kodak a certain death.

 

If we don’t adopt with new innovative changes i.e Kakushin, like ”man power to computer/automation” will not be able to survive eventually, until a better competitor comes to market, like JIO comes with “internet data” with 4g technology in India.

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Kaizen ….Continuous improvement c using small incremental changes.  Kai means change, Zen means better.

Kaikaku……a  change to the existing situation.  

Kakushin…... Some change will form a complete departure from the current situation.

 

Example :

For a business Organisation from IT perspective , someone  using Oracle ERP 11g  who has undergone through the above three stages means……

In Kaizen they  would update to Oracle 11.2 ( providing technical advantages)   and in Kaikaku  they would move to Oracle R12 ( giving major functional and technical benefits) and in Kakushin they would replace with complete SAAS cloud based ERP could be Oracle fusion or SAP cloud product, providing distinct benefits of operational expenses  and unique user experience.

 

So, for a business organisation to be successful at different stages all of these are important Kaizen, Kaikaku and Kakushin.

Case in point ,  camera and film famed company KODAK… was into Kaizen and kaikaku and changed film technology and got into new  digital cameras  ( Kaizen and Kaikaku)  and forgot Kakushin of revolutionary innovation and forgot departure from current situation and had to declare bankruptcy in 2013.

 

In Summary, for organizations to stay competitive in today’s economy, it is essential for them to adopt all these three concepts of Kaizen (Change for Better), Kaikaku (Revolutionary Change), and Kakushin (Innovation)

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  Kaizen Kaikaku Kakushin
Explain the meaning Kaizen is evolutionary, focussed on incrmental improvements.

Minor update in a piece of software can be equated to Kaizen.
Kaikaku is revolutionary, focussed on radical improvements.

Following the software example, Kaikaku would be the upgrade of an application currently in use from a release level to a new release level. Software providers will often substantially change both the technical basis of the software and its functionality. For both IT and the user community, this means a large step change.
Kakushin is improvement through innovation and renewal.

Again, in our software example, this may mean replacing a complete application with a different application that supports the process in a completely different way, for example a web-based application that fully automates the registration of orders, the submission of invoices and the generation of a picking order at order fulfilment.
How are they three different from each other? These are minor and continual improvements
Lean initiatives or events with
cumulative planning and execution
timelines of hours to
weeks
• Smaller project scope
• Small to medium staff and
resource allocation
• Quicker results with small,
individual contributions to the
bottom line of the organization
or value stream
• Tactical
These are large scale and wide ranging improvements
A lean initiative or event with
a planning timeline of weeks
to months and an execution
timeline of hours to weeks
(value stream dependent)
• Larger project scope
• Medium to large staff and
resource allocation
• Results realized more slowly
but with larger, concurrent,
multiple contributions to the
bottom line of the organization
or value stream
• Strategic
These are revolutionary improvements and breakthroughs
How do they complement each other? Organizations get benefit from these through continual improvement of their processes, transformation of their organizational culture, and becoming an innovative entity. Effectively applying these three essential concepts of Kaizen, Kaikaku, and Kakushin is the right solution for any organization which wants to deliver a sustainable high quality product or service and ensure a steady growth in the global market.
What would a company lose if one of these as a concept was not utilised?  All these three concepts are essential for the success of an organisation. Depending upon bussiness requirement , all these three are crtical and  utilized.

Not doing kaizen keep the organisation from benefits of small incrmental improvements thereby keeping organisation away from the major benefits in efficiency, safety, as well as employee and customer satisfaction.

Kaikaku encompasses more activities and addresses systemic waste.When executed well, Kaikaku creates a momentum that transforms the entire “value stream” of material, information, people, and actions required to bring a product from concept to launch to delivery.

Kakushin renews way of thinking in the organisation . When followed leads to new revolutionary and breakthrough ideas, products or services.

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Kaizen is the culture of small improvement on the floor by any individual in the organization, this build the culture of improvement mindset.

Kaikaku is about a radical change in the business, focussed on implementation on new technology, new strategies, primariy influenced from change in industry.

Kakushin is about complete change in existing system across organization, related to transformational change.

Each of these complement each other by creating a focus based on need of the hour. Kaizen is the building block for system, which creates atmosphere which appreciates importance of each individual's involvement in making small improvement on the ground that build culture of imporvement.

Kaikaku becomes handy to align to the pace of the industry to make sure that the organization is not left behind in the fast paced environment. It helps to inherit best practices in the industry.

Kakushin help to remove the status quo and refresh the system with those things that are relevant and adds more value to the organization at any point of tiem.

Without improvement culture, created by Kaizen, its difficult to inherit Kaikaku or Kakushin. Without Kaikaku and Kakushin its difficult to improve and be competetive in industry. Kakushin responds to the need of organization and what works good for organization.

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Kaizen:

Kaizen is the Japanese word for continuous improvement using small incremental changes. Kai means change, Zen means for the better. When applied to the workplace, Kaizen means continuous improvement involving everyone, managers and workers alike, every day and everywhere, providing structure to process improvement. Lean IT Kaizen is an approach for solving problems and forms the basis of incremental continual improvement in organizations. A problem is a difficulty that has to be resolved or dealt with. Kaizen is about continuously improving: everyday, everyone and everywhere. Many small improvements implemented with Kaizen produce faster results with less risk.

 

Kaikaku:

Lean also recognizes that there are moments that more radical, step change is necessary. This type of change is known as Kaikaku. This refers to a revolutionary change to the existing situation. Daily/Hourly recording of machine data, Kaikaku would be the upgrade of an application currently in use from a manually recording to automatic recording after certain set time.

 

Kakushin:

A third type of improvement known within Lean is Kakushin. The idea here is that some change will form a complete departure from the current situation. It is about innovation, transformation, reform and renewal. Again manually recording system with automatic recording system with storing memory and can retrieved as an when required. Also highlighting with alarm and indication if crosses control limit values. This kind of change will entail the disappearance of many roles and functions within a business. Both from technological and business process perspectives, this example represents a complete departure from the current way of working.

 

If any of these is not utilised in a company the operating cost of the company will remain same with no change in the process. Also the profit margin will deteriorate with the inflation as process remains same without any improvement.

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Kaizen:

ZEN (GOOD (FOR THE BETTER)) + KAI (CHANGE) = CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT

Kaizen – Change for Good / Better

 

Kaizen are SMALL improvements carried out (IMPLEMENTED) by individuals on their day-to-day activities to make their life simpler and easier. Kaizen is typically continuous, incremental improvement of an activity to create more value with less waste. The process of making incremental, ongoing changes continually and not as a single event.

 

Kaizen is about the changing of the method of work without hassles, without spending money and using the wisdom to make work easy, safe and fast. Kaizen usually focusses on reduction / elimination of waste and implementation of 5S.

 

Kaikaku:

KAI (CHANGE) + KAKU (REVOLUTIONARY) = TRANSFORMATION / BIG IMPROVEMENT

Kaikaku is revolutionary, focused on breakthrough rapid and radical improvements. While both Kaizen and Kaikaku can be applied to production, Kaikaku goes beyond production to break the existing paradigm and create a breakthrough using a new system or model.

 

Kaikaku was a discrete effort that had a definite time period with specific targets to be achieved at the end of the period. Therefore, Kaikaku was typically seen as a large project or an initiative. A Kaikaku initiative often contained smaller projects conducted at different points of time during the overall initiative. The time frames of the Kaikaku initiatives ranged from a few months to a few years.  On the other hand, Kaizen is normally seen as a continuous effort, which indicates the embedded nature of the practice in a never-ending journey towards quality and efficiency.

 

 

Kakushin:

KAKU (REVOLUTIONARY) + SHIN (NEW) = INNOVATION / REFORM / RENEWAL

Kakushin is all about innovation, transformation, reform and renewal. The idea here is that some change will form a complete transformation from the current scenario. An example of Kakushin is where the organization standardizes a process and supporting software across the entire organization where previously various groups had different processes and applications to achieve similar goals.

 

How the above three does complement each other?

Kaikaku is necessary to break paradigms and elevate the awareness of people to a higher level of understanding.  When approaching a problem situation, it might require radical improvement to start with (Kaikaku), and then be continuously improved (kaizen). Whereas Kakushin is all about innovation complemented with revolutionary changes in the system. I perceive that all the three goes hand in hand in order to achieve their respective objectives.

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Episode 4- 080917.pdf

 

For organizations to stay competitive in today’s economy, given the era of start-up culture & globalization, it is essential for them be open to the concept of changing with the time. It is the agility and the openness for janusian thinking that will keep the organization boosted to make the best of the small gap between evolution and dissolution.

 

It is but imminent to adopt and ingrain-in three important concepts of Kaizen (Change for Better), Kaikaku (Revolutionary Change), and Kakushin (Innovation). Organizations benefit from these through continual improvement of their processes, transformation of their organizational culture, and becoming an innovative entity.

 

Though each of the Ks are the different faces of change in the organization, they collectively form the spectrum of change in the organisation. 

 

image.png

 

The representation below depicts how the spectrum of change can be progressively implemented in an organisation for improvement and growth when the 3Ks complement each other .

 

image.png

 

In conclusion, effectively applying these three essential concepts of Kaizen, Kaikaku, and Kakushin is the right solution for any organization who wants to deliver a sustainable high quality product or service and to ensure a steady growth in the global market

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KAIZEN

KAIKAKU

KAKUSHIN

continuous improvement

revolutionary change

innovation

 

 

 

Focuses on eliminating Muda (waste) by small incremental changes for the better over a period.

 

Focuses on a radical change (big improvement) in a limited time.

Focuses on innovation, transformation, reform and renewal.

Each Kaizen activity involves only certain parts of the production system individually, but can be extended to all processes including purchasing, logistics crossing organizational boundaries into supply chain.

 

Involves the entire Production system.
It is more of a System Wide Kaizen and can be seen as a series of Kaizen activities completed together.

Involves implementing innovative breakthrough ideas or products and services in a completely new way which makes a complete departure from the current situation. Sometimes small improvement of current situation may not help and a different way of doing things might need to be adopted. This revolutionary reform is Kakushin. Kaizen activities could then be initiated to improve things further.

 

Involves all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers and involves activities that continuously make small improvements to all functions.

 

Initiated by the Management as it would have a significant impact on the business.
 

Initiated by the Management as it would have a significant impact on the business. It might require companywide trainings and so on.
 

The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as: "Plan → Do → Check → Act". (PDCA).

Along with PDCA, the “5Whys?” technique is also used. This is a form of Root Cause analysis where user asks a series of five "why" questions about a failure that has occurred, basing each subsequent question on the answer to the previous. 5 is just a guiding number indicating that multiple questions need to be asked and user cannot just stop with 1 question.

 

KAIKAKU projects may be necessitated by new technology or market conditions and may involve introduction of:
new knowledge (or)
new strategies (or)
new approaches (or)
new production techniques (or) new equipment.

KAKUSHIN projects may be necessitated by new ideas or innovative products /services to enable/sustain business growth.

 

E.g. Implementing 5S, redesigning assembly line and so on

E.g. Changing to a new Raw material for a product, Introducing CNC lathe machines or robots to a production or assembly line.

E.g Introduction of a web portal for application processing removing a manual process.

 

 

What would a company lose if one of these as a concept was not utilised?

 

Kaizen is about continuously improving: everyday, everyone and everywhere. Many small improvements implemented with Kaizen produce faster results (accumulated over time) with less risk.

Without Kaizen initiatives, a company would be unable to make such small improvements and the risk to improve would be high.

Waste (Muda) would significantly increase reducing ROI and causing a drop in OEE Overall Equipment Efficiency.

 

Kaikaku is about making a revolutionary change to the existing situation. When Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) efforts stagnate, and do not produce necessary or expected results when compared to the efforts put in, then Management may decide for drastic improvement Project or Kaikaku.  This is also taken up as a project. Once completed this provides a new starting place for future Kaizen continuous improvement efforts. Without utilizing Kaikaku concept a company may be unable to go to the next level.

 

Kakushin is about making innovative changes for transformation and reforming the current situation. Without innovation, it would be very difficult for any company to sustain and grow. Innovative products, services (Value added) help a company to differentiate itself from competition and remain significancant.

 

Kaikaku projects can be of four different types: [1]

1.       Locally innovative - Capital intensive

E.g. an installation of robot automation in a factory is not new to the industry in general, but may be new to the company. The decision is strategically grounded and could mean higher costs

 

2.       Locally innovative - Operation close

E.g. the introduction of conventional methods Six Sigma or TPM may be new to the company. The direct cost is relatively small

 

3.       Radically innovative - Capital intensive

E.g. the introduction of a new and innovative production technology

 

4.       Radically innovative - Operation close

E.g. the introduction of new and innovative production solutions that are new to the industry

 

 

 [1] Yuji Yamamoto; et al. (2010). KAIKAKU An inspirational and Introduction [In Swedish]. Eskilstuna, Sweden: Malardalen University.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaikaku

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaizen

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/3-essential-ks-organizational-success-kaizen-kaikaku-mogharei-pmp

https://www.pinkelephantasia.com/kaizen-kaikaku-kakushin/

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Kaizen: Is a continuous improvement, step by step, incremental changes.
Example:-  Roads in India:
 
The roads in India are slowly improving, This we can say as Kaizen
Kaikaku: Is more of an upgradation kind of improvement or change
Example:- Demonetisation in India.
 
The old notes are taken away ( in 3months) & new ones are parallel introduced
Kakushin: Is more a re-engineering. The system is rethought or redone.
 

These three are complementing only in the angle of change as the change is common in all the three ‘K’s, Whereas according to my understanding they are different. Kaizen is slow & incremental, By Kakushin is immediate or full change at once. Kaikaku is a kind of upgradation. Kaikaku is like mean between Kaizen & Kakushin. The company loses the very important thing “Change” when these concepts are not used. Change is a must for every company.

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For any organization to stay competitive and survive long, these 3 Ks are very necessary which are Kaizen ( change for better), kaikaku ( revolutionary change) and Kakushin ( innovation) . 

 

Kaizen means elimination of non value added work ( muda, 7+1 type of waste) in work processes to bring continuous improvement. It was started by Toyota around 40 years back and was later adopted rapidly by most of the industries so a need of more rapid and agile practice was felt. 

 

So Kaikaku came into picture.

 

Kaikaku is a more radical change which indicates big/ revolutionary improvements. It allows organization to implement fundamental changes in their production system mostly performed by executives and top management and involves large investment.

 

Many times, breakthrough inventions are required more than any improvements in current processes. Such kind of innovation and renewal is called Kakushin

 

Differencekaizen is small change to make process better and involves little/ no investment. It can be done by anybody on shop floor.

Kaikaku is revolutionary change .I.e. a bigger change which involves fundamental changes in processes to get a more accurate result. It involves lot of investment and is implemented by executives/ management.

Kakushin is Innovation or breakthrough in products/ services which has more to do with mindset of people. It involves huge investment and risks and is implemented only by senior management/ MD / CEOs of organization

 

How they complement each other ?

For any company to succeed they first need to bring Kaizen ( small changes) in processes to bridge gap between actual and target. Once they are able to achieve the target to change their standards they need to implement Kaikaku so as to embrace with the rapid improvements and bring revolution in processes. Once they have achieved everything thing with their current processes, then there's a need to innovate in products/ services to differentiate themselves from other companies for which Kakushin is required.

 

What would a company loose if one of them is not implemented?

Kaizen is most basic step for continuous improvement, without which a company won't survive.

Kaikaku is next step  to be no. 1 organization in the industry for which revolution is required in processes and without you one can't be first choice for its customers. 

Kakushin is further next step so that your competitors can't even think of competing with you. It's innovating such that you have monopoly in your field and to differentiate oneself from others so that customers have no choice.

 

 

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Kaizen stands for small continuous improvements. It involves everyone taking up small improvements in their methods and procedures in their day to day work. 

Kaikaku stands for radical improvements. It involves big ticket changes aka initiatives usually sponsored by someone senior in the organization.

Kakushin stands for breakthrough innovation. It can be the result of technological progress, market forces, customer demands or organizational R&D. 

 

Ideally a combination of all 3 techniques would be desirable to achieve optimal results. Kaizen is for short term results, Kaikaku for medium term results and Kakushin for long term results. 

Absence of Kaizen could lead to customer dissatisfaction as service levels will stagnate. Absence of Kaikaku could lead to loss of market share as other competing products will start eating into your share. And absence of Kakushin could wipe out the company like in the case of Kodak.

 

The 3 can complement each other very well. Consider the example of a telecom service provider. Once a big innovation is brought in (Kakushin - for e.g. 4G), small improvements (Kaizen - for e.g. adding more cell towers or harmonizing spectrum) can be made over a period of time to stabilize the service. When the need is felt for a more substantial change, Kaikaku (for e.g. video calling) can be used for taking the service to the next level. Again Kaizen can be used to stabilize the operations. This cycle of Kaikaku and Kaizen can be carried out number of times till technology or competition forces another Kakushin (this duration will be different in different industries).

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Everything can and should be improved; improvement opportunities should be constantly explored.

The three important concepts of Kaizen ,Kaikaku and Kakushin - all relate to process improvements, based on Toyota Production System.

 

Kaizan promotes incremental continual improvement, resulting in delivery of products and services quicker, while reducing cost and without compromising quality. This is basically done by eliminating non value added work in the processes, thereby increasing efficiency, productivity or performance. Taking the example of glazing in construction industry, the actual improvement of work processes by reducing the non value added activities involved can improve the speed and efficiency of the work

 

While Kaizan is evolutionary, focused on incremental improvements, Kaikaku is revolutionary and focused on radical improvements. Kaikaku is a breakthrough, rapid and radical improvement of any activity. Kaikaku can be applied to the above example of glazing works by changing the glazing material to light weight variants available. This will result in quicker execution along with the kaizan improvements applied.

 

Thus Kaizan can bring about small incremental changes and Kaikaku can bring about big revolutionary changes to the existing production processes, but in certain circumstances, new and revolutionary ideas are needed. Kakushin comes into picture here; it deals with innovation, transformation, reform and renewal. The glazing material, by applying Kakushin, can be revolutionized by introducing photovoltaic glazing which help buildings generate their own electricity.

 

Kakushin and Kaikaku is sought in addition to Kaizen, not in place of Kaizen and are sometimes used as a precursor to Kaizen activities. Kaizen is essential for a long-term.

Effectively applying these three concepts can enable any organization to deliver a high quality product or service.

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Kaizen – Kaizen is the Japanese word for continuous improvement using small incremental changes. Kai means change, Zen means for the better. Kaizen refers to activities that continuously improve all functions and involve all employees from the top management to all the employees.

 

Kaikaku – Kaikaku is the Japanese word for "radical change". Kaikaku is concerned with making fundamental and radical changes to a business.

 

Kakushin – Kakushin literally means “innovation” or reform. It is about innovation, transformation, reform and renewal.

 

 

 

Kaizen

Kaikaku

Kakushin

How are they different from each other

When applied to the workplace, Kaizen means continuous improvement involving everyone, managers and workers alike, every day and everywhere, providing structure to process improvement. Kaizen is about continuously improving: everyday, everyone and everywhere.

This refers to a revolutionary change to the existing situation. An existing process being changed. Automation of certain work reports. Introduction to new & innovative production technology.

This will form a complete departure from the current situation. Replacing a complete application with a new one with new technology. Moving from conventional stoarge to Cloud for data.

How do they complement each other

Relatively small area of improvements can be done through Kaizen when there is a new change or a new innovation.

A drastic or complete change in process should be made once there is a new innovation or a new product.

Existing prcoess or smaller area of improvements change  post new technology or innovation.

What would you lose if one of these was absent

Many small improvements implemented with Kaizen produce faster results with less risk. Minor updates can help & allow drastic change in a technology for better service. Without Kaizen these small areas & regular improvements will not be possible.

It is important to stay up-to date & change accordingly with the new age technology. Kaizen will help understand the drawback & help in direct change. Without Kaikaku important change in the process post & update wont be possible.

It is important for an organization to stay up-to date with new technology. Standardizing a process for the entire organization where previously various groups had different processes will achieve similar goals & would be helpful for the company in terms of cost & manpower.

 

 

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Kaizen

Kaizen stands for continuous improvement using small incremental changes. Kai means change, Zen means for the better (change for better). Kaizen is an approach for solving problems and forms the basis of incremental continual improvement in organizations. Kaizen is about continuously improving: everyday, everyone and everywhere providing structure to process improvement. Many small improvements implemented with Kaizen produce faster results with less risk. Kaizen has been implemented with various industries like Retail, Healthcare, IT through streamlining of processes and elimination of non – value added work, be it through Muda / 7+ types of waste method.              

 

Kaikaku

But there are moments that more radical and emphasising on changes at organisation level in large scale through wide range activities majorly invested by top management . For example, automation in industries like, introduction of conveyor belts in production lines, robotics in entire process lines minimising manual interference.step change is necessary. This type of change is known as Kaikaku (a revolutionary change to the existing situation), can also be termed as upgraded version of Kaizen

 

Kakushin

Here some change will form a complete departure from the current situation leading to Kakushin (Innovation), it is about innovation, transformation, reform and renewal. For example, fully automates the registration of orders, the submission of invoices and the generation of a picking order at order fulfilment. This kind of change will entail the disappearance of many roles and functions within a business. Both from technological and business process perspectives, this example represent a complete departure from the current way of working.

 

Conclusion

Thus, for a organization to succeed in providing a sustainable high quality product or services need to apply all the three concepts in their organisation, lack of any of these would deprive the growth and sustainability in long term. Also if applied any one of these would not be effective for organisational goals leading to growth because these three concepts are interdependent and up-gradation of each in the sequence Kaizen, Kaikaku, Kakushin.company

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Kaizen continuous improvement using small incremental changes.

Kaikaku is more radical then Kaizen. We can say that large radical incremental changes

Kakushin is about major shift, it about innovation.

 

My personal analogy for these 3 Lean Methodologies: kaizen is like Staircase, kaikaku is like escalator (Has Incremental Steps like staircase but automated like lift) and kakushin is like lift. Other example, Currently we are using software for Data Analysis (MS Excel 2010) and daily we are putting efforts that how we can do data analysis in better way using same software, this is kaizen.A new Vesion of same software (MS Excel 2013) with better Data Analysis Capabilities is example of kaikaku.Suppose through innovation we were able to formed totally new software having  excellent capabilities then previous software  like MYSQL.

 

Important thing here is to note that- no approarch is better than other , its totally depend upon many factors and available resources.You might thing that MYSQL is way better than MS Excel but you have to take care about training, change management efforts and there is possiblity that you organization dont like advanced features or capabilities for data analysis.

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Kaizen

Kaikaku

Kakushin

Continuous improvement everyday, everyone and everywhere

Revolutionary change to existing situation

Innovation – creating new

Small incremental changes

Radical change

Complete departure from current situation by innovation and transformation

Eg: Reducing production time, implementing 5 S

Eg: Introducing a new improved part in place of heavy part in machinery

Eg: Innovating new system in place of old system

 

These are 3 essential K’s for organizational success: Kaizen, Kaikaku, Kakushin. The concepts of Kaizen, Kaikaku, and Kakushin is the right solution for any organization who wants to deliver a sustainable high-quality product or service and to ensure a steady growth in the market.

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Kaizen is a Japanese word for continuous improvement where Kai means change and Zen means for the better. For example a minor update to a piece of software

 

Kaikaku refers to radical change to the existing situation. For example upgrade of an application currently in use from a release level to a new release level

 

Kakushin refers to a complete departure from the current situation. It is about innovation, transformation, reform and renewal. For example replacing a complete application with a different application that supports the process in a completely different way. This kind of change will entail disappearance of many roles and functions within a business

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Meaning of Kaizen, Kaikaku & Kakushin -

 

Kaizen (Change for better) – Japanese business Philosophy of Continuous improvement of working practices, personal efficiency,etc. In business it refers to all activities that continuously improve all functions & involve all employee from CEO to workers. It aims to eliminate waste.

 

Kaikaku (Revolutionary change) – It is a Japanese word for “Radical Change”. It is concerned in making fundamental & radical changes to a production system. It is initiated by management since the change will significantly impact business

 

Kakushin (Innovation) – It means innovation or reform.

·         Kaizen - change+good = improvement/ continuous improvement.

·         Kaikaku – change + revolutionary = transformation / reform / big improvement

·         Kakushin – new + revolutionary = innovation / reform / renewal

 

Kaikaku can also be implemented when management sees that kaizen work is no longer providing adequate results. And Kakushin is implemented when a complete new product is innovated or an existing product is reformed for betterment of business.

 

How does all 3 complement each other -

It is essential for organisations to adopt all the three important concepts (Kaizen, Kaikaku & Kakushi) to benefit from these through continual improvement of processes, transformation of organizational culture & becoming an innovative entity.

 

What would Company lose if any of these concept is not utilised?

In conclusion if any of this concept is not utilised then it might not be able to deliver a high quality product or service. Also it would effect a steady growth of an organization’s growth in the global market.

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Kaizen
Continuous improvement using small incremental changes. Low risk activity.

 

Kaikaku
Radical changes in the existing system. Big improvement. Medium risk.

 

Kakushin
Innovation, it changes the complete system. High risk and high gain activity.

 

All the three tools are required for the long term survival of an organisation, because after a certain period of time just incremental improvements are not sufficient, we need to have radical changes and innovation to ensure the survival of an organisation in the long run.

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Kaizen : its something that we focus to improve the process continuously in innovative ways. Example. In pilot project we forms small groups that involve senior, freshers, lead. After  some days we see the results that a particular group has been achieved something new and expertise in some specific part of process. Here group trying their best in every aspect to achieve the goal and keep on doing something innovative to make their Team best one and trying to make consistency.

 

Another example is conducting regular ideation program where team will be involved. With the help of brainstorming program will get process improvement ideas at regular intervals to identify and  overcome process gaps.

 

How these 3 differs:

Kaizen focus on complete organization. Where as kaikaku focus on specific department of organization which can be a part of cost cutting area and we can decrease investment for that department. And now kakushin focus on remodeling within department.

 

How 3 interrelated:

For organizations to stay competitive in today’s economy, it is essential for them to adopt and ingrain-in three important concepts of Kaizen (Change for Better), Kaikaku (Revolutionary Change), and Kakushin (Innovation). Organizations do benefit from these through continual improvement of their processes, transformation of their organizational culture, and becoming an innovative entity.

 

Kaizen that encourages incremental continuous improvement, in the last decade, has spread out among other service oriented industries, i.e. Healthcare, IT, Retail, … , where the need for a more rapid and agile methodology was felt. It was realized as a necessity to be able to deliver products and services to the customer quicker, while maintaining the high quality and lower cost.

 

Kaikaku is Radical Change, where emphasis is on revolutionary change and big improvements. It allows organizations to reform and transform their culture and work habits into greatness via implementation of fundamental changes in the existing production systems. It is a large-scale and wide-ranging activity that is initiated and invested in by the executives and top management.

 

However, there are times that new revolutionary and breakthrough ideas, products, or services are desired and needed and thus we have to renew our way of thinking and doing and become innovative. This innovation and renewal is called Kakushin.

 

In conclusion, effectively applying these three essential concepts of Kaizen, Kaikaku, and Kakushin is the right solution for any organization who wants to deliver a sustainable high quality product or service and to ensure a steady growth in the global market which is really required in these competitive world.

 

Otherwise organisation will not sustainable , will fall under poor quality, also reputation loss etc.

 

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1)KAIZEN: kaizen is the Japanese terminology for continuous improvement. ItItis the way to make things better and improve the existing method.

Eg. In an automotive sector scrap metal parts litters around the machine, which requires more time to clean now by installing a magnetic stip it will be easier to clean the machine.  This just improved the method of working. Anyone from an organisation can involve in KAIZEN.

 

2)KAIKAKU: this can be said as the next level for Kaizen. It brings a revolutionary change to an organisation. 

Eg. In an existing production system to improve the process , efficiency and productivity ,lean manufacturing implementation is a Kaikaku or by installing new press machines or automation works which drastically improves the cycle time is a KAIKAKU. Here top management and mangerial involvement is required since more commercial input is required.

 

3)KAKUSHIN: kakushin is nothing but thinking in a more innovative way. Innovative idea implementation which will give the existing method a whole new improved method. A total reformation is expected in KAKUSHIN. 

Eg. In automotive sector installation of common lines for all vehicle manufacturing in a single go. Redesigning auto parts and make use of lesser weight vehicle body to increase the output of the vehicle is nothing but Kakushin.

Here top management involvement is required.

 

Difference and complement 

All these Kaizen, Kaikaku, and Kakushin are interlinked. Kaizen is the basic of all. Kaikaku is the second level of kaizen. Where commercial involvement is more. Kakushin is the third level where the whole reformation of Kaizen and kaikaku takes place. Here a lot more commercial involvement is required.

Benifit to organisation 

In an organisation implementing only kaizen will improve the basic requirement. There will be progress in work but it may not reach the desired goal. At this stage implementing Kaikaku will bring a revolutionary change more output can be expected. Now the improvement  process should not stop otherwise at some point the market value and competition may increase and it will be hard to cope up with. So implementing KAKUSHIN will add to the boost it will bring more innovative ideas and a total reformation will take place only for better future.

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Kaizen:

It's made up of two characters in Japanese: kai which means 'change' and zen which means ‘good’.

So Kaizen means “Change for Better”.

 

Kaizen is used to make small continuous improvements in the workplace so as to improve quality, productivity, delivery, safety & workplace culture and thereby reducing the cost. One of the most notable features of kaizen is that big results come from many small changes with everyone involved in making improvements.

 

Kaikaku

It’s made up of two characters in Japanese: kai which means 'change' and Kaku means ‘to transform or expel’. So Kaikaku (改革), means ‘radical change’.

Unlike Kaizen, which is continuous improvement / incremental minor change, Kaikaku means radical change or a great reform to the system normally in the form of project. It allows organizations to reform and transform their culture and work habits

Kaikaku is most often initiated by management (top down approach), since the change as such and the result will significantly impact business. Kaikaku is about introducing new knowledge, new strategies, new approaches, new production techniques or new equipment.

10 Commandments of Kaikaku

  1. Throw out the traditional concept of manufacturing methods.
  2. Think of how the new method will work; not how it won't work.
  3. Don't accept excuses. Totally deny the status quo.
  4. Don't seek perfection. A 50% implementation rate is fine as long as it is done on the spot.
  5. Correct mistakes the moment they are found.
  6. Don't spend money on Kaikaku.
  7. Problems give you a chance to use your brains.
  8. Ask 'Why' five times."
  9. Ten person's ideas are better than one person's knowledge.
  10. Kaikaku knows no limits.

Kakushin

It’s a Japanese term which means “Innovation”

Kakushin means an innovation & renewal that will form the complete departure from the existing situation. There are times that new revolutionary and breakthrough ideas, products, or services are desired and needed and thus we have to renew our way of thinking and doing and become innovative. That’s where Kakushin comes in picture.

 

Kaizen

Kaikaku

Kakushin

means “Change for Better”.

means “radical change”.

means “Innovation”

is used to make small continuous improvements in the workplace so as to improve quality, productivity, delivery, safety & workplace culture and thereby reducing the cost

, Kaikaku means radical change or a great reform to the system normally in the form of project. Kaikaku is about introducing new knowledge, new strategies, new approaches, new production techniques or new equipment

Kakushin means an innovation & renewal that will form the complete departure from the existing situation

Example,

Re-designing of assembly line, implementing 5S

Example,

Introducing Robots  for welding of chasis or in Paint shop

Example,

Revolutionizing car design by reducing the number of parts which will make mfg. simple & less time consuming

 

Kaizen, Kaikaku & Kakushin  are the “three faces of change” any organization need to implement at appropriate stages of busyness cycle if wants to deliver a sustainable high quality product or service and to ensure a steady growth in the global market.

 

Kaizen is essential to ensure employee involvement & empowerment, and make the existing processes more efficient thereby making organization more competitive and profitable

To address the requirement of being able to implement changes more rapidly the concept of Kaikaku was born.

Kakkushin is introduced so that organization can mould itself as per changing market requirements by introducing innovative product, services, processes.

All these concepts need to be implemented together in the organization to maintain its relevance to the customer & stakeholdrs.

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