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  4. The chosen best answer is that of R Rajesh for explaining the differences with relevant examples. For simple and effective, straight answer that hits home, read Hari Shyam's response.
  5. Vishwadeep Khatri

    Control Plan

    Q. 136 What is the best way to create a Control Plan for a process? This question is open till 5 PM Indian Standard Time on Tuesday, 19th February 2019. If your answer is selected as the best answer, your name will be permanently displayed in the World's best business excellence dictionary in the making - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ Please remember, your answer will not be visible immediately on responding. It will be made visible at about 5 PM IST on 19th February 2019, Tuesday to all 53000+ members. It is okay to research various online sources to learn and formulate your answer but when you submit your answer, make sure that it does not have content that is copied from elsewhere. Plagiarized answers will not be approved. (and therefore will not be displayed)  All Questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ All rewards are mentioned here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/excellence-rewards/
  6. Difference between Project and Process There are many ways to look at the differences between project and a process. 1) Project is an initiative which you or Team takes up to complete certain set of deliverables. The deliverables mostly focuses on improvements which can benefit the process and organization in the financial ways or work on Return on Investment strategies. Usually companies focuses on cost reduction in the most efficient ways or streamlining the people/processes in the organization-this usually forms a project perspective initiative with tentative timelines. Process on the other hand can be defined as something which has already been in place. It has its in scope/out of scope matrix, customers, billing models, current services that they provide and people managing the team. 2) Projects have a definite start and end time or a continuous improvement cycle whereas process is ongoing and follows the project management methodology of to operate on the team members, budget, resources and documentation in the process. 3) Business Projects are driven more from the organizational perspective and focuses on long term cost benefits to the organization whereas process in service based industries usually billed from the customers usually can be termed as revenue generation projects ( Insurance , Healthcare, real estate etc) 4) The ideas and improvements in the projects are incorporated in the process.
  7. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R A few based on my experiences.... There have been times when I interacted with an organization about identifying Six Sigma projects, and they had some confusion, with the term ‘Projects’. They have been mostly associated with the term ‘Project’ from a context of business contract. Most us who are experienced in Six Sigma terminologies understand how the term ‘project’ needs to be interpreted based on context. However, I have learned that depending upon the audience we may have to be careful in ensuring whether the interpretation of the term ‘project’ is made as intended. Should we call it specifically as ‘Business Project’ and ‘Six Sigma Project’? On the other hand, the fundamental definition for ‘Project’ and the phases of project apply to both contexts quite well. The term project implies an undertaking to deliver an objective with a fixed start and end time. Coming to definition of ‘Process’, the understanding appears to be more uniform and unambiguous. I haven’t seen much confusions between the usage of Project and Process…. Hope the below statement is an example outlining the meaning of ‘Project’ and ‘Process’. “Most of the Six Sigma DMAIC ‘Projects’ aim to improve a ‘Process’ or set of ‘Processes’”. However, when we expect people to map the processes that they are involved in, many have some difficulty. In the Six Sigma world, we often use the SIPOC methodology to depict a high-level process. If we want to test ourselves about our own clarity with respect to a particular process, try building the SIPOC and see how well you are able to do it!
  8. 5 Process and Project are terms used in the Business Improvement or Six Sigma world, while the term project is used in the Project Management realm. What are the key differences in a Project and a Process? Can the terms be used interchangeably? Give examples to support your answer. By Operational Definition, Process is the sequence of defined steps that need to be followed to accomplish a task Eg : Making Tea !! Project is a small/big planned activity to either improve a set of processes or create a new set of processes to achieve a stated Objective!! Eg : Dubai Airport revisiting the existing Immigration process to reduce processing time(improving existing process) vs Dubai Tourism setting up world's first underground Resort (brand new project with brand new processes) !! Project & Process words cannot be used interchangeably !! A set of processes together can qualify as a Project !!/ one process alone in isolation rarely qualifies to be a Project. In general, Project is a larger n time consuming activity !!
  9. Let me start with my assumption of what it takes to qualify as a Project in Project Management realm , a Project and a Process in Business Improvement or Six Sigma world. Project in Project Management Realm: In a one-liner , we can say a project will have an objective with a definite start date and a definite end date. Eg:1 Converting a meter-gauge rail(track) to a broad-gauge rail can be a project, for Railway engineers. Eg:2 Creating a software product can be a project, for an IT team. Eg:3 Constructing a shopping mall could be a project, for a builder Project in Business Improvement of Six Sigma context: A project will have a goal with a definite start and end dates. That will be accompanied by a strong business case explaining an explicit reason as why this project is needed in the first place and it will highlight the end dates for the various phases that a project might have. Process: In generic terms , we can say that it is a set of instructions/sequence of steps to achieve a particular activity/complete an event. Essentially , every process would have certain parameters which act upon as inputs and then there could be a set of actions or a sequence flow which would be necessary so that there is a tangible outcome which serves our need. That outcome becomes the output which will/can be consumed by other actors(could be another process /events/users/activities..) Eg:1 Setting up Continuous Integration(CI) is a key process as part of Continuous Delivery and Deployment(for delivering your IT delivery rapidly). CI includes multiple steps : 1. Check-out the latest code from the Code Repository (say GIT) and put that into local workspace(Developer's workstation). 2. Do your code changes on the local machine and unit test it thoroughly 3. Post a peer review (and after fixing comments, if any - unit test it again) 4. If everything ok, get the latest code from Code Repository, 5. If no difference found in the version of the code, then push the code to the code repository with proper comments 5. Automatically Build should be triggered (When a change is pushed). 6. If build succeeds, then ensure that your change is successfully working in the Integration box. Now as we see multiple steps are there. The sequence is important to get a successful testing of your functionality which is the outcome from this process. Eg:2 Code Review is a process - Steps involved: 1. Review the code. 2. Check if the code adheres to coding standards and guidelines. 3. Whererever the stds/guideline not followed, provide proper feedback comments. 4. Ensure the developer fixes the comments.5.Ensure functional misses are not there. 6.Ensure same mistakes are not repeated. 7. Ensure all comments are fixed. Now let us first compare and contrast a project in Project Management(PM) realm and a project in Business Improvement(BI)/Six Sigma world. We have compared and contrasted project in PM realm and in BI/Six Sigma realm. Let us now contrast a project and a Process in BI/Six Sigma context. Let me explain these difference with an example. Imagine an improvement project. An IT team's delivery quality is poor. They are getting multiple escalations and they are unable to meet their SLA of <5% defects in a critical application. This is happening for the past 6 months. Now team is doing an improvement project. It is trying to zero in the problem. It needs to fix the issue in 4 months time. Goal is to have <5% defects by 17th June 2019. Now it starts to check its flow from where it has to correct itself. It reviews the AS-IS process. It finds (after doing Value Add activity process) that it needs to improve upon Design Patterns(for Coding), Code Review, Automatate Unit and Functional Testing. These are processes which have their own steps which need to be done so that quality of the deliverable meets the defined SLA as per the goal statement. Now without the processes, the project goal cannot be achieved. At the same time, the processes can be independently achieved but if not tagged to a project, the chance of systematically finding the deficiencies in a process or a need for a new process(if old process is too bad to be modified) would be missed out. Conclusion: From the differences that we saw now, it is clear that process and project in a business improvement/six sigma world or different entities. Having said that there is always a bit of these two words conveniently interchanged especially in Business Process Outsourcing(BPO) industries. Many teams use process to represent what could be possibly called as a project. For instance, those teams might call HR Payroll system as a process, whereas an IT team might call that as a project. One reason it could be because of the fact that BPO bretherens could construe each of the steps in the system happening in a sequential flow. But in general, by and large as the definition says and based on the differences that i articulated above, my conclusion is process and project are two different entities.
  10. Vishwadeep Khatri

    Calculation of OEE based on MTTR, MTTF, MTBF

    Hi Ransingh, Overall Equipment Effectiveness which is the product of Availability, Performance and Quality can't be obtained via MTTR, MTBF and MTTF for the equipment. This is so because the three measures do not relate to Performance or Quality. If you know MTBF and MTTR, you should be able to calculate availability losses that are due to unplanned stoppage due to machine failure. However planned stoppages (like change over time) which are part of availability calculation in OEE will still be hidden. Also, unplanned stoppage due to other reasons like power failure (MTBF may not consider power failure as equipment failure based on a common definition which considers only equipment malfunction as failure) will also be hidden. To answer your question, OEE cannot be inferred from those numbers. OEE, for utilities, as a metric, may not be a great measure of performance but that is a different topic to discuss.
  11. Process is a series of repeatable steps done in a deliberate order. On the other hand, a project is a single temporary endeavor with multiple steps. The timeline involved in a project is limited whereas in a process its ongoing with guided completion times. Processes can be revised and improved for efficiencies in an ongoing manner. However, the project has a specified goal to be achieved which can be evolved. Projects have their individual uniqueness, whereas process involves has continuous repeats. Projects drive change and Processes drive optimizations. Projects involve collaborations whereas processes involve well defined actionable steps and follows guidelines. Processes are optimized as an exercise to reduce cost, while projects attempt to create change at a lowest cost possible. A pilot can be a project whereas a prototype cycle can be a process. After a project it can be decided to repeat the project or not and in a process minor changes maybe required prior to running it again. A project is Define-Plan-Execute-Close and a process is Build-Measure-Learn-Repeat.
  12. There are multiple differences between projects and processes. Going by the description of PMI, "projects are one time endeavour" whereas, processes are repeated. Projects and processes both have a defined methodology, but each project is unique and different from another one. The terms cannot be used interchangeably because of clear difference in the definitions. Examples are: Project: Setting up a new manufacturing facility or developing a new car model (product) or improving a process to reduce the cycle time/takt time. Process: Series of defined steps involved in production of a car.
  13. Q. 135 Process and Project are terms used in the Business Improvement or Six Sigma world, while the term project is used in the Project Management realm. What are the key differences in a Project and a Process? Can the terms be used interchangeably? Give examples to support your answer. This question is open till 5 PM Indian Standard Time on Friday, 15th February 2019. If your answer is selected as the best answer, your name will be permanently displayed in the World's best business excellence dictionary in the making - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ Please remember, your answer will not be visible immediately on responding. It will be made visible at about 5 PM IST on 15th February 2019, Friday to all 53000+ members. It is okay to research various online sources to learn and formulate your answer but when you submit your answer, make sure that it does not have content that is copied from elsewhere. Plagiarized answers will not be approved. (and therefore will not be displayed)  All Questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ All rewards are mentioned here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/excellence-rewards/
  14. Rupinder N

    Design Risk Analysis

    The various Design Risk Analysis tools that can be used, and may eventually feed into a System, Sub System or Component level DFMEA are listed below: QFD - It provides a logical and structured method of translating the customer expectations (VOC) into design requirements. A QFD cascade model can be used to eventually get to production and quality control inputs as well. This is a great tool to highlight apparent inconsistencies between the customer asks, risks and design requirements. Parameter (P) Diagram - It provides a visual representation of the inputs, parameters and the control factors in a product designed for a certain output. The design of the product should be such that it gives a desirable output, notwithstanding the noise factors. Though, time intensive, this can serve as a great input to DFMEA at System and Sub System Level, and sparingly used at a component level. Function Tree - It shows a preliminary listing of functions and their hierarchy or relation to each other. It helps visually showcase the dependencies amongst the various functions of the systems and can very clearly outline the risks, too. Boundary (Block) Diagram- It is a visual tool that showcases the entire design or system or subsystem complete with the interfaces between various parts. The block diagram can also help identify the boundaries of risk analysis - in scope and out of scope. Failure Mode Avoidance - This structured approach is used in early design phases to identify and detect all failure modes and hence select a design that fails the least (or has the least associated risks) Fault Tree Analysis - It is a deductive failure analysis tool used to predict risks, or potential failures using a hierarchical approach and failure logic - hence it is a combination of probabilities and logic. It is used to uncover root causes for a potential failure by forming a qualitative model. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis - All of the above tools can feed into DFMEA at different levels to complete a robust risk analysis.
  15. Prashanth Datta

    Design Risk Analysis

    Before delving into the tools used for Design Risk Analysis, let us try and break down this question further to understand, What “Design Risk Analysis” means, Understanding what “Risk” is, and Common tools used for Design Risk Analysis. What is “Design Risk Analysis”? As we are aware, we have two methodologies in Six Sigma 1. DMAIC – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control --- Typically used for improving existing processes or products 2. DMADV – Define, Measure, Analyze, Design and Validate/Verify – Typically used for developing or redesigning new products or processes While performing a DMAIC methodology on an existing product or service, post Analyze phase, it is quite possible that the potential solution could call for a redesign of existing product or process in order to meet the Voice of Customer or Voice of Business. In such a scenario, it is extremely important for the project team to meticulously work on the design process, as it is the expected solution and hence it needs to be made full-proof. One of the key focus areas in making the design full-proof is to anticipate the possible failures, threats or flaws of the proposed new design. In summary, we need to determine the potential risks associated with the revised design and build mitigation plans in advance, so as the product or process under the new design fulfills the VoC or VoB. Design Risk Analysis helps achieve this objective. What is Risk? Any variable that has the potential to negatively impact your (re)design of a product or service which in turn can affect your project deliverables or output. Further, these risks, if unmitigated can have subsequent impact on various parameters like company brand, revenue, legal or statutory compliance etc., depending on the final deliverable or desired response / output (Y) of the project. Common Tools used to identify Design Risks. We can categorize these tools under two buckets a. Qualitative b. Quantitative Qualitative tools for Design Risk Analysis Documentation Review – In this approach, we try to identity risk by reviewing project related documents such as risk lessons learnt from similar projects, whitepapers or articles pertaining to the scope of project etc., Information Gathering Techniques - In this approach, we use tools like Brainstorming, Delphi technique, Interviewing etc., Essentially, with the planned (re)design scope, we gather inputs on potential risks from individuals, project team, stakeholders, subject matter experts either through 1x1 discussions, group discussions or anonymous feedbacks. Simple root cause Analysis technique like “5 Whys” can also help identify risks as we try to narrow down the root causes leading to new design. Diagramming Techniques – Using tools like Cause and Effect diagram or Process flow charts help us break down the process in detail to identify potential risks. SWOT Analysis – Doing a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat analysis of the (re)design, will help come up with associated risks of the design. Expert Judgment – Leverage expertise of Subject Matter Experts within the project team or across stakeholders to identify the risks. FMEA – Anticipating failure at each stage, its effect which in turn helps us to come up with potential mitigation plans. Quantitative tools for Design Risk Analysis Modelling Techniques – Develop models to capture Risks using critical inputs like probability of occurrence, severity levels, controls, vulnerabilities and come up with Risk Priority Numbers, Probability and impact matrix, Expected monetary value analysis etc.,
  16. RANSINGH SATYAJIT RAY

    Calculation of OEE based on MTTR, MTTF, MTBF

    Is there any method to calculate OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) based on the data from MTTR (Mean time to repair), MTTF (Mean time to Failure) , MTBF (Mean Time between Failure) in equipment used in non manufacturing utility industries.
  17. Earlier
  18. The chosen best answer is that of Prashanth. He has detailed FMEA, FMECA and the situations under which spending more time and effort on doing FMECA becomes viable. Worth reading is Vastupal's answer, too. Good explanation!
  19. Q. 134 What are the common tools for Design Risk Analysis? Explain their usage briefly. This question is open till 5 PM Indian Standard Time on Tuesday, 12th February 2019. If your answer is selected as the best answer, your name will be permanently displayed in the World's best business excellence dictionary in the making - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ Please remember, your answer will not be visible immediately on responding. It will be made visible at about 5 PM IST on 12th February 2019, Tuesday to all 53000+ members. It is okay to research various online sources to learn and formulate your answer but when you submit your answer, make sure that it does not have content that is copied from elsewhere. Plagiarized answers will not be approved. (and therefore will not be displayed)  All Questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ All rewards are mentioned here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/excellence-rewards/
  20. With increasing demands from Customers for high Quality and Reliable Products or Service, it is posing additional challenges for the Vendors (or Service Providers) to accomplish this through more scientific approach and reliable modeling, especially at the early phase of design or planning to ensure the outcome maps to Customer requirement by the time the final deliverables are ready. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a tool for evaluating possible reliability issues at the early stages of process cycle where it is simpler to acquire actions to overcome these matters, thereby improving consistency through design. In this method, we recognize probable failure mode, evaluate its effect on the process or product and categorize actions to diminish the failures at early stages to ensure the final deliverables maps to the Customer requirements. With this approach we move from what is “find failure and fix-it” approach to “anticipate failure and prevent it” From a Six Sigma perspective, be it identifying critical X’s or selecting effective solution to implement for identified root causes, FMEA is the Process Map based approach which provides us with the required scientific approach In crux, FMEA uses 3 components that are applied on the identified risks i.e. it takes into account a. Severity – What will be the severity of the anticipated failure? b. Occurrence [O] – How frequently we expect this failure to occur? c. Detection [D] – Do we have the required controls to detect the failure? The combination of this three results in what is called as a Risk Priority Number [RPN]. RPN = SXOXD. Identified failures with higher RPN numbers are focused for corrective actions. Most of the times, the key controllable levers within the RPN formulae are Occurrence and Detection as Severity remains same once the issue occurs. What is FMECA and When FMECA helps? Let us look at a scenario as below · Failure item a – Severity = 8; Occurrence = 10; Detection = 2. RPN = 160 · Failure item b – Severity = 10; Occurrence = 8; Detection = 2. RPN = 160 · Failure item c – Severity = 8; Occurrence = 2; Detection = 10. RPN = 160 · Failure item d - Severity = 10; Occurrence = 2; Detection = 8. RPN = 160 In this case, the RPN is same across and it needs a further deep dive. While in this simple example, we can take a SWAG by looking at Occurrence and Detection numbers and then mapping to Severity and assign priority, in real world problems, especially on design of Scientific / Military or Space equipment’s, the values can be too close to differentiate or go with a SWAG approach. We use what is called as FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis) methodology to handle such tricky scenarios. While FMEA is an approach that identifies all possible ways that equipment can fail, and analyzes the effect that those failures can have on the system as a whole, FMECA goes a step beyond by assessing the risk associated with each failure mode, and then prioritizing corrective action that should be taken. In FMECA, each failure mode is assigned a severity level and FMECA approach will not only identify but also investigate potential failure modes and their causes. i.e. a root cause of the reason for failure and corrective actions are evaluated for each identified failure. A key thing to note here is, for FMECA to occur, we need to first have FMEA in place. A criticality analysis on FMEA results in FMECA. FMECA is calculated in two ways. Quantitative: · Mode Criticality = Item Unreliability x Mode Ratio of Unreliability x Probability of Loss · Item Criticality = SUM of Mode Criticalities. Qualitative: · Compare failure modes using a Criticality Matrix, in a graphical form which keeps severity on the horizontal axis and occurrence on the vertical axis. FMEA vs. FMECA a. FMEA is the first step required to generate FMECA. While FMEA focuses on failures, FMECA goes a step further to analyze the root cause for each failure b. FMEA focuses on problem prevention while FMECA focuses on detection and control for each identified failure mode c. FMEA can have multiple analysis levels while FMECA is focused at each failure level i.e. each failure is treated individually. d. FMEA has no criticality analysis while FMECA looks at criticality of the potential failure and the areas of the design that need the most attention. e. FMEA is focused on product design and process. It genrates new ideas for improvements in like designs or processes. FMECA Identifies system and its operator safety concerns. Provide new ideas for system and machinery improvements. f. FMEA is fairly less time consuming activity compared to FMECA. FMECA is more time consuming. g. FMEA requires knowledge about process, product, service and customer requirements. FMECA goes a step ahead to have additional inputs around system, machinery etc., as each failure root cause needs to be evaluated i.e. FMECA is more knowledge based activity. Finally, Choosing FMECA over FMEA purely depends on the company deliverables. If the design involves delivery of critical product or service pertaining to Space, Medical or Military designs where we need to get into criticality evaluation of each potential failure, we need to go for FMECA. Please take note time should be at your side as these evaluations are time consuming. FMEA can be a good starting point and usage of FMECA needs to be evaluated basis business case.
  21. FMECA includes performing Criticality analysis after standard FMEA. FMEA is typically a table-top exercise where possible causes for failure are identified. Estimates of rankings are assigned to severity, occurrence and detection – before and after the corrective action plan. FMECA goes one step forward – to determine criticality of the effect, and therefore a preventive action plan. FMECA can be performed at any stage of system design: (i) during the early development stages; (ii) updates throughout the development; (iii) near the end of the design process. FMECA facilitates determination of how a system can be modified to improve overall reliability and to avoid failures. Once FMECA has identified possible failures, we can explore ways to prevent the failure or to lessen their criticality. This is a step forward to FMEA.
  22. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The damage or extent of damage due to a failure may be often saved or reduced if the failure is detected sufficiently early. Very common example is that if the smoke detector gives an alarm, then there is a high possibility that a fire that is about to spread could be attended and put out. It gives certain comfort when we are assured that we have adequate detection ability for certain potential failures. Historical data and experience that a particular type of failure has a very low frequency of occurrence is another information that could influence our comfort levels with respect to a potential failure. We do have better quantifiable methods available today to express the ‘capabilities’ of processes, if we have to. Even if the failure occurs the extent of consequential damage it could cause is yet another factor that decides the extent to which we may breathe easy. We recognize that the above 3 factors have been considered in the FMEA methodology in the form of Detection, Occurrence and Severity. Thus, the worst can happen if a failure capable of causing damage of high severity, occurs frequently and catches us by surprise. Even if any one of these factors are addressed favorably, we can prevent / save damages. With many knowledgeable members in this forum, the FMEA method, which is essentially a cross functional activity would not require any further detailing here. While FMECA is widely defined as an extension of FMEA and the criticality calculation is also defined by MIL1629A way back, it is still possible to raise questions on clarity and uniform understanding of the method. I am not getting into the details of the calculations for the ‘qualitative and quantitative’ methods to evaluate criticality that decides prioritizing the corrective actions for risk mitigation, which most of the forum members would have been exposed to. However, the emphasis on Criticality analysis is to improve the design and system reliability. Whereas the RPN number in FMEA gives a practical approach for prioritization, considering the detection capabilities as well. It is my belief that we would all be in agreement that FMECA is a step up from FMEA that drives us to keep improving design robustness, preventive controls and mistake proofing as much as possible and make it a continuous effort.
  23. Thanks for the above links, it shows that six sigma can be successfully applied across various industries. Would be great to see some examples of six sigma in the service industry.
  24. FMEA is a very effective risk analysis method and stands for Failure Modes Effects and Analysis and is a live document. FMEA is of following types: Design FMEA Process FMEA System FMEA Service Delivery FMEA This methodology is designed to identify the potential failure modes of a product or process before the problems occur or to assess the risk. FMEA can be conducted in design phase as well as existing products or services and can be updated at any point of time of analysis and that is why it is live document. The FMEA team determines the potential failure modes and then their potential effect of failure and potential cause of failure and identify single failure point which is crucial by giving rank to each failure with the help of RPN ( Risk Priority Number) RPN is calculated by multiplying of severity, occurrence and detection. On the other hand FMECA is FMEA with Criticality Analysis, and is of two types: Quantitative Qualitative To use FMECA, team must define the reliability/unreliability for each item at a given operating time identify the item's unreliability which is contributing to each potential failure mode Rate of probability of loss or severity calculate criticality for each failure mode by multiplying Item unreliability, Mode ration of unreliability and Probability of loss. Compare failure mode via a criticality matrix FMECA is supposed to be used in following conditions: to improve design of products or processes for Upping the reliability Better Quality Enhanced Safety to improve customer satisfaction for cost saving by decreasing development and design cost by decreasing warranty cost by reducing waste NVA to contribute to development of control plans, testing requirement, reliability growth analysis FMECA adds some value to the company if that company is already using FMEA. We can see that FMEA provides only qualitative information and is used in industries as " what if" method. but in this case we are not able to identify that how critical that product or process is? FMECA fulfill this as it provides quantitative information. FMECA is extension of FMEA and provides a level of criticality to the failure modes, which can be carried out in two phases, first do FMEA and then do Criticality Analysis. FMEA identifies the failure mode of a product or a process and their effects while CA ranks those failure modes in order of importance, according to severity and failure rate. FMECA does nothing but adds reliability to the failure modes. it is more suitable for hazardous control. By doing FMECA, Designer gets helps to identify the criticality of potential failure and the areas of the design that need the most attention.With the help of Criticality Matrix, we can compare each failure mode to all other failure modes with severity.
  25. Sanju chauhan

    Effective Training And Development

    Employee training is one of the necessary things to do in order to enhance the productivity of the company and its employees. Employees should have better soft skills so that they can convince their clients. If your employees are trained well and have relevant skills then they can be a best and effective asset for the company. Training employee is necessary but only if the employee has the potential. If the employee has poor skills and not willing to learn then you should not invest in that employee. In order to make them a good asset, you should train your employees from the best training company. Training from the best company can help to enhance the skills of the employee and can make them expert and more productive.
  26. Rupinder N

    Point of Use Inventory

    POUS is a Lean concept that helps reduce the number of intermediate stations or steps between receiving the material and getting it to the work location. Our expert, Venugopal, has mentioned how it may not be so easy to implement POUS. However, it can motivate us to look for vendors that supply good quality material, in the correct lot sizes and at a price that enables us to set up POUS. The chosen best answer is that of Vastupal Vashisth for clear definition and clearly mentioning the wastes that can be reduced. Another must read answer is that of Prashanth Datta. Do think, if POUS also helps reduce "waiting" and how does it work in tandem with 5S to get your mind jogging!
  27. Q. 133 How is FMECA different from FMEA? When is FMECA supposed to be carried out? What is the value FMECA brings if a company is already using FMEA? This question is open till 5 PM Indian Standard Time on Friday, 8th February 2019. If your answer is selected as the best answer, your name will be permanently displayed in the World's best business excellence dictionary in the making - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ Please remember, your answer will not be visible immediately on responding. It will be made visible at about 5 PM IST on 8th February 2019, Friday to all 53000+ members. It is okay to research various online sources to learn and formulate your answer but when you submit your answer, make sure that it does not have content that is copied from elsewhere. Plagiarized answers will not be approved. (and therefore will not be displayed)  All Questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ All rewards are mentioned here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/excellence-rewards/
  28. Prashanth Datta

    Point of Use Inventory

    Point of use inventory management system as opposed to the traditional accounting based inventory system is all about providing just the quantity of product (which includes information or service) you need more importantly where you need and when you need. In summary, provided just in time. How Point of Use inventory management contributes to reducing Lean wastes? a. Reduces the time spent on traveling of materials or to and fro flow of information. A robust point of use inventory management system plans for its materials or information to be stored at right place and hence reduce the transmission or transportation time. b. A well planned point of use inventory management system reduces inventory tracking errors. In other words it keeps it simple to focus on what is required by when and plans for it. c. With this methodology, owing to present the right materials or information at right time, an important factor of shelf life comes into play. With a tagged expiry or material or information turning to non useful, a greater focus of material analytics comes into play in this model. d. With providing right information, product or service at right time there are minimal non value addition steps probably waste that your process should be focusing on. e. Since you plan to supply your material or information just adequate to the process, chances of overproduction is removed With most of about points in place, point of use inventory management system helps drive a stream lined process which results in removing extra processes and non value added stuff which in turn keeps your process lean.
  29. Krishnamurthy Rao

    Point of Use Inventory

    Point of use Inventory is the Inventory held at the location where it would be used/utilized. POUS is generally fixed as a minimum quantity that would be utilized and replenished at any point of time. Since the quantity is minimum, and is replenished only upon reaching a Re-order quantity, it helps to minimize the Inventory held in a location at any point in time..
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