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About RaghavendraRao

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    Quality Operations - Bangalore

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  • Name
    Raghavendra Rao A
  • Company
    First American India
  • Designation
    Associate Specialist - QMS

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  1. Yes zero defects is achievable for short span of time but may not be reality in a long run. It also depends on the criticality of operations and the need of the zero defect. If the criticality is high and zero defects is the need of operation from all stakeholder point of view, then zero defects can be made a reality.
  2. ARMI is a project management tool which is used to plan support required for project various stakeholders. This includes four level of support, Approver, Resource, Member, Interested party. Approver is one who signs of the project and help move it forward. Resources are those who contribute their skills to the project where as members are those who work for the project and interested party are those who need to know about the project. RACI is also a model that stands for Responsibility, Accountability, Consultation, and Informed from project stakeholder expectation. Approver is equivalent to accountable, resource is equivalent to consultation, and interested part is equivalent to inform. But member cannot be said as equivalent to responsible, as responsible by itself indicates the ownership to execute, whereas member do not really brings out that clarity. Also resource though are the ones which bring in skills to the project, but its not clearly highlighted where as Consultation in itself indicates it’s a expert who will support the project by the skill. So May be RACI which gives clear definition of Roles may be better than ARMI which is little ambiguous.
  3. First possibility is to explore and see if the characteristics of this new product be benchmarked against any existing products. Also exploration can focus on arriving at optimal levels for these characteristics during design of the product itself. Design Of Experiments can be explored if applicable for the scenario to arrive at specification limits for optimal performance of the product. During customer voice gathering focus can be on finding out expected performance of the product, which during designing can be converted to quantified characteristics which can produce the expected experience for the customer. To make this process of defining specification limits for characteristics of an innovative new product effective, focus on vision of the product, derive business objectives from the vision, further derive operational objectives of critical characteristics required for the product and further explore on the specification limits for the product.
  4. Rolled Throughput Yield is the product of yield at every stage of the process. It provides the probability of producing defect free outcome in a process with multiple steps. 100 percent Rolled Throughput Yield does not indicate that process is efficient. Rolled Throughput Yield does not consider the rework associated in the process, it only accounts if the process steps have produced good outputs. So there would be hidden waste in the form of rework which makes system inefficient. First Time Right yield would be useful to analyze the efficiency of the system as it accounts for rework in the process.
  5. Taking process performances samples over different time zones will help to increase possibility of getting natural performance of the process. Educating the people involved on the impact of indulging with natural process performance of the process would also help. Subject Matter Experts assessment of the process performance for any flaws involved in natural flow of process can also help neutralize the process. Benchmarking the process performance against similar industry processes will help to understand the natural flow of process. Sampling process outcomes from area of experienced professional’s area also will help. Even benchmarking similar processes within organization will help to neutralize the effect. Monitor the process for sudden spike or fall in performance and analyze the reasons for this sudden change in process performance also will provide good insight in to the possibility of unnatural process.
  6. Coefficient of Variation (CV) is used to compare variability between different measures. Coefficient of variation is the ratio of standard deviation to mean values. CV helps to assess the variability between tests conducted. Is sample X has 10% CV against sample Y which has 15% CV, then sample Y is having higher variance completed to sample X in relation to their mean. CV comes in handy in cases where the samples under comparison have mean values of different range. In this case just going by standard deviation may not provide better insight, so CV values will give better perspective as they account ratio between standard deviation and mean. One point to consider is CV will help only in case of positive values of ratio data, it will not be meaningful in case of interval scales like temperature measures in Celsius or Fahrenheit.
  7. Primary limitation of FMEA as risk assessment method is subjectivity involved in assessing severity, occurrence and detectability. Though various industries have established the criteria to rate these parameters to arrive at Risk Priority Number, while the assessment is done for these parameter its largely dependent on the experience and perception of the assessor which would introduce subjectivity in to this assessment. Also while potential failure modes are assessed this methodology does not provide clear guidance to make sure that all possible failure modes are explored. It will again be dependent on the expert to assess all possible failure modes. Also this tool does not help expose potential future failure, apart from those that can be anticipated based on expert experience. FMEA also do not draw boundary in terms of scope of exercise, so they is possibility of too much information gathered and directionless to address all failure modes. Also other area in which FMEA can be misused is not having regular refinement of the FMEA would make it disconnected from current reality which is changing always.
  8. Customer Relation Management in the context of my organization which is in to providing Information Technology to Insurance business of our mother organization is as follows. From IT team we have our IT director who is the representative interacting with IT director from onshore, who will interface with the Business director. This business director is the Customer Relation Manager who interacts between business and IT team. Here Customer Relation Management is a connecting bridge between business and IT team to bridge any gaps in communication and to make sure that customer needs are worked upon effectively. In case of telecom sector Customer Relation Management covers on call support to help customer with any issues faced at any point of time. Also in case of privileged customers there are special contact personnel engaged to address any special needs of these customers. In case of retail industry customer relationship management is about closely working with the customer and helping build business on regular basis. Customer Relation Management also owns the responsibility of exploring on the innovation and its needs based on market needs.
  9. Cycle time is the time taken for execution of the process, point when work starts until the product is ready for delivery, whereas lead time is the end to end time from point where customer gives the order till customer gets the good or services. One of the confusing aspects is to choose the point of customer request initiation as that is the point where cycle time starts, in cases of multiple stakeholders involved, choosing this key point would be confusing point. Cycle time also is looked at as the time taken for completion of every key step in the process, this also adds to confusion. Inclusion of waiting time as part of cycle time is another confusion point. In case where customer is actively involved in the services process, where the customer reviews and provides continuous feedback then the lead time will be tricky to measure, as scope of the services may undergo modifications.
  10. Improvement is a mindset not just for work force but for management included. Quality focus and productivity focus should be inculcated in to habit of everyone. Inclusion of everyone in this culture building process is the key. Goal setting should be cautiously handled only until it's a motivator for everyone. Management can take its vision, mission, objectives and goal little seriously in terms of what it takes for them to be part of this journey and drive it. Management should lookout for ways to lead with examples so that workforce follows them with will. Management should design the system which simply provides career path for people to drive them with purpose and passion in the process achieving the quality and productivity. Management should make sure that the big picture of where does the contribution of people fit in for end users be made known so that it helps people build the best for users and also appreciate the fact of being part of bigger purpose in life. It's heavily management's initiative.
  11. Fishbone diagram is misused in the scenarios where process experts are not involved to bring out true causes of the effect. In case is all the required stakeholders from affected area are not involved then there is possibility of misrepresentation of facts in fishbone diagram. Selection of main bones of the fishbone analysis, key categories to analyze the problem if not done effectively then it leads to misuse. While the root cause is arrived at when a category of cause is analyzed if a detailed 5 why analysis is not done to arrive at core root cause then that leads to misuse as well. Another key thing to remember is correlation does not mean causation. So some in-depth thought process is not to arrive at appropriate causes of the problem.
  12. Data segmentation is about breaking up larger data sets in to smaller ones of logical groups, based on specific parameter to help in focused analysis. Since data segmentation helps in categorizing similar data sets, It helps to focus down root causes of the problem to specific category of data, avoiding the possibility of inter influence of root causes. If different segment of data are involved in the target set, there is possibility of bias on the root causes of the problem, leading to improper diagnosis of the problem. Data segmentation also focusses on the accuracy of the data, which makes it a perfect scenario for perfect root cause analysis of the problem. Data segmentation also helps in breaking up of the complex problem in to manageable and uniform segments, facilitating effective root cause analysis.
  13. Prevention costs are related to training and proactive initiatives taken up to avoid any issues, Appraisal costs are those associated with the reviews, inspection and audits, internal failure costs are those related to failure happening at supplier end and external failure costs are those that are realized at customer end. Achieving proper equilibrium among these goes hand in hand with the maturity of the system. There is a need to strike an equilibrium among between these costs. For a system starting its maturity journey key focus would be on prevention and appraisal costs to in turn have optimal internal failure and external failure costs. In the beginning of process maturity prevention costs and appraisal costs would be varied based on how failure costs are trending. As the system matures, prevention costs should be primary focus and appraisal costs and failure costs should get lean. In case of external failure cost being high, all other three costs need to be increased to make sure external impact is reduced. Approach to reach the best scenario is to focus on Quality Improvement programs, where people, process and technology are put in to efficient use. For this system maturity initiatives like CMMi, Agile approach and other suitable frameworks can be used. For solving critical quality problems Six sigma methodology can be put in place. To improve involvement of people at all level, KAIZEN programs can be looked at. As the system matures, all the costs gets reduced to optimal level. Best scenario would be to have zero external failure cost, low tolerance to be set for internal failure rate based on feasibility in the process and customer acceptance. Prevention cost to be kept at an optimal level considering the new process and people inducted in to process. Appraisal costs should also be ideally zero as the system in matured and best one.
  14. Type 1 error is when Null is true but gets rejected, type 2 error is when null is false but gets accepted. When a producer becomes a consumer then type 1 and 2 error contexts will change. In case if competent candidate is rejected then type 1 error occur, where as if the incompetent candidate is hired then type 2 error.
  15. 8 disciplines of problem solving is a systematic approach of problem solving. Which encompasses establishing team, describing the problem, containment action identification, root cause identification, corrective action identification, and validation of corrective action, prevention of recurrence, verifying the solution and congratulating the team. 8D will be handy in situations that needs immediate attention, like critical customer complaints. 8D also can come in handy in situation where a six sigma project solution need to be validated or piloted, as validating interim containment action is key aspect of 8D.
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