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  1. Today
  2. Zero Defect - Debate

    In favour of ‘ZD is achievable’ I would like to re-write the highlights of the article I had enclosed in my previous post. Called as Intelligent fault correction and self-optimizing manufacturing systems (IFACOM) and supported by the European Commission, the researchers are developing an advanced real-time process control system focused especially on high-precision, high-value and high-performance parts as well as custom-designed components. Combining artificial intelligence and innovative sensors, the system seeks to overcome the long-standing issue of production defects, which cost manufacturers millions of euros a year in waste, production reruns and part redesigns. Many of those suggesting ZD is not achievable have argued that even ‘slight variances in materials, components or production processes can cause an entire production run to be defective. While it does not affect the quality of the parts reaching end users, as strict quality checks are conducted on all batches after production’. The solution developed by IFACOM, termed as Real-time monitoring and defect detection; is a system designed to automatically monitor the entire factory-floor manufacturing process, from the quality of raw materials entering the production line to variances in tools and processes during each production run. As a closed-loop system, controllers are immediately alerted to any defects, and changes can be made on the fly to eliminate the source of the problem. The approach has the potential to eliminate scrap by detecting production errors instantly, eliminating the propagation of defects along the process stages. Idea is to check quality continuously during production, not only afterwards. The system also incorporates knowledge-based loops, providing information and feedback to other levels of the manufacturing chain, such as design and product development, to help minimize all failures by continuous optimization of the production process and the manufacturing system. To test the system, Italian machine tool manufacturer Alesamonti, the IFACOM technology has been implemented to detect faults in the production of parts for high-precision boring and milling machines. Hope all would agree that when we talk about ZD; we take into consideration the manufacturing process/activity involved and product, both of which should be defect free. Some of those who believe it is unrealistic have taken the debate beyond the realm of this definition. To say that a process cannot be defect free if it is detrimental to the environment or the competitor is able to produce with higher efficiency is unreasonable and unrelated. If we are manufacturing at zero defect and competitor does it too, how does it make ZD unachievable. There is conscious effort by Researchers to adopt Eco-friendly approach in all its latest developments. Also, I came across an argument which suggests “Sellers use the quote goods once sold will not be returned” because they do not trust their product. Now does that mean producer has little trust on its product?All will agree that this statement actually goes against the seller, yet he makes it, why? One has to consider the product in question for which statement is made…. perishable products with small shelf-life, delicate & fragile items are some of them. Amazon states that it takes back all its sold goods, but does that mean it should honour its statement even after one month of delivery or if broken by buyer’s mistake. If they don’t take back in these situations, should that mean ZD not achieved? For the links attached in support of ‘ZD is impractical’; I would say those are more of individualistic views and can be countered by many who believe it is achievable. It is more about one’s interpretation and acceptance of the feasibility of ZD. Major concern shown in the views against ZD is its desirability vs the cost-effectiveness/stress...whether it is prudent to go for ZD in all industries going by the costs and stress involved.It no way affirms that ZD is not achievable. After going through all the arguments in favour (to which I support) and against the possibility of achieving zero defects, I think we all believe that this is positive approach and should be pursued; the only difference is the interpretation and readiness to accept the idea of ZD. Our mindset currently does not accept the feasibility of zero defect stage but then 50 years back did we foresee a gadget like mobile phones. With latest technologies and structured systems, as professed by IFACOM and Lean Management programs “ZERO DEFECT IS ACHIEVABLE”.
  3. Six Sigma, professionals are known to have a knack of process improvement and removal of wastage. However, given the complexity of task that can be at hand, Six Sigma professionals are often categorised as having “Belts” indicating their level of competence in Six Sigma. While a Six Sigma Yellow Belt professional is considered to have a very basic understanding of Six Sigma Concepts, a Master Black Belt is considered to have a very strong level of competence in Six Sigma and coaches Green and Black belts. Most professionals either fall within Green belt or Black belt categories. Six Sigma Green Belt Certification Certified professionals typically understand Six Sigma concepts and are capable of executing projects in their functional area. They possess a thorough understanding of the Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control (D-M-A-I-C) methodology and lead process improvement initiatives. The Green Belt professionals perform most of the activities in a Six Sigma project including collecting information, performing tests and experiments and even seeing the projects through successful completion. They apply Root Cause Analysis (RCA) techniques to "go beyond the symptoms and diagnose the disease". They work under the guidance and supervision of a Six Sigma Black Belt Certified Professional. Six Sigma Black Belt Certified professionals typically lead Six Sigma projects across functions and supervise Six Sigma Yellow belt and Green Belt professionals. Apart from possessing all the qualities of a Green Belt such as knowing about DMAIC thoroughly, they are responsible for producing quantifiable results. Black Belt professionals have a deeper understanding of the Six Sigma tools and techniques. They are often expected to have a good understanding of Lean management, change management and stakeholder influencing.
  4. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Rajesh Thanks for your input Sir you mentioned that it will help in minimising variation, what elements a company wants and where does this minimum variation leads to?it leads to deliver good quality products or to achieve targets as per decided. Need to say Zero Defect is different for everyone, for example a production department has a target of machine efficiency of 85%,so for for the department zero defect is to achieve this 85%efficiency. If its not done why we using all techniques and there is no point remaining if improvements not done. We focus to achieve our target if 85% because we know can achieve it, it may be possible some breakdown happens, May be due to tool, due to machine, but we try to reduce all and try to achieve target of 85%,in this each and every supportive depth has their own target of downtime within 15%, so every department tries to maintain that and yes it has happened many times that production department achieves it's target otherwise delivery would have been failed and overall delay in all process. So for production department achievung the target is zero defect so zero defect is the way how we are doing interpretation of it. It doesn't mean that hive 100% in all cases, it changes from situation to situation, like in above example if any says he wants 100% efficiency of machine bit everyone knows it can't be possible 100% because there are losses involved directly or indirectly that's why targets are fixed which is achievable and some challenging. Same case with organisations targets of their revenue generation and profit making, they also decide on past experience and future expectation. So for them to achieve that target is ZD. And that's the point sir who would want a defective outcome so to stop defective outcome everyone will do some improvements and will ensure to deliver good products and delivery of good products leads to give good results and to meet targets as per decided. Another example I would like to give, a manufacturing company has a rejection target of 0.3% so for the company to achieve this target will be treated as zero defect in their own language. Company will do process improvement, try to maintain processes and many more to chic ethics because company knows that it can be achieved. In summary I would like to say zero defect is achievable and it is defined by everyone in their own language an depends how we are doing interpretation of it. This is possible by process re engineering, continous improvements, lean techniques an d much more... And sir, it is the demand of current industries setup to give best results and to achieve decided targets and to upgrade according to time to sustain in market. Nothing is going to achieve by making only desires to achieve of any thing.
  5. Yesterday
  6. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Vastupal Vashisth, I have never mentioned about anything about Process improvements being declared as management myth. Am Talking about the usage of the term "Zero Defect" . If all methodologies such as Six Sigma, lean techniques, and other methodologies talk about minimising variation, where is the need for this term to be highlighted and again say that this will help in reducing or minimising variation. This is what i refer here as management myth. This is a packaging technique to sell the idea so as to reach out to the employees of an oganisation. Am not saying this is a wrong way. It can provide the impetus to the team to do the process improvement initiatives, which is why management wants to have this , in my opinion. But does not mean that this will get converted into Zero defects ultimately. Hope this helps your questions/queries shooted By the way, Pls reread the URLs - they talk about the minimisation of defects and they do not dare to say about zero effects as the ultimate focus. It only talks about the desire to reach there(Zero defect). Ofcourse , everyone wants that way only. Who would want a defective outcome.
  7. Zero Defect - Debate

    This has been a very enthusiastic debate. I would like to give my concluding remarks based on all the inputs so far. It is very heartening to see that there are many proponents who strongly stick to the belief that zero defect is achievable. This is a positive mindset that deserves to be respected. Now, when someone says ZD is not achievable, one may interpret in two different ways. 1. The person doesn’t want to try enough and is trying to easily give up. No one wants to be identified like this…… or 2. The person is setting a standard for defining zero defects that it is not a target that can be reached in totality. Striving for ZD is an extremely important ambition and the right set of actions will take you very close to it. If I elaborate on the point no.2, the following perspectives emerge. Zero defect is not seen as a realistic achievement when: It is applied only for a specific product or activity for a certain period of time. The various wastes in the organization are not curbed, but the final output is termed zero defect. Certain process are proven to be defect free, using advanced techniques, mistake proofing etc., for reasonable time, but certain other processes generate RW and other wastes. There is another competitor who is able to produce with either higher effectiveness or higher efficiency. Even if the customer specifications are met, but the tolerances given by the customer are lower than 100% Quality. Many after effects emerge, that harm society over a period of time, e.g. environment pollution, e-Waste, pollution due to batteries, harm due to pesticides etc. (In many of the advancements that humanity has made, we have realized, sometimes after many years that we have released so much of adverse effects that harm the society). Finally, I would request all to think of Taguchi’s loss function, which explains the slightest deviation from the targeted value leads to loss for society. I am open to individually discuss further with anyone in this forum on this subject. Thanks for all the inputs and viewpoints. Best wishes!!
  8. Zero Defect - Debate

    Yes, agreed too! there so many friends who are posting that it is possible on mass level, but there is no real life example to prove it. Ultimately they are saying in between that companies are achieving by removing errors, but removing one or few errors step by step does not mean that there are no other waste/error. Even some time to remove one error some process/technology are introducing which itself has loop holes - like in ATM card now is chip base but that can copied/hacked even with the magnetic strip data from certain distance.
  9. Zero Defect - Debate

    Not agree with you sir,if you see other side of the picture there are various example, various processes and various industry and fields where ZD is achieved and people are working towards it. There is nothing impractical, it is achievable and various lean techniques and continous improvement, Process re engineering are some of methods by which organisation try to achieve it because they know they can achieve it and deliver best quality products to customers. You are mentioning that ZD is impractical and not achieved anyhow means everything that we are having with us is flowout with defects from companies. And these defects can be any sevierty. Then why anyone driving a car if he knows that it has any number of defects, why we are travelling through aeroplane when we know it has defects, it's a case of life and death. We know companies are working very hard towards safety of people and they are working meeting their standards and norms which is defined by regulatory bodies, ISO standards and they are ensuring that defects not pass to customers and they give best services to customers.
  10. Zero Defect - Debate

    Well Said Kavitha, ZD is a Possible by Continuous improvement in the Process, upgrading ourselves to latest technologies, motivating the Workmen, etc...
  11. Zero Defect - Debate

    100%right kavitha, ZD is possible by process re engineering, as well as by continous improvement, technology upgrading, focusing on work rather than on slogans...
  12. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Rajesh You mentioned that improve your process will minimise defects is management myth. I strongly disagree with you on this. Even the very basis of any organisation we call it as 5 S implementation, also helps to reduce and minimise defects and prevents us to produce wrong products and stops our failure in various ways. Improving the process is far beyond this which involves a lot of study, lot of technical sports, upgrading to latest technology. There are various industry around us where defects are minised and process improvement is one of the many reasons to deliver defect free products. Why every organisation is focusing on continous improvements which also applies on process also, then I think this will also be management myth. All ISO organisation, standards are focusing on this why?? This is not a management myth sir, this is what is something practical proved by leaders and organisations. You can see examples that there is need to change according to time and technology up gradation to latest techniques to be in the market. If any organisation does tune with latest trends they face a difficult time to sustain in market. See example of Nokia which was stuck with their own operating system but Android was going on in almost every mobile industry, in end it was take over by Microsoft and now they are coming g with android... And same case with blackberry phone. And also same case with hmt also. So it is very necessary to continue improve your process which lead to you get in tune with latest trends and be in market and make profits to grow in future although you need to invest a lot to apply this. If all these management myth then I think every manufacturing industry or any organisation will turn into a garage or some workshop in City where all are mixed and take a lot of time to do anything because nothing is defined properly, what, how, when, where to do any operation. Thanks for your feedback in url but if you see clearly all has mentioned about continous improvement to achieve better and better and achieve zero defects and ZD is different for everyone in their own terms and point of view.
  13. Last week
  14. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi vastupal vashisth Thanx..
  15. Zero Defect - Debate

    All, i have one doubt on this slogan. Why do retail products especially grocery items (in most cases) have this line in their cover - "Products/goods sold once cannot be taken back" . Does it mean that they anticipate some defects and therefore, tell this in advance before the customer comes back to them. Anyways this line is against the Consumer Protection Act of India (CPI). But this is what my thought on the defects aspect !! Remember am not worried about from whom this msg is coming - the manufacturer or retail wholesaler or whoever it is. But what sort of confidence that it would give to the customer. Is that a sort of disclaimer told surreptitiously?
  16. Zero Defect - Debate

    1. W.r.t Cars, in general, there are regulatory compliance rules (fit for use cases) for the car makers in a given geographical region. So if the car design does not comply to this, post the manufacturing and delivery (say in , hundreds of cars) then they are defective ones . I was actualy referring to some cases in the past, especially korean make cars which had fire problems. So certainly not talking about wear and tyre which is a different issue. Leaving this, even safety bag not opening on time in many cars is also a defective case. 2. W.r.t Electrical work, good comparison of house vs organisation.Good point indeed. In my opinion, Cheaper quality alone/lack of right manpower cannot be the culprit though they can play a major role . However even if we put a proper quality materials with right set of people, you would probably end up with less or very minimal mistakes and the therefore, the system will not be fool proof. In an organisation, maintenance issues will be there. How many times we would have seen, short-circuiting happening and how electrical work gets impacted when it is raining . For instance, why do EB department switches off the power, when there is torrential rain or wind ? Do they not have a fool proof system. For Wind, we can say it as special causes .Can we say that for rain (as a special cause)? We have Rainy seasons. At times even for short rains also, power goes off. So why is it. The fear for the worst and is not inclined to take risk assessment on the existing system. 3. You are right that people need to raise concerns, which means you are agreeing to the fact that ATM is no more zero defect as its being conveyed in this forum :-). Valid point - that bank might think its 100% free, if they are not aware of that. There has been concerns raised in the past by many customers and some had even gone to consumer courts to file cases against the banks (Deficiency of service category). But also the onus is on the bank to see how its systems behave and whether the ATM achieves its purpose or not. Now let us also see about the power fluctuations that happen during ATM withdrawal or other money transactional operations. Most important thing that an ATM should do when power goes off is to ensure that its customer's transaction state remains the same as what was before he/she started to do the transaction, during which time the power actually went off. This is the key aspect of ACID (rollback the transaction made if it was mnade in the system). It does not matter to the ATM, whether it is a fault in it or outside it (but which impacts it). It need to ensure that the customer money(transaction) is intact. That is an ATM's key functionality.
  17. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Vastupal Vashisth, My point is who does not want a zero defect- Do anyone (customer)would like to have a defective item? Why we stress on Zero defect, when thats the norm or expecation from a customer , in every spehere of life? Because we cannot do 100% right anything (human issue primarily!!) So comes the Zero defect concept . Zero Defect (ZD) does not mean we achieve zero defects through that, but is a focussed attempt to improve your process to ensure that our service or product is less defective(minimising defects). Thats why i call it as a management myth. Just look at the definitions and the views on ZD on each of these below URLs as well on what they tell about ZD and you will get a good view of things. They augument my views. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero_Defects https://www.simplilearn.com/concept-of-zero-defects-quality-management-article https://www.isixsigma.com/new-to-six-sigma/sigma-level/zero-defects-what-does-it-achieve-what-does-it-mean/
  18. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Rajesh, Thanks for your input. 1. Cars - Is there any news saying a brand new car within lets say, 50 kms wear and tear has issues like fires, etc.? No. It happens due to its rough handling or as part of its own wear and tear mechanism. 2. w.r.t electrical work - due to special causes, the variations in the process can happen. but it is not happening in all the process. The point here is if the builder uses low quality product, the defect can happen. Can you please compare the frequency of shocks at home material and with big big organisations? Good quality material, good manpower, high inspection rate, good quality assurance systems in place will eliminate the errors and the waste involved by achieving first time right concept. 3. ATM - Good narration. i)there are good security systems and mistake proofing enabled to reduce variations, waste and eliminate defects. ACID is a new term which i learnt. Thanks for it. But if no one has raised any concerns and no money actually detected from account, how will the bank be able to do continuous improvements? The bank might be in a position, that they think the process is 100% defect free. Also, power fluctuations happen, immediately the power generator starts and the service continues. Also the severe fluctuations is not in the organisations control, which is out of control. whatever is within control, the power backup is possible, and that is what we see in the ATM's as well. ii) Failures are often a stepping stone to success. We must have heard this. Yes. Often frequent trials help us implement lots of wonders. Human beings with proper training, continuous monitoring, regular assessments for failures and potential failures are studied to eliminate the defect. In summary, the zero defect is possible only with regular process re-engineering.
  19. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Kavitha That was a clever example which you quoted but my point is defects are not something which could crash aeroplanes but it could be a small crack in tyre which would also be a defect... I would quote the example as a defective one .. But here we are talking about defects which can be any number of minute errors whose impact might be nothing or minimum ... So if you are asking me can we avoid these every time, of course I can say absolutely possible and stay positive or think practically and say its other way around ...
  20. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Karthik You right
  21. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Rajesh Thanks for your input You mentioned that decide the best and work to achieve it, so what you call it, why you are working to achieve your best? What will you say if you achieve your best, what after then? I want to tell you because all these are targets that you decided and to achieve your targets is zero defect for you and that is what ZD is, who said you achieve 100%. It is different for everyone in his point of view. For example if production machine has a target to produce 5000 parts per shift so to achieve this targets daily is ZD for production members. It's not a management mith but is is reality because it can be achieved.
  22. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Kavitha, 1. You might be aware - how many branded cars - failed because of flawed design - we can count on ...issues on air bags, catching fires while driving .... all these sort of news ... 'N' number of issues we can bring on here ... 2. W.r.t electrical work- good point. Most of the focus would be given on the shocks which is understandable. The question is that it is not fool proof as you would have seen in quite a few houses. Also if we talk about the error proofing in term of switches, not sure if you correlate this with things like auto-tripping when short-circuit happens. Due to short-circuit, fires can happen. Short-circuit is not an uncommon phenomenon. We can talk a lot about other Electricity issues especially rain happens and it leaks in houses!! From another angle, i would put my statement on this. I understand that you probably quoted this as an example , which is fine for which i provided my response . In my opinion, Electrical work being done in a single house is like an operation. Because of manual involvement and monotonous work, the chance of error making is more and is bound to happen. We are tying to say zero defects in terms of providing a service through a process here. Please consider this case, for an apartment which has say 100 houses. Now wiring needs to be given for all the houses of the apartment. Can this be defect free ? In that case and in my opinion, the chances are extremely slim , considering the challenges that i aforementioned and the issues getting multiplied and therefore, the Electrician would not be able to provide a 100% defect free service. 3. When we talk about the ATM - we talk about only Money withdrawal (predominantly) - and talk about its accuracy and say its defect free !! Agreed - because that is very critical. Few important things we need to know a). So the capability level for this aspect is set at a high level . [The same applies as well for the security aspect also - always asking your PIN] b). # a indicates that it is operating at higher sigma level - the failure rates may be extremely low. So still does not rule out the error possibility c). Additionally let us see some potential defective areas in ATM i). Because we use only withdrawals(most of the people at most of the times, some also do cash deposits , available in some ATMs), we are not bothered/focussed about some of the other functionalities that ATM does. For instance, how many people would have made complaints to bank that while withdrawing money in ATM (and when power goes off) , they would not receive money on hand (from ATM) , but they would get an alert msg in their mobile that their money got debited. This is due to a failure in ACID property which is key to the synchronization between the ATM Server and the database. Ideally rollback of the transaction should have happened when power goes off [Atomicity,Consistency,Isolation and Durability - ACID]. This has happened a lot across India in various banks' ATMS. ii). Even recently, when Aadhar card was added as part of ATM , instead of 12 fields of Aadhar, only 11 were there in some ATMs of few renowned banks. The point am making here is that as we human beings just go and use to deposit or withdraw money, for which the capability level is very high. So we are not able to fathom out its error level. May be experts or we doing a Monkey testing , which is done by doing random inputs as part of testing, can give us more insight into this . We should not rather do this Monkey testing on our own.
  23. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Atul You said rightly, well explained example, I would like to add in this ZD is the way that we are doing interpretation of it, change from individual to individual, organization to organisations... We can achieve it
  24. Zero Defect - Debate

  25. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Sathya, So, you mean to say that out of 10 flight landings on a given day, we get one crash per day on a regular basis, because human can go wrong? Everyday, one patient dies of cardiac arrest when he had gone for a simple tonsillectomy procedure? Never, with regular practice, frequent upgradation of the system in terms of knowledge, technological advancements, etc, the errors are at the zero level. With continuous monitoring, application of process maps in order to eliminate the waste and minimise the defects, the zero defect concept is possible.
  26. Zero Defect - Debate

    Hi Vastu, 100% right.
  27. Consumer's risk

    Producer's risk - Good lot rejected due to sampling error.(Type I Error) Consumer's risk - bad lot accepted thinking it is good.(Type II Error) Rule : if d<=c, accept lot, else reject lot(c- acceptance number, d- defectives in sample) In summary, type I error is falsely inferring that something is there, when it is not present and type II is vice versa. As per the question, when the consumer rejects the bad lot, the producer's risk will increase. Its true. When the correct decision is not made on rejecting or accepting the lot, the consumer might be in risk if he selects a bad lot or producer will be in risk if the right lot is rejected. Eg. Type 1 - blood test wrongly detecting a disease when patient is actually not having. Type II - Blood test fails to detect when the patient is suffering. in another scenario, if the bad lot is selected by the consumer and gets affected, then the product in the market will lose its quality, brand name and its position. Hence the consumer's risk increases which also increases producer's risk. thanks Kavitha
  28. Consumer's risk

    The producer risk or type I error occurs when a true null hypothesis is rejected whereas the consumer risk or type II error occurs when a false null hypothesis is not rejected.Increase or decrease of one type error affects inversely on other type.But to control both together depends on sample size which is sometimes difficult to increase or decrease for a given situation.
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