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Venugopal R

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Venugopal R last won the day on October 13

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About Venugopal R

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    Advanced Member

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    Benchmark Six Sigma
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    Principal Consultant, MBB

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  1. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Let me start with a quick brush up of RPN as used in regular FMEA exercise. RPN stands for ‘Risk Priority Number’, which is obtained as the product of the ratings for Severity, Occurrence and Detectability RPN = S x O x D, where S, O and D are the rating for Severity, Occurrence and Detection, as obtained in a FMEA exercise. The ratings for these parameters are to be assigned by a cross functional team, using the rating guidelines. The RPN so calculated is based on the team’s decision for assigning the rating.
  2. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R When we have to compare the averages for two samples, it could be for different reasons: 1. To estimate whether two existing populations are different with respect to their average values of the characteristics of interest. Examples: To compare the average life span of bulbs produced by two different companies Average marks scored by male students vs that of female students 2. To estimate whether the effect of some change on a given population is significant or not. Examples: Performance of
  3. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R One of the main intent for executing a project using the six sigma methodology is to guide a team through a disciplined approach to solve a problem in a highly objective manner. Various terminologies have been coined to reinforce the disciplined approach. “Process Door” and “Data Door” are terms used to broadly classify the approach to be used during the Analyze phase. Ironically, though one of the approaches is termed as “Data Door”, it does not mean that the “Process Door” will not use Data! Effectiveness and Efficiency Fir
  4. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R When we want to study the relationship of an outcome based on one factor, like a simple linear regression, we would obtain a relationship model with a certain level of accuracy. If we enhance the model by adding another relevant factor (dimension), we can expect the accuracy of the prediction to increase. However, if we keep on increasing the number of dimensions, from a certain threshold onwards, we will see the accuracy would actually start decreasing, unless we keep increasing the quantum of data substantially. The term “Curse
  5. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R A Project Manager is often faced with the challenge of balancing a project amongst multiple constraints, the most popular ones being Scope, Timelines, Cost. Many a time, the competitiveness of a project depends upon one or more of these factors. One of the key responsibilities in Project Management is to coordinate with Project team and the connected stakeholders to successfully manage the variabilities of these elements and their interrelated effects. The 3 elements of this ‘trinity’ are represented using a triangle as below:
  6. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) came out with ‘New Seven QC tools’ in the late 1970s; and Interrelationship Diagram was included as one of them. These tools were also called as ‘Management & Planning’ tools. While dealing with multiple factors that are believed to be impacting a problem, the Interrelationship diagram serves as a useful tool to pictorially represent the 'Cause & Effect' relationships among all the factors and also help to visualize the relative extent of impact of the factors towards the u
  7. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Customization and Economies of Scale are apparent contradictions. Economies of scale, as the term suggests, is possible only with high volume business. Traditionally, when we think of high volumes, we associate it with standardized products. However the modern customers are looking for customized products, services and solutions, thus posing the challenge to companies to find ways of addressing this contradiction. I am discussing a few examples below, seen as efforts to address both these objectives: 1. Flight pass
  8. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The concept of ShuHaRi has come from Japanese Noh theatre, which is a form of Japanese dance drama, performed since 14th century. “Shu” means “Obey”, “Ha” means “Break Away” and “Ri” means “Separate”. This is a model used to illustrate a road map that a learner has to adopt, once he (or she) decides to take up a training, till gaining mastery. This technique though evolved from Japanese theater, was put to good use in martial arts. The concept is very logical and can be compared to many other similar thought processes.
  9. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R HiPPO is an acronym believed to be originated from Microsoft and it stands for “Highest Paid Person’s Opinion”! However, this topic is not new at all and has been a subject of discussion across companies for ages. A person holding a very senior position could intentionally or unintentionally influence decisions in an organization. This could result in diverting the decision-making away from a team and fact based exercise. The onus of avoiding such undesirable incidents rests with the leaders of the organization. Why wo
  10. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Background Right from the days we heard of ‘7 QC tools’ we have come across numerous tools that help in catalyzing and facilitating a team-thinking process. Many of the TQM and Lean Six Sigma tools continue to enhance this intent. The IPO-FAT is a tool that helps organize a team’s thoughts to identify potential project opportunities for a given Business Process. Most of us would be familiar with the SIPOC tool that is used during the Define Phase of a Lean Six Sigma Project. One of the important uses of SIPOC is to identify t
  11. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R What is Multicollinearity? When we want to study the relationship one dependent variable with several independent variables (predictors), Multiple Regression is used. The ideal situation is where we have all the independent variables in such a manner that there is no correlation between any two of them. We say Multicollinearity is prevalent when a high correlation exists between any of the chosen independent variables. Y = β0 + β1X1 + β2X2 + β3X3 + …... In the above equation, we expect relationship between Y and X1, Y an
  12. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The term “Andon” in Japanese means ‘paper lantern’. It is believed that such lanterns were used for providing a visual signal as well to communicate a message over a long distance. The term “Andon” was first used by Toyota for referring to any system or method used for signalling. Andon could be a signal in the form of visual, audio, symbolic or text to provide a notification to the concerned personnel in a workplace or even a public place, as a caution or information about a regular or irregular condition that may require attenti
  13. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The service disciplines as part of the Queuing Theory are applicable to many situations, but very extensively used for CPU scheduling algorithms. 1. FIFO (First In First Out) is a very popular method, also referred as FCFS (First Come First Serve) algorithm in CPU scheduling. FIFO concept is commonly applied on most queues in daily life, say a ticket counter or grocery store billing counter. FIFO is important as part of inventory management, as we would generally like to use or sell materials and products before they become aged,
  14. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The term Heijunka has emerged from the Toyota Production System and aims to level the irregularity in Production. The Lean Lexicon defines Heijunka as “Levelling the type and quantity of production over a fixed period of time, which enables production to efficiently meet customer demands while avoiding batching and results in minimum inventories, capital costs, manpower and production lead time through the whole value stream”. Heijunka is a pre-requisite for the popular concept of JIT (Just-In-Time). Though Heijunka is referred to
  15. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Divergent & Convergent Thinking - Definition During divergent thinking, we look for several potential ideas for a problem or solution and during convergent thinking we tend to focus on a specific idea or solution. For example, if we want to think about increasing the sales of a product, we would start with a divergent thinking and explore various potential opportunities such as expanding market, adding more product types, improving features, optimizing price, placing more promotional programs and so on. However, once we assess
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