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Vastupal Vashisth

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    Vastupal Vashisth
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    Honda Cars India Ltd. Taukara Rajsthan

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  1. Six Sigma: A approach to process improvement which is defect oriented is very popular in many industries like: general Electric, Texas Instrument, Kodak and much more. The main objective to reduce output variability to increase customer satisfaction or we can say that this approach tries to keep specification limit more than six standard deviation in both direction. it means it wants lower defect level or below than 3.4 defects per million opportunities or 3.4 DPMO. Now the question comes when Six Sigma is not called Six Sigma and answer for this is that, when it is used as the Six Sigma Metric and there are various pitfalls of using as a Metric, which are given below; 1. We use a term very often called opportunities to calculate DPMO, even DPMO full form is Defects per million opportunities and if the customer gives a weightage to the opportunities as per their importance , it will be very poor phenomenon for customer satisfaction because their are chances that metric can better and on the other hand customer satisfaction will be worse. for example we are improving one type of defect at the expense of any important one like someone is trying to eliminating 15 unimportant defect and while doing this he is leaving 5 important defects resulting overall improvement of 10 defects , leaving behind a poor customer satisfaction. 2. Every process has its own limitations and while calculating DPMO , it ignores process limitations and it consider only the gap between its existing performance and zero defects, so it fails to consider redesigning of the process. 3. You can play a game very easily with this unless until it is complemented by someone other. for example we are having two different group of experts and we have given them a job to identify the opportunities for the defect and we see that there will be huge difference in their list.
  2. Secondary Metric : During six sigma projects, there is need to consider primary as well as secondary metrics. Primary metric is main the indicator to achieve our project goal but there is different role of secondary metric. It works as a " Protection Measure" and it ensures that we achieve our Project goal but not on the sacrifice of something else in the process. It ensures that team work honestly and deliver as per defined target. Any management will never agree to bypass some factors or broken them on behalf of improvement which will be delivered by considering primary metric or on behalf of project goal. example 1: Goal of a company to meet customer demand in a car manufacturing company by improving their cycle time and takt time. it does not mean that workers on assembly line will reduce cycle time and tack time by passing several defects in the car and if it is done then there is a possibility that customer even will not buy that defected car. so we should meet customer demand by improving cycle time and takt ime but not at the cost of defects passing in the car. here defects in the car plays a role of secondary metric which could have been considered before staring the project. example 2: a students wants to improve his score in competitive exam of multiple choice question by improving his speed of solving the question. so his goal is to improve score by improving his speed but not at the cost of accuracy of solving the question in that time , if he is not able to give right answer in that time then there is no meaning to attempt all question. Example 3: Sales team of a manufacturing company has a primary goal to increase sales volume but no company want it at any unnecessary cost. lets say sales team is increasing sales by giving offers, discounts on products and ultimately the selling price is not able to meet even breakeven point then there is no meaning to achieve sales target because its a loss to the company. so sales team should consider all secondary factors while achieving their main target. There will always be secondary metric in any project but most important thing how a project team identifies it and define it. and we need a secondary metric so that we can see what is the thing that we are going to loose if it is affected like in above example we achieved our sales target but we failed to make profit. It is possible that we may have multiple secondary metric in a project and now it depends on project team how they are addressing and which one they are considering as a secondary metric. because there is need to to track all primary as well as secondary metrics while doing a project for any measurable improvement. for example assembly line is receiving parts form several other departments to run the line smoothly to meet cycle time & takt time target to meet customer demand but it does not mean that to support assembly line delivery on time other departments bypass some process steps like filling of inspection data, repair checking, defect checking, volume to be delivered, variant or type of part to be delivered, so all these 5 factors will act as secondary metric for that project to meet customer demand.
  3. Kano Model: Dr Noriaki Kano created Kano Model in 1984 for product development and customer satisfaction and to explain different categories of customer requirements and how these requirements influence the customer satisfaction. Any product or service given by any organisation will only be considered by customers if it solves important customer problems effectively. its not necessary that all customer requirements will deliver more satisfaction. you can have two different customer needs of equally important and you will be more satisfied if one goes well and you can be neutral if other goes well. it may be possible a customer can be more satisfied with the need of less importance and can be neutral with the need of more importance. Kano Model has two axis( Refer Fig 1) , the horizontal axis represents the degree of implementation or execution, on the right side it is fully executed an don the left side its not done at all. the vertical axis represents satisfaction level of customer , on the top customer is fully satisfied and on the bottom side customer is very dis - satisfied. Dr. Kano gave total five categories of customer needs by using these sets of axis which are explained below: 1. Performance Attributes: these attributes are one dimensional and are on the top of customer's mind when they are making choices and evaluating between competitor present in the market. ( Refer Fig 1), Performance of these attributes gives more satisfaction and if they fail to perform customer will be very dissatisfied., because these are liner in nature and it will be better to execute them fully so that customer is more satisfied. in other words you can call them as satisfiers to customers. for example : the battery life of a mobile , if it goes well then customer is satisfied otherwise dissatisfied or the average claimed by a car manufacturing company is 24 and its actually coming 14 then customer is fully dis-satisfied, or the resolution in your new TV is not as per claimed by the company then customer is not satisfied. any mobile company is claiming its mobile can be used for gaming purpose but it starts to hang in simple application then customer will be fully dis- satisfied. it means that you will receive more satisfaction by customer if you are able to able to execute fully these performance attributes. 2. Threshold Attributes: these are the basic attributes and customers take them for granted and expects them to be in the product or service they are having. if these are doing well then customers might be just neutral but if these are not performing well then it may leads to customer dis-satisfaction (refer fig 1). in other words we can call them as " Must-be's" because they must be included. for example : lock of the door of the car that we are considering to buy, cleanliness of the hotel room that you booked for your trip. 3. Excitement Attributes: (Refer fig 1)these are the unexpected surprises or delights for the customer. in others words these are termed as the " WOW - factor" or the different offers that any company gives on its product to attract more customers. these are called Delighters because they do exactly what they are. they attract more customer and sometimes it happens that customer leaves some of its needs when they see such type of delighters. for example offer of 2 lac off on purchasing a brand new car so in this case customer can overcome some of its needs to grab that opportunity, or to give more service time for more period of time or for kilometers. giving road side assistance also comes into this delighters. normally these type of delighters comes on festive seasons because customers wants to buy new things. if these are not given at any point of time then there is very less that customer will be less satisfied. 4. In different attributes: (Refer fig 1), these attributes are those types that presence or absence of them does not matter to customer satisfaction. customer will be neutral if they are present or absent. for example some advanced application in mobile phone that is not used by maximum people. they provide little value to your product because majority of customers dont care about them. 5. Reverse Attribute: ( refer fig 1) this is the rarest category out of these 5 and these items are those that you dont want to offer. these requirements are of such types that their presence leads to dis-satisfaction of customers. Reverse Attributes found very rarely. Microsoft's little " paperclip helper" is a very small example of this because most of people was annoying because of it. there is presence of grey shades between five categories which are defined above. it may change from person to person and its very important to keep in mind that Kano Model is not only absolute because whatever one is describing it as an excitement attribute , it might be possible that the other one describes it as the performance attributes. these is very often and its very simple fact that there is a little difference between customer to customer and their requirements. Kano model helps any organisation to take decision which can fulfill requirements of customers and one can take decision with the help of Kano Model. As every one knows that customer needs and expectations are very dynamic in nature and for any organisation it is must to understand their nature of business and understand the pace of change of industry year by year to be in this competitive market. if you are not going with change then you will be replaced by someone else, there are many examples of it like Nokia, Blackberry, HMT Tractors. Time is a very important factor which plays a very important role in Kano Model ( Refer Fig 1). As the time passes industries changes, technologies changes and customer requirements also changes. for the excitement attributes we should know that how long they will last . generally its a saying that whatever is exciting ( Excitement Attributes) today will be definitely asked for tomorrow ( Performance attributes) and can be expected the next day( Threshold Attributes). there are various examples of this transition and companies can take decision by seeing all these factors. its reality is that it forces companies to bring innovations continuously ( Excitement Attributes) to keep themselves in this competitive edge. for example when touchscreen was offered by Apple then it was excitement attribute for the customers buy as the time passed it became threshold attribute and now every mobile company producing mobile phone with touchscreen. another example is of headphones that was used to give with every mobile phone and now a days also companies used to give but Xiomi has changed this scenario by giving more features and quality product. As Xiomi does not provide any headphone with new mobile phone but still number one company to sell its smartphone because of its performance and excitement attributes. Customers are more satisfied even without headphone and its presence does make any affect. Other examples are of AC in car now days becomes threshold, Wifi in a hotel and camera in your mobile phone and remote control for your television. Kano model helps organisation to collect data on the base of voice of customer and helps to classify that data into different categories to launch a new product in the market to satisfy more and more customer to be in the market.
  4. In Analyse phase of DMAIC, Box Plot comes into picture to compare data and analyse properly to display statistics summary at one place for a set of distribution. Box Plot which is also knows as Box and Wishker Plot is another graphical representation of data which can be drawn horizontally and vertically and summarize the following at one place which can be referred in attached picture also: 1. Median 2. Inter - Quartile Range ( Q3-Q1) 3. Quartile range or 25th, 50th, 75th percentile 4. Minimum & Maximum Range of data set 5. Outlier Interpreting the Box Plot: Making a Box Plot is easy and very simple but it is very important to know how to interpret it to understand data in a better way which can help us to reach a final conclusion: 1. It consists a Line between the box which is called median or 50th Percentile or Q2 2. The Lower Side of The Box Plot is Q1 or 25th Percentile 3. The Upper Side of the Box Plot is Q3 or 75th Percentile 4. 50% data is contained by Box Plot Itself as the Length of The Box is Q3-Q1 5. The ends of the vertical straight lines represent the Smallest and Largest observed Data Value 6. in picture outlier is shown by circle, normally it is represented by dot or asterisk mark. 7. If the median line is not in the center it means the data is skewed. Despite the simplicity of Box Plot, it is very beneficial and contains a lot of useful information which can be seen here without using much more statistical tools. Following are the benefits of Box Plot: 1. Median can be used to determine central tendency or location 2. With the help of Box Length we can determine the spread, variability. 3. with the help of outlier we get to know about outliers in the data 4. Skewness, symmetry of the data can be identified with the help of median location. 5. if the median is laying towards bottom of box then the data is positively skewed. 6. if the median is laying towards top of the box then the data is negatively skewed. 7. On the same graph box plot can be used to compare different data sets.
  5. FMEA stands for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis and is related with Lean Six Sigma DMAIC project in various phases. We can say that it is a risk assessment tool which helps us to prioritizes the failure modes of any product or any process on the basis of RPN score which stands for Risk Priority Number and can be calculated by giving scoring based on Severity, Occurrence and Detection. Severity can not be reduces once decided and the project team has two option to reduce occurrence or increase detection. After action taken we can again calculate RPN number and can determine new risk on the basis of score and further we can do work for improvement so we can use FMEA as continuous improvement and can use for comparison of results before and after the action. Six sigma helps us to eliminate the product defect, process failure which can be internal as well as external. FMEA helps us to identify the process failure that is going to impact a customer, product . Like Six Sigma, FMEA helps us to access every step and its impact on customer and project team can easily identify by calculating RPN number that Occurrence have the biggest impact. in other words we can say that, the ability of FMEA to measure the impact on the customer or outcome by any failure is inline with the improvement method which is driven by Voice of Customer and is the focus area of any Six Sigma DMAIC Project. FMEA can be interrelated in different phases during any DMAIC Project. During Measure Phase FMEA can be used to identify what can go wrong with the process and can do prioritization to focus of a DMAIC Project and helps the team in right direction to collect the data for its process. Oonce FMEA is created , the team can focus to mitigate the failure areas During Analyse Phase, FMEA tells us where to look for the root causes as it tell us failure points in the process although FMEA is not a tool which is used to identify root causes but it tells us the focus area to find out root causes of failure. During Improve Phase , FMEA helps us to examine process improvement . this helps to identify corrective , preventive action whcih can be used to eliminate the failure. During our Measure, Analyse, Improve phase of the project , FMEA is formed with the result of brainstorming because we dont have any quantitative data, so now after taking c/m in improve phase, FMEA can be updated in Control Phase on the base of real data and we can compare results of before and after c/m and this result will be helpful to us for continuous improvement.
  6. Six Sigma methodology can be implemented in every industry. The structure followed five important phases - DMAIC, in which output of one phase is the input of next phase. It is a top driven approach and it needs commitment from top management for the successful implementation and desired results. Six Sigma professional insist on Z Score during measure phase even though there is well established process performances. Z Score tell us about errors within the system or in other words we can say that it tells us about the number of standard deviation present between the mean and specification limit. For any organisation it is very big challenge to define definition of defects as they have different processes and defects changes from process to process. for example in purchase it may be lead time failure, In fiance it may be vendor payment, in sales it may be not achieving sales target, on shop floor it may of not achieving quality objectives. Now the biggest challenge here to compare performance of all these processes as defects are defined in different units. Here comes Z score in picture which is common plateform that is used to compare performance of all processes and find out on which process we should work to improve it further. Higher the Z Score indicates that there are more number of standard deviations within specification limits and the mean value is far away from outlying limit. which means that majority of the results lies nearby average value and process is capable and stable both at the same time. Lower Z score indicates that there is less number of standard deviation present or there is presence of variance in output. and presence of variance indicates that product or service quality can change or fluctuate from its defined value which leads to dissatisfaction of customer. Z score helps a company to ensure the quality of its output and enables the organization to workout for the poor processes in case of any undesired result. Z Score is very useful and helps the six sigma professional to make comparison during measure and control phase to highlight where improvements can be made .
  7. Central Limit Theorem states that distribution of sample averages will tend towards a normal distribution as the sample size increases or in other words we can say that irrespective of shape of distribution of population , the distribution of average values of sample drawn from that population will tend toward a normal distribution as the sample size grows. Because of the CLT we can use average of small samples to evaluate any population using the normal distribution. We can see practical application during election . Any time when we see polling results on the news along with confidence interval, it gives an appeal to the central limit theorem.it tells us that larger the sample, better the approximation and this we can see from news channel to channel that sample sizes are different and results changes accordingly. from this we can guess how an election will turn out. We take a poll and find out that in our sample how much % of people would like to vote a candidate over another candidate. We have taken a small sample over a large population but as per Central Limit Theorem if we ran poll over and over again, the resulting guesses would be normally distributed or in other words we can say that we will have a clear picture around the large population and can guess about the winning candidate. So if we take large sample size and repeat again and again we will have a clear idea about the large population.
  8. Before Analyzing The NPV calculator, let us first understand what NPV is all about: NPV stands for Net Present Value which is one of Discounted Cash Flow Techniques which were developed to take account the time value of money and to improve the accuracy of cash project evaluations. in simple words we can say that NPV is the difference of present value of cash ouflow and future value of cash inflow over a period of time. NPV consists of: finding the present value (PV) of each cash flow, discounted at an appropriate percentage rate. finding the NPV by adding the discounted net cash flow to determine whether the project is acceptable or not. If two or more projects having positive NPV then the one which is of higher NPV is a more likely choice. NPV can be positive, negative or zero. Projects with Positive NPV have more return or cash flow or in other words we can say that projects with positive NPV are profitable to the organization but projects with negative or zero NPV is loss to the organizations but it does not mean that we can not go with projects with negative or zero NPV. This will be explained further. Lets understand the calculator with the given values in the question: Future Cash Flow: Amount given is 50000 which is an estimated value when the investment done for the project. Cash flow is the amount which is the increase or decrease in the amount of money for any business. or in other words its the company's ability to create value for shareholders which is determined by its ability to generate positive cash flow. For any organization its very important to have good Cash Flow, Profit and Return of Investment(ROI). Any organization can survive with less profit and ROI but it cant go with poor cash flow or if there is no cash flow then it may close down the business in future. Rate of interest of discount rate: it is the expected rate of interest to compute the present value which is 8 % in above example. discount rate is company specific because its related to how the company gets its funds. It is the rate of return that the company expect. Time Period: this is the time period after which the cash flow is expected. In above example this is of 2 years. Initial Investment: This is the amount which is invested initially that is expected to generate future cash flow. in above example this is 42867. in above example when we put all values in calculator we see that NPV comes zero. but it does not means that zero NPV indicate no value zero NPV means that investment earns a rate of return equal to discount rate. Because NPV is the measure of wealth creation relative to the discount rate. In above example we should go with this project as this project gives a huge increase in employee satisfaction scores and corporate responsibility visibility for this company. in above example we have good cash flow which is very good for the organization but has zero NPV. Sometimes we select projects even negative NPV for example when we are going to buy a new car then we know that after so many years residual value will be less when we sell it. but still we buy because things like bus or any cab fairs that we are not going to pay now after buying a car and now we can drive anywhere ,we can go anywhere , there will no need to wait over stations or bus stands so time also saving, so we buy new car when we consider all factors although we know that residual value of car is less. Another example is that Facebook bought what's app and Instagram yet both are not still profitable because they know if they don't then Google might buy both and get more users on What's App and Instagram. So Facebook has to pay to avoid the user churn. Another example is of safety equipment used in industries, they all have almost negative NPV but still are used because they are important to ensure people are not getting injured or killed. Similarly we can select project with Zero NPV because: Zero NPV increase revenues despite not increasing profits. because shareholders look to revenue growth as an indicator of financial growth. It may involve social benefits that will increase brand value of the organization. it may be a part of legal or regulatory requirements. it may change in the economic cycle which will lead to project to a positive one. As stated in the example it may give a huge increase in employee satisfaction scores and corporate responsibility visibility for this company.
  9. Before analyzing the Takt Time calculator let us understand first what Takt Time is all about. Takt Time: This is the rate in time per unit at which the process must complete units in order to achieve the customer demandime . It may computes as take Time = Time available/Number of units to be produced Takt time is basically a time based measure which is sometimes confused with cycle time. Cycle time is total time taken to complete the work. for any work task at a station cycle time must be less than or equal to takt time. Available time does not include luches, breakdown, and planned downtime. So to meet the demand takt time can be reduced if there is any breakdown or downtime. for example in car manufacturing industry , lets assume daily car production target is 500 in two shifts of 960 minutes. Lets not include of lunch, break so we have 900 minutes to produce 500 cars. SO takt time is : 900/500 = 1.8 minutes or 108 sec which means in every 108 seconds one car must be out form shop floor. lets assume demand is increased to 800 cars in a day in festive seasons then takt time will be reduced , revised takt time is now = 900/800 = 1.12 minutes or almost 68 sec. we have seen that takt time has been reduced as demand increased , so in every 68 sec car must be out form shop floor and any activity at a particular station which is defined must be completed before takt time. or in other words cycle time at every station should be equal or less than takt time to meet the requirement. it may be possible that we have to deploy extra manpower, processes to reduce the cycle time at station to meet our takt time. Similarly example can be seen in any industry like, foods, beverages , air conditioning, their demands fluctuates throughout the year so on forecasting bases takt itme can be increased or decreased and planning of manpower and other item can be done in advance which will be helpful in cost saving for the organization also. For example demand is not there and organization has maintained its takt time of 68 sec to deliver cars by investing on extra machines, overtime, extra manpower which is a waste for the organization as it leads to high inventory of finished good for which organization needs more space which is also a wasteful activity and loss to the organization. Lets understand with calculator: 1. Total customer: this is the daily customer demand which changes from industry to industry like automobile, four wheeler, two wheeler, heavy commercial vehicle, daily consumer goods industry, . this is a foretasted demand which is derived from its yearly plan which is based on its previous history and its upcoming plan to the market as per the market. it may vary throughout the year eg in case of icecream which is more consumed in summer time than the winter time. Same is with automobile industry where demand is more in case of festive seasons. For example we have a demand of 1000 bikes in a day. 2. Production Time : this is the time available for production for example if any industry operates in 2 shifts then it will be 2*8*60 = 960 minutes and in case of 3 shifts then it will be 3*8*60 = 1440 minutes. For above example lets suppose we have two shifts of total time is 960 minutes. 3. Break time: this time is break time for lunch, tea in shifts and to calculate Takt Time, this time excluded from production time so we assume our total break time for lunch & in two shift is 90 minutes then we have available time is only 960-90= 870 minutes. means we have only 870 minutes to produce 1000 bikes as per our example so our takt time will be : 870/1000 = 0.87 minutes or 52 sec. as now we have available time is 870 minutes. 4. Down time: this may be planned or unplanned and to calculate takt time , down time must be excluded as during this time is not used for production. So if we exclude downtime then our takt time will be reduced. Suppose our total downtime is 70 minutes so now total available time is 870 - 70 = 800 minutes to produce 1000 bikes. so revised takt time is : 800/100 = 0.8 minutes or 48 sec which is less than before , so to meet this target we have to deploy extra manpower of increase speed of line and reduce cycle time at every station to finish the defined work to match the demand. takt time changes with demand and total time availability. it is a very simple concept which gives us production stability by limiting overproduction and stabilizes the system. As we have seen in our example also it prevent us to build up inventory which is an unnecessary waste for any organization.
  10. Cost of poor quality includes any cost that would not be expended if quality were perfect. Total quality cost includes below all four cost: 1. Prevention Cost: cost incurred to prevent the occurrence of Non conformance in the future. for example: marketing, purchasing, operations 2. Appraisal Cost: cost incurred in measuring and controlling current production to ensure conformance to requirement, for example purchasing appraisal cost, operation appraisal cost 3. Internal failure cost: cost generated before a product is delivered to as a result of NC to requirements. for example rework, repair, reinspection, scrap. 4. External failure cost: cost generated after a product is delivered as a result if NC to requirements. for example: return goods, warranty claims, recall cost, penalties, lost sales. now lets see the example in the cost calculator: 1. No of defects identified internally : 20 2. Avg rework cost per defect is : 50 so total internal failure cost will be : 50*20 = 1000 3. No of defects identified externally : 10 4. Avg rework cost per defect is : 100 5. Recall cost is : 5000 so the total external failure cost will be : 10*100+5000 = 6000 So total cost of the poor quality will be sum of both internal and external failure that is 1000+6000 = 7000. No lets understand the problem with the example in automobile industry. Toyota & Lexus recalled around 1.7 million cars with deadly Takata Air bags that could explode. so for Takata total failure cost will be the sum of internal and external failure. internal failure cost is to reinspect all air bags before supply to Toyota and solve the problem and eliminate the root cause of the problem of deadly airbags. on the other hand external cost includes penalties by Toyota. Similarly cost of poor quality for Toyota is internal and external both. Internal failure cost includes rework, reinspection for all air bags and scrap in case of faulty. external cost is recall cost of all 1.7 million cars to recheck and recheck the faulty air bags. The most expensive quality costs are from non conformance detected by customer. In addition repair, replacement cost loss, any company loses the customer goodwill and their reputation is damaged when the customer relates his experience to others.
  11. A Toll Gate review, as the name suggests itself that its a check point in a DMAIC/DMADV or any six sigma project at which various team members organise a meeting and determine whether the work has been completed or as per plan and whether we have achieved our objective or not. Toll gate reviews are generally carried out at the end of each phase in DMAIC /DMADV project to check all defined objectives for the project to succeed. Toll gate review is a well.planned and standardized series of reviews at the end of each phase in which we have a set of questions and check points to proceed further. Without achieving our defined criteria we are not allowed to move to next phase. There are various tools which are used to carry out toll gate review: 1. Check sheet 2. list of Milestones 3. Project deliverable documents The toll gate review process includes a set of questions which is to be answered at the end of each phase. Following are the objectives to complete a Toll gate review : 1. Standardized evaluation of each phase before proceeding further in next phase. 2. To verify if the project reaches the expected output, whether it is completed or not 3. To validate whether the planning is good enough to face the next phase and to work as per defined standard. 4.to limit the business and project to risk 5. To make future phases easier by verifying information 6.to find out whether they have fulfilled all criteria which are defined in previous phase to go forward in next phase. 7. To give recommendations to the dicision maker whether the project can step forward or not. 8. To find out the projects output for the organisation 9. To discuss and document all the knowledge areas 10. To give awareness to the team and the organisation regarding importance of investing time and resources in a well defined planning. 11. To access the deliverables performed during the phase. 12. To give the decision makes a set of information that has a known degree of uncertainty 13. To reduce the final investment risk. This review is basically performed by a master black belt or quality council. It should also be attended by Green belt, black belt and project champion and sponsor or other member as per requirement.
  12. Regression Analysis is a technique that typically uses continuous predictor variable to predict the variation in a continuous response variable. R - Square or co-efficient of determination is used to find out how well our model fits the data points or in other words it is used to explain how good our model when compared to base model. Range of R - square varies form 0 to 1 where values closer to 0 means poor fit and values closer to 1 means perfect fit. Adjusted R - Square is used to find out how important is a particular feature to our model and to overcome the limitation of R- square as R - square can be increased artificially. it is used with multiple regression because unlike R - square , the adjusted co-efficient will increase For example: we are comparing a five independent variable model to one variable model and the five variable model has a higher r - squared. just compare adjusted R - square values to find out whether this model with five variable actually a better model or not Variable R - Square Value Adjusted R - Square 1. 70.1 71.2 2. 73.5 72.6 3. 79.5 78.5 4. 82.6 71.9 5. 85.7 70.8 In the example we have seen that Adjusted R - Squared value increases upto a certain point when the new term improves the model fit and decreases with each and every additional independent variable when the term does not improve the model fit by a sufficient amount. so we can use only three independent variable rather than five as adjusted R - square value starts decreasing after that so there will be no use to add further
  13. Nowadays artificial intelligence is on boom in every industry from automotive to service. It can affect business outcomes and can do more work in short time with accuracy than that work done manually with the help of workforce. For example in trading, share market calculations are calculated and forecasted within fraction of seconds, it will take some time if all goes manually. Similarly it can impact in automotive sector, manufacturing sector, food processing. Machine can handle more workload than humans and can deliver fast than humans if they starts to behave like humans then lot of workforce will be displaced and outcome of the business will be increased day by day and any organisation can deliver more products in market with the help of machines than manuals. Cost saving will be huge if work done by using artificial intelligence although there is need to spend more money initially to start work with artificial intelligence. Business outcome will be more accurate and precise. For example a machine is used to produce engine parts which is having many operation to. Finish the job, so by the programming in the machine, it is changing all tools automatically after every operation and a finished part with more accuracy and precision within short period of time comes out which is not possible manually. Another example in food industry of biscuits packing, sensor are there in packaging line, if there is any broken biscuit it will be sense by sensor and automatically thrown out from the packing line and ultimately customer will recieve good quality and if customers are satisfied with your quality then automatically your business will grow day by day.
  14. Lean is basically eliminating waste from your organisation. There are various tools which encourage very good scope of almost unending customization and improvements. Some of them are give below 1. Improve 5 S 2. Reduce 7 waste or reduce DOWNTIME which is a short form of 7 waste or Muda in the organisation. 3. Value Stream Mapping. 4. Work standardization 5. Heijunka 6. Kanban Pull system 7. SMED 8.Problem Solving /PDCA/PDSA 9. FMEA
  15. Control plan is a quality document which is part of PPAP and its a method for documenting all the functional elements in the process to assure quality standards are met for the desired product or output of that process. The best way to create a control plan is its development by the cross functional team, that has the understanding of the process which we are going to execute or controll. With the help of CFT, we can identify opportunities for improvement. Control plan is more than just a document, it is that plan which is created by or developed by the CFT team to control the process form input to output and ensure that the process produces quality output/products that meet the customer requirement. CFT team should consider observation/output/know-how from following to create a good control plan. We should consider process flow diagram to consider each step involved in the process to control it Consider the output and previous know -how from DFMEA Consider the output and previous know how-how from PFMEA Consider quick learning form previous similar parts, processes Do design review Knowledge of the team about the process and part or output Consider special characteristics Control plan must be living document because all the information and problem history changes throughout the life cycle of the process. We should continuously update control plan as per input form any process step or something new happened which was not there earlier.
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