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Venugopal R

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Venugopal R last won the day on October 13 2020

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About Venugopal R

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    Advanced Member

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    Benchmark Six Sigma
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    Principal Consultant, MBB

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  1. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The Fishbone diagram, which is also known as ‘Cause & Effect Diagram’ or Ishikawa diagram is a very popular tool used for identifying potential root causes. Most Busines Excellence professionals will need no introduction to this tool which is very widely used. The fishbone diagram leaves us with a list of potential root causes (also referred to as X factors) stratified under few headings. Dr. Ryuji Fukuda developed the method known as CEDAC, which is an acronym for ‘Cause and Effect Diagram with the Addition of Cards’. In this
  2. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R FMEA is a very popular tool used for Risk Analysis, whereas PDPC (Process Decision Program Chart) has been released by JUSE (Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers) as early as 1976. While the Process FMEA is useful to analyze the potential risks (failure modes) associated with a process, the PDPC is a tool that helps to assess the risks associated with a Project. The Process FMEA begins by listing the process steps and identifying the potential failure modes during each process step. Process FMEA has its inbuilt quantificatio
  3. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R “Acceptance sampling” refers to sampling methods used to take a decision on accepting or rejecting a lot. This method has been widely used as part of the ‘Incoming goods acceptance’ procedures for organizations that buy materials from suppliers or sub-contractors. However, the method is applicable to other areas as well, viz. Finished goods clearance, In-process acceptance. Some of the business examples where Acceptance Sampling may be applied: To evaluate the ‘Lots’ or ‘Batches’ of incoming components for a manufacturing
  4. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is defined as “the Hierarchical Decomposition of total scope of work to be carried out by a project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables” – PMBOK The concept of WBS has emerged from the PERT (Program Evaluation & Review Technique) by US Department of Défense. In 1987, the Project Management Institute (PMI) documented the WBS method for application on non-defense industries. WBS is an important tool as part of the project scope management. The
  5. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Lean Six Sigma and Business Excellence professionals often come across improvement projects that are important but sometimes difficult to justify the gains to get a CFO approval. A “Cost avoidance” related projects is perhaps one such situation. I recall a situation where the customer has a penalty clause if the Quality level of our output falls below 98%. For many years, we have been managing very well, barring some occasional blips and maintained Quality levels high enough to avoid the penalties. One fine day, the customer revises the SLA a
  6. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R While JIT (Just In Time) aims at improving operating efficiency, it is interesting to look at what may be considered as a contrary, i.e. “Just In Case”. Companies tend to keep excess stock of raw materials, just in case they run out. Rarely required items are kept just in case an order comes in suddenly. Materials are procured well in advance just in case there are delays on transportation or other reasons. If we look at most of the ‘Just-in-case’ situations, we would see many opportunities where we could move towards ‘JIT’. However, ma
  7. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The Context Model Cross Validation is a phrase that is used in the context of Machine Learning. In order to perform a Machine Learning exercise, we need a large numbers of historical data sets pertaining to the model. For example, a software company wants to know, of all the customers who used their trial version, how many are likely to get converted to paid version. They identify certain characteristics that may include some customer data and usage patterns for those who have registered as trial users – and which ones had conversion to
  8. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Let me start with a quick brush up of RPN as used in regular FMEA exercise. RPN stands for ‘Risk Priority Number’, which is obtained as the product of the ratings for Severity, Occurrence and Detectability RPN = S x O x D, where S, O and D are the rating for Severity, Occurrence and Detection, as obtained in a FMEA exercise. The ratings for these parameters are to be assigned by a cross functional team, using the rating guidelines. The RPN so calculated is based on the team’s decision for assigning the rating.
  9. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R When we have to compare the averages for two samples, it could be for different reasons: 1. To estimate whether two existing populations are different with respect to their average values of the characteristics of interest. Examples: To compare the average life span of bulbs produced by two different companies Average marks scored by male students vs that of female students 2. To estimate whether the effect of some change on a given population is significant or not. Examples: Performance of
  10. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R One of the main intent for executing a project using the six sigma methodology is to guide a team through a disciplined approach to solve a problem in a highly objective manner. Various terminologies have been coined to reinforce the disciplined approach. “Process Door” and “Data Door” are terms used to broadly classify the approach to be used during the Analyze phase. Ironically, though one of the approaches is termed as “Data Door”, it does not mean that the “Process Door” will not use Data! Effectiveness and Efficiency Fir
  11. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R When we want to study the relationship of an outcome based on one factor, like a simple linear regression, we would obtain a relationship model with a certain level of accuracy. If we enhance the model by adding another relevant factor (dimension), we can expect the accuracy of the prediction to increase. However, if we keep on increasing the number of dimensions, from a certain threshold onwards, we will see the accuracy would actually start decreasing, unless we keep increasing the quantum of data substantially. The term “Curse
  12. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R A Project Manager is often faced with the challenge of balancing a project amongst multiple constraints, the most popular ones being Scope, Timelines, Cost. Many a time, the competitiveness of a project depends upon one or more of these factors. One of the key responsibilities in Project Management is to coordinate with Project team and the connected stakeholders to successfully manage the variabilities of these elements and their interrelated effects. The 3 elements of this ‘trinity’ are represented using a triangle as below:
  13. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) came out with ‘New Seven QC tools’ in the late 1970s; and Interrelationship Diagram was included as one of them. These tools were also called as ‘Management & Planning’ tools. While dealing with multiple factors that are believed to be impacting a problem, the Interrelationship diagram serves as a useful tool to pictorially represent the 'Cause & Effect' relationships among all the factors and also help to visualize the relative extent of impact of the factors towards the u
  14. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Customization and Economies of Scale are apparent contradictions. Economies of scale, as the term suggests, is possible only with high volume business. Traditionally, when we think of high volumes, we associate it with standardized products. However the modern customers are looking for customized products, services and solutions, thus posing the challenge to companies to find ways of addressing this contradiction. I am discussing a few examples below, seen as efforts to address both these objectives: 1. Flight pass
  15. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The concept of ShuHaRi has come from Japanese Noh theatre, which is a form of Japanese dance drama, performed since 14th century. “Shu” means “Obey”, “Ha” means “Break Away” and “Ri” means “Separate”. This is a model used to illustrate a road map that a learner has to adopt, once he (or she) decides to take up a training, till gaining mastery. This technique though evolved from Japanese theater, was put to good use in martial arts. The concept is very logical and can be compared to many other similar thought processes.
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