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  1. 10 points
    Q1 - How would you define, compare and contrast the following terms - Personal Excellence, Process Excellence, Operational Excellence and Business Excellence? (In your answer to this question, please explore these in detail and you may like to cover the following and more - You may like to explain how these are related. You may like to mention if it is possible to achieve one in absence of another? What should an Organisation actually pursue? What kind of approaches, techniques do you think are naturally likely to be included in these terms, etc.) You may like to carry out research over the internet, talk to your partner, and colleagues while framing your response. Each club may submit maximum two responses, one by each member. Please write the answer in your own words. Please do not copy and present someone else's explanation as your own. As Excellence Enthusiasts, we are against plagiarism. Remember - Your answer will not show when you submit. It will be made visible only at 4 PM tomorrow. May the best answer win. All the best! Cheers to the Spirit of Excellence! This is the Excellence Ambassador Episode 1 - Only registered and approved club members will be able to respond to questions between 4th September and 29th September 2017. One daily question is announced at 4 PM on each working day and will be closed for responses at 4 PM on the next working day. Once responses are locked at 4 PM on next day, they will be made visible to everyone. Each Excellence Ambassador (and other readers) will be asked to vote on the answers of the day by upvoting or downvoting. The voting will close at 6:30 PM and best response will be selected out of ranked responses at 7 PM. One response will be marked as the best answer and will remain on our forum as a reference for future visitors. Together, the Excellence Ambassadors will build the best Business Excellence Glossary.
  2. 7 points
    Excellence : Excellence is defined as the quality of being extremely good So what is Personal excellence? In simple words, setting up the bar higher [benchmark] in whatever activities, the individual(who is compared with the rest) does. Process Excellence: Providing an environment where the processes are highly stable and controlled with a minimal or no variation and with minimum or no wastage(Muda). Focus is on continuous improvement to ensure processes are highly stablized Operational Excellence: It reflects the way how as a person, unit, you or your team/organisation excel at parameters such as Cost, Human Resources, scope, time, quality etc.,. By excelling at this, the provider of a service, can provide value to the customer with optimal/maximum efficiency. Business Excellence: It is through which you make your business, with effective strategies ,efficient business plans , best business practices so that optimal results are achieved at a sustained rate. How each one is related to the other one(s): Personal Excellence is directly tied to Process Excellence. If and only if the individual is interested to adhere to the processes laid out, then process excellence or for that matter any other activity can be successful . If the cultural shift/mindset is not there amongst the individual/team , then no change would work. This can be represented by the formula : Quality of the solution (Q) * Acceptance of the solution (A) = Effectiveness of the solution (E). Unless there is an acceptance to any thing (which is the human part) nothing can be done. So if the individual has the desire to excel at his/her work, then he/she would strive to make sure he/she/the organization achieve Process Excellence. Process Excellence provides a way for continuous improvement. Purpose of process excellence is to streamline all the processes , make them stable and in the process to achieve minimal degree of variation and minimal wastage. By having a process excellence system in place, grey areas in Operational excellence and Business excellence can be identified and improved/rectified upon. Practically it is difficult to achieve excellence in one when another one is absent. For instance, Business and Operational excellence would require process improvements. If streamlining does not happen there then there is no excellence in Business and in Operational aspects as well.Similarly without human intervention or the elevated mindset of the individual, it becomes difficult to successfully run the processes at a top-notch. From an organisation perspective, the organisation should Provide a conducive environment to work with wherein by individuals can be encouraged to share their ideas/thoughts and create a transparency, making them feel belonging to the organisational/unit's problems/constraints (Personal Excellence) Encourage individuals to showcase their creativity in designing/providing solutions to problems (Personal Excellence) Create Challenging contests and rewarding people on various categories such as best creativity,best solution, optimal solution,... (Personal Excellence) Setup process standards and metrics for each parameter(Define the expectation).Set the Upper & Lower limit & also customer specification limits (Process Excellence) Conduct awareness sessions on process expectations with reasoning and justifications. Provide details with SMART goals (Process Excellence) Ensure that individuals/teams adhere to the standards with constant monitoring through Audits/Inspections/reviews. (Process Excellence) Look out for scope for continuous improvements periodically and accordingly adjust the process baseline if required. (Process Excellence) Define the Operational parameters that requires excellence. (Operational Excellence) Conduct awareness sessions to key stakeholders on those operational parameters and provide the plan on when and how to achieve them (Operational Excellence) Ensure the status of operational excellence through Project Management Reviews/status reports and other similar artefacts and address the deviations (Operational Excellence). Preserve the best practices that were followed to achieve Operational Excellence (Operational Excellence) Define the strategies/plans needed for improving the business results (Business Excellence) Define the best practices in getting business-oriented goals/activities done (Business Excellence) Conduct Confidential meeting with key stakeholders and provide the envisaged plan to them and convey your expectation (Business Excellence) Conduct monthly/quarterly review meetings with respective units and look onto the 4-quarter dashboard. (Business Excellence) Get Business Mgmt section of Customer Satisfaction Survey from the customer to see if organisation is in target with its objective (Business Excellence) Document the outcome of the business results and the effective means to achieve them (Business Excellence)
  3. 6 points
    Cause is a variable which affects the outcome by increasing its chances or making it happen. Problem is the outcome of the cause. Scenario Understanding Conclusion Action A cause (X) may be necessary but not sufficient for a problem (Y) to occur. Problem (Y) occurs ONLY when cause (X) is TRUE Problem (Y) may not occur even when the cause (X) is TRUE Causes other than X (A, B, …) must occur together with X for problem Y to occur Fix the cause (X) to remove one of the factors causing the problem (Y) however this will not fix it so look for other causes (A, B, ..) that result in this problem (Y) and address them too to fix the problem (Y). A cause (X) may be sufficient but not necessary for a problem (Y) to happen. Problem (Y) occurs whenever cause (X) is TRUE Problem (Y) can occur even when cause (X) is not TRUE Cause X is a definite cause for the problem (Y), however other causes (A, B, … ) can also result in this problem (Y) Fix the cause (X) to address some scenarios in which the problem (Y) occurs. However look for other causes (A, B, ..) which may also result in this problem to fix it for all scenarios. A cause (X) may be neither sufficient nor necessary for a problem (Y) to occur. Problem (Y) may not occur even when cause (X) is TRUE Problem (Y) can occur even when cause (X) is not TRUE Cause X is not established as a reason for the problem (Y) Fixing cause (X) may not fix the problem (Y). Look for other causes (A, B, ..) which are likely to be more relevant cause for this problem (Y) A cause may be both sufficient and necessary for a problem to occur. Problem (Y) occurs ONLY when cause (X) is TRUE Problem (Y) occurs whenever cause (X) is TRUE Cause X is a definite cause for problem Y Fixing cause (X) may fix Y completely.
  4. 5 points
    Generic Definition: Necessary means something needed. Sufficiency - an amount of something that is enough for a particular purpose 1). A cause may be necessary but not sufficient for a problem to occur: This means that the problem did/do not arise because of a single cause. There could be multiple causes which could lead to the problem Eg: An Application running in the system is responding very slowly. We could think that it could be due to less memory space in hard disk/RAM . But it may not be the only reason. It could be due to too many applications opened up thereby busying the CPU. It could also be because of some heavy processes running in the background or any other reasons. So our approach should be: a). To find out what other causes could be there which can make the problem to occur. b). Do try to drill down with 5-Why analysis or tree analysis of the problem or make Fishbone analysis and find out the other causes/category of causes. 2). A cause may be sufficient but not necessary for a problem to happen: This implies that a particular cause can be a potential source for the problem to occur but not necessarily be the primary one which will create the problem. Eg: If System "Welcome Screen" (logging in) taking time is a problem, then increasing the RAM size may be useful but it may not necessarily be increasing the speed as still the Processor CPU/Processor Speed(Frequency) could need to be addressed. There could be some more ways which can make this speed increased to Our approach should be : a). Find out the ways to have necessary conditions and satisfy sufficiency 3). A cause may be neither sufficient nor necessary for a problem to occur This portrays the fact that you are aware of the causes and have sufficient and needed information to resolve.But still there is a better workaround to ensure that problem does not occur Eg: You/Your organisation has technical challenge on Non Functional requirements and you think you know the causes and has sufficient and needed knowledge. However It will take 2 months of time for your team to complete this . But management outsources this to expedite this activity. So the approach should be a). To make effective use of the alternative method/approach that is being planned out for the problem. 4). A cause may be both sufficient and necessary for a problem to occur This means that initial assumptions are made on the necessity and sufficiency of causes, for a problem. Eg: If the problem is the smelling(bad odour) of Septic tank of the house, then immediately the assumption is made that the tank could be full and hence the smell is arising. So our approach would be : a). To validate as much as you can to ensure that the assumptions made are true. If not, then course correction needs to be done b). Depending on the assumptions , we need to proceed. If assumptions are false, then follow one of the approaches from the remaining 3 options/conditions
  5. 5 points
    Creating an idea is personal excellence. Creating efficient process for that idea is process excellence. Executing that idea effectively is operational excellence. Gaining profits through that idea is business excellence.
  6. 4 points
    Hi All Please find below comparison on the topic. Hope I can connect to the lot here. Business Excellence Process Excellence Operational Excellence Personal Excellence INQUIRY What am I supposed to do How am I supposed to do When am I supposed to do Who am I CRITERIA Vision Outcome Output Realization FOCUS AREA Market Competitiveness Continuous Improvement Quality Service Learning RELATIONSHIP Transforming Reframing Refining Acting ORDER You start with You design it into You execute it as You reinvent each time ABSENCE CAUSES Annihilation Variation Waste Insatiety APPROACH Balance Score Card Etc Value Stream Mapping Etc 7 QC, 7 MT, 7 Waste Selflessness and learning Regards Igniting Minds 95 ( Nagraj Bhat - On behalf of )
  7. 4 points
    Business Excellence 4 Sept 2017.docx Define, Compare and contrast Personal Excellence, Process Excellence, Operational Excellence & Business Excellence. Personal Excellence: - Is a state of an individual or any person in which the individual or a person inherits an excellent or highest level of ability to be fully aware and to be fully able to rightly work upon one’s own strengths and weaknesses. This is a state that a person or an individual has reached upon experiencing the higher degree of self-evaluation & at which the person or an individual can guide other person or persons to make them be able to reach the state of excellence. Process Excellence:- Is a control of any process in order to be able to course with higher degree of efficiency & effectiveness. This is a state at which the process could deliver exactly the right required output. Operational Excellence:- Is a state of operations in which the operations are running exactly as per the expectations of the Business by having the excellent processes in place with excellent team working on Operations Business Excellence:- Is a state in which the Business has reached to a level where it becomes remarkably successful in achieving the set vision and by fulfilling all the expectations from the trail of the business in parallel. This is the state in which a business itself becomes the way of life. Business Excellence is more of a macro level where it is very important that it surpasses the states of Personal Excellence, Process Excellence & Operational Excellence. It is not so easy to achieve the Business Excellence unless an individual, process & operations are contributing towards the whole of the agenda. Personal Excellence is more of a micro level & is very important as without this it is very hard to achieve any further steps/state of excellence either in Process, Operations or in Business. Process excellence is directly contributing to Operations & further to Business to achieve higher degree of excellence. Operation Excellence follows Personal & Process excellence. It is highly impossible to achieve Business excellence state without being excellent as a person or an individual contributing to the Business, without having an excellent process & operations. Business excellence is the final result of Personal, Process & Operational excellence. An Organization must make sure that it empowers every individual to be able to involve to the fullest extent possible. It is an individual who can actual make a big difference in the whole of the Business. According to me it is finally the individual who can design & lead the right process, who can identify the right tools and techniques in order to perform to a level of excellence. Finally it is an individual who can bring the business as the way of life as the life in the business is finally the individual itself, despite the business is fully correlated to customer or market in its business sense. Group 14: Srinivasa Vampathi & Abhijeet
  8. 4 points
    My simple take in this is that the relationship described in this is reversely related i.e. Business Excellence cannot happen without Operational Excellence which cannot be achieved with no Process Excellence which in turn cannot be conceived without Personal Excellence. In other words, excellence of a business is directly interlinked to the personal excellence quotient of its founders, core members and its employees. A sense of desire to achieve self excellence in individuals leads to defining excellent process in an organization which leads to operational excellence within business units which ultimately leads to the company or the business a whole to excel.
  9. 4 points
    By not being Mutual Exclusive By not being Collectively Exhaustive By not implementing the findings
  10. 3 points
    Kaizen(change + better) Kaikaku (change + revolution) Kakushin (new or innovation + revolution) Definition Kaizen => Kai (change) + Zen (better) => Change for better. It is Small incremental changes for continuous improvement / evolutionary improvement. Kaikaku => Kai (change) + kaku (revolution) => Change for revolution. More radical, step changes needed to improve the process/business on existing system Kakushin => Kaku (revolution) + Shin (new or innovation) When we need about innovation, reform, transformation and renewal from present situation. Some change will form a complete departure from the current situation. Description Those activities which helps organisation to improve a process or business constantly. Improvement / continuous improvement Implement 5S and removes 7+1 types of Muda/waste In a process or business where transformations needs a big/global redefinition of the system. Transformation / reform / big improvement Allows organisation to reform and transform their culture and work habit Those discoveries that allow changing the status quo of a business. innovation / reform / renewal Allows organization to adapt with new changes/ new things Process to Follow/ Steps 1. Identify an opportunity. 2. Analyze the process. 3. Develop an optimal solution. 4. Implement the solution. 5. Study the results. 6. Standardize the solution. 7. Plan for the future. 1. Set based 2. 3P Kaizen 3. Plan Execution 4. Lean Transformation Support DMAIC Example Update in current software Change both the technical basis and functionality in current software Create new software on the basis of new technology and new business process Comparison 1. Took less time 2. Less costly 3. Continuous process 1. Takes more time than Kaizen 2. More costly than Kaizen 3. Non-Continuous 1. Takes more time than Kaikaku 2. More costly than Kaikaku 3. Non-Continuous How do they complement each other? In any organization Kaizen is the integral part by which we keep the continuous improvement. When we need any big changes to adapt say like in car industry we are moving from LIQUID fuel to GAS/CNG to ELECTRIC car, then we are choosing Kaikaku. But when a car company going to open a new segment say SUV or more luxurious car segment they will choose Kakushin. So if a company want to survive and want compete in each section these three are clearly complement to each other. What would a company lose if one of these as a concept was not utilised? Well change is the only constant in life, if we believe it then we have improve ourselves to everyday, everywhere to survive or to stay up to date. If a company don’t change themselves with Kaizen they will become static/monotonous and loose its charm will lead to death eventually. If we don’t adopt with new things/changes, i.e Kaikaku then we will become like Kodak a certain death. If we don’t adopt with new innovative changes i.e Kakushin, like ”man power to computer/automation” will not be able to survive eventually, until a better competitor comes to market, like JIO comes with “internet data” with 4g technology in India.
  11. 3 points
    We should not see two statements as mutually exclusive statements. Both of them are correct in different contexts. We need to measure things to manage them effectively. Especially we need measurements for trends, analysis and performance reporting. (Peter Drucker) However, if any business rely exclusively on their performance metrics and assume everything hunky dory some surprises are bound to happen. Let us consider an operations where the SLAs are always Green. If the operations head assume that the customer is super happy with the service and do a CSAT- it may throw some surprises. This we call it as watermelon effect. Where SLAs are Green and the CSAT is Red. The other example can be a product sales exceeding the targets for several quarters. If the business assumes too much of customer loyalty towards that product and doesn’t innovate enough- they are in for surprise when one fine day a better product enters the market. What we cannot measure in the above examples (and which is important for a Business) is Human behaviors, Relationships, Customer Requirements and Expectations. (Deming) So we should have good measurements in place to manage the Known- Knowns. At the same time we need to cognizant of the fact that some unknowns/unstated needs exist in the business which we have to manage even without Metrics.
  12. 3 points
    Means Approach for problem solving Case 1 A cause may be necessary but not sufficient for a problem to occur. - This cause is must for problem to occur but cannot cause the problem alone. - There will be additional cause/s which are necessary & interaction of these causes becoming sufficient for problem to occur. - Find out other cause/s which are necessary for problem to occur. - Check which cause out of these is easy to eliminate & improvement made is easy to sustain. - Eliminate that cause to solve the problem. Case 2 A cause may be sufficient but not necessary for a problem to happen - This cause can alone cause the problem to occur - But there may be other cause/s also which can cause the problem to occur even in the absence of mentioned cause - Find out other cause/s which are sufficient for problem to occur. - Find out which cause is creating the problem most. - Start working on that cause. After eliminating the first one take next cause which causes the problem most & so on…. Case 3 A cause may be neither sufficient nor necessary for a problem to occur This cause is not the main cause for problem to occur - Find out the cause/s which are necessary for problem to occur. - If there is only one cause eliminating it will solve the problem. - If there are more than one necessary causes use approach mentioned for CASE 1. - If there is no necessary cause, find out significant cause/s & use approach mentioned for CASE 2 - If there is no significant cause also check interactions of probable causes & find out which interactions become significant. Then try to eliminate the easy to eliminate causes from each of these interactions to solve the problem. Case 4 A cause may be both sufficient and necessary for a problem to occur. - This is the main root cause for the problem. - There may be other root causes which are necessary for problem to occur but they will not able to cause the problem in the absence of this cause. - Eliminate this cause to solve the problem.
  13. 3 points
    Personal Excellence - Personal excellence is a concept. It means striving to become the best possible expression of who we are on a core level. Process Excellence - Process excellence is about process effectiveness and efficiency. It requires processes to be designed and improved for consistent delivery with minimum variation and minimum waste. It is the domain of Six Sigma and Lean." Operational Excellence -Operational Excellence is an element of organizational leadership and organizational intelligence that focuses on meeting customer expectation, all while stressing the application of a variety of principles, systems, and tools toward the sustainable improvement of key performance metrics. Business Excellence - Business Excellence is often described as outstanding practices in managing the organisation and achieving results, all based on a set of fundamental concepts or values. These practices have evolved into models for how a world class organisation should operate. Comparison: Process Excellence – effective, efficient processes Operational Excellence – process excellence plus some attention to HR, culture and systems thinking Business Excellence – the pragmatic pursuit and delivery of outstanding results for all stakeholders Personal Excellence - concept of one's self excellence, to derive best in him. Contrast - Operational Excellence can be used in absence of process excellence. However for an organisation's best interest Operational Excellence, Business Excellence and personal Excellence are equally important.
  14. 3 points
    Definition: Process Excellence: It is a methodology focusing upon continuous improvement by designing and mapping detailed process steps that helps removing wastes and increases the efficiency. Personal Excellence: It is an ability to enable oneself to create solutions in every possible situation. To enable yourself think sequentially to control and manage yourself in emotional and mental state. This deals with self-confidence, personal goals, vales etc. Operational excellence: In every organization there is a flow of value/services to the customer. Operational excellence is the process of making the flow virtual to every employee so that they can fix if any gap exist before the flow gets breakdown (before reaching to the customer) Business Excellence: It is an overall process of achieving the results by applying outstanding methodologies and frameworks based on fundamental set of values. BE focusses on systematic and fundamental approach in a structured way to increase overall efficiency. Comparison: Process excellence- focusses on a single process at a time Operational excellence: includes Process Excellence plus some focus on support functions like HR and Administration (enabling operations perform at par) Business Excellence- Includes Process Excellence and Operational Excellence focusing on pragmatic and improved results for all the stakeholders in the organization. Personal Excellence: Personal excellence exists in all the above mentioned. It is empowering people to form a Process, Operation and overall Business Excellence.
  15. 3 points
    I observed that the scope of six sigma has increased it is now applicable in many industrial sectors. When Bill Smith created this methodology his main focus was defect reduction and improvement which brings excellence and process improvement, later on Quality formed the core of other methodology/framework too. I have seen that the approach of employees toward quality management has not yet changed, they still consider this as the job of quality unit, as for them quality means compliance, reporting, QMS manual and most importantly Audits. I found that organizations are spending good amount of money in quality related training/workshops/paperwork etc. but still are not successful in changing the approach of individuals. At high level, every organization’s policy talks about quality and its importance but at ground level due to fixed processes, departmentalized structure it become a task of small number of people, like managers and specifically of those who belongs to quality department, since it’s their job. Induction program- By definition an induction program is an important process for bringing staff into an organization. It provides an introduction to the working environment and the set-up of the employee within the organization. An induction program is part of an organizations knowledge management process and is intended to enable the new starter to become a useful, integrated member of the team. But I believe now organizations have a need to adopt a new approach of induction program: Organizations should provide Process Excellence/Quality training to each and every employee at the time of induction, this training they can design as per the requirements of their LOB (Line of Business). Also when induction of an employee gets conducted at that time we can tell employee that they are suppose to share their views (positive or negative) after six months from now about quality of process/operation to which they belongs (preferably through a presentation) so that this training of quality not become just a training and they feel involved with the things they have learned. This kind of treatment at induction will make employee responsible for his own quality as well as quality of his team and organization. Why this should be done at induction program because when we start with induction: 1. The new employee will feel himself linked with the quality department. 2. This will make new employee feel that he is responsible for the quality of operation to which he belongs. 3. This will convey a message to employee that organization has a serious approach towards quality. This approach will bring mutual benefits and this also links with the high level objective of each and every organization that is “alignment of individual objectives with organization’s objectiveâ€. Now the question comes since induction is for new employee what will happen to those who are already working? For this we need not to do anything but to ask them to attend this “Quality session†which we are conducting for new employees and they can join this from there and then. I believe that each and every individual should feel himself responsible for quality and there is a need to make quality a routine habit rather than an event.
  16. 2 points
    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a graphical technique for Reliability and Safety Analysis of Systems. It is used: to investigate potential faults its mode and causes and quantify their contribution to system unreliability in the course of product design. The basic constructs in a fault tree diagram are gates (conditions) and events (causes leading to failure). Fault tree diagrams are logic block diagrams that display the state of a system (top event) in terms of the states of its components (basic events). An FTD is built top-down in term of events. It begins with the foreseeable, undesirable loss event (or a fault condition). Subsequently, it attempts to determine the specific causes (events) by constructing a logic diagram using a graphic model of the pathways within a system that can lead to the failure. Each cause is further broken down till a basic fault: human, hardware or software is reached. The pathways connect contributory events and conditions, using standard logic symbols (AND, OR, etc.). Example of an FTD – The Root Causes of Hazard to Patients during surgery [1] The two most commonly used gates in a fault tree are the AND and OR gates. OR Gate represent Logical Addition. Even if one of the Inputs to an OR gate is “1” or “TRUE”, then the Output is “1” or “TRUE”. If all the inputs are “0” or “FALSE”, then the Output is “0” or “FALSE” AND Gate represents Logical Multiplication. Even if one of the Inputs to an AND gate is “0” or “FALSE”, then the Output is “0” or “FALSE”. If all the inputs are “1” or “TRUE”, then the Output is “1” or “TRUE” The main purpose of the fault tree analysis is to help identify potential causes of system failures before the failures actually occur. It can also be used to evaluate the probability of the top event using analytical or statistical methods. These calculations involve system quantitative reliability and maintainability information, such as failure probability, failure rate and repair rate. After completing an FTA, efforts can be focused on improving system safety and reliability. Situations where FTD is most effective: It works well to identify possible causal relationships in cases where Output has a Boolean (True/False) relation with inputs, especially in small and medium sized systems where all causes /events can be conceived. It can be used in situations where specific data regarding known failure rates of components is known. It is used to supplement Root Cause analysis on engineered systems, by reviewing assumptions and design decisions made during initial system design. Situations where FTD is least useful: It is not effective in large complex systems as it is difficult to conceive all possible scenarios leading to the top event. The construction of fault trees can become very tedious and are prone to have errors. It does not function well as a Root Cause Analysis tool because FTD does not work well when some of the causes could be Human actions. This is because wide variance of possible human failure rates prevents FTD from providing accurate results. FTD is not very effective when there is event dependency or load sharing i.e. the occurrence of each event (cause) affects the probability of occurrence of the other events. [1] http://asq.org/quality-progress/2002/03/problem-solving/what-is-a-fault-tree-analysis.html
  17. 2 points
    I believe we have all the three major factors required to arrive at the true value add activity in our processes. It is applicable to all setups. The “to be” process recommended will have the thorough usage of lean tools. Therefore when we say… A value adding activity is one that customer is willing to pay for – It’s the activity which determines the price customer is ready to pay. This helps us to establish the cost involved running the process and the profits we are targeting to rake in, since Price – Cost = Profit. Exceptions could be the cases when the manufacturer/provider wanted to adopt KANO model and try to DELIGHT the customer. The risk here could be manufacturer’s market competitiveness and customer acceptance. A value adding activity is transformational by nature - the activity in a process has to help the product /service reach to the next phase of realization. The time invested in the effort should assist the product/service attain its entirety. Exceptions are based on the assumptions and the knowledge on the transformation/stages. Continuous learning will rock the boat and force us to consider a detour in the journey. A value adding activity is done first time right – the activity of the process should be carried out with utmost quality. The service/product should be free from failures otherwise it will lead to rework. Exceptions are limited here if we assume that the manufacturer/provider has got the right VOC/CTQ. If the requirements are sorted, quality management should be effortless. I think, in the sequences of new-product-design/ innovative product creation/ unique offerings/ one time projects, we need to modify our understanding of VA/ NVA. In an established process/ repetitive sequences, the original three questions seem to work well.
  18. 2 points
    Kaizen : It is a combination of two Japanese words , kai and zen . Kai means “Change” and Zen means “for the better” resulting in the meaning as “Change for the better”. It refers to any continuous improvement done in workplace, using small incremental changes Kaikaku: It is the Japanese term for ‘ radical change’ . It talks about the fundamental cum radical changes that we make to the system, in which we are working Kakushin: In Japanese it means ‘Innovation’ . It talks about the fact that changes done in the system (that we work upon) can sometimes lead to a paradigm shift in the working of the system such that that we need to realign our thinking to be more innovative S.No Kaizen Kaikaku Kakushin 1 Focuses on elimination of waste (Muda), Productivity improvement and Over hard working of employees (Muri ) with small continuous improvements Focuses on radical or revolutionary changes with big improvements Focuses on Breakthrough ideas /products /services 2 Cultural change is slowly imbibed into the working DNA of the employees . Cultural change happens explicitly and drastically changes Cultural change happens consciously due to focused thinking 3 Participation(involving in the activity) of all workers normally happens as kaizen activities deals with process kaizen (Individual workstands)and flow kaizen(material and information) Not necessarily all workers need to be involved Not necessarily all workers need to be involved How do they complement each other ? Kaizen is the base . Its the building block on top of which Kaikaku and Kakushin can be done. Objective is to remove any non-value adding work by doing a kaizen and then see what needs to be done. When too many Kaizen activities are not yielding any results , then we go got Kaikaku. This is akin to DMAIC and DMADV. If we think that DMAIC is not going to work, then no point in trying to improve the existing process. So we opt for DMADV as we think old process cannot be improved. Same way, we move to Kaikaku and hence that becomes a radical shift in our approach (again think of DMADV for analogy). Now this is done . What next ? What if we find a better way to optimise our benefits . Our system then should be in a transformed state with our thought process realigned with innovative approach. So Kakushin comes into picture . This is akin to DMAODV in Six Sigma parlour. Conclusion:All the three are a must so that an organisation can stay competitive in the market. What would a company lose if one of these as a concept was not utilised? Case 1: If Kaizen not utilised: If thats the case, it would be like building a house without a strong base. Kaizen helps in setting up individual standards and also helps in eliminating waste/non-value added activities. Also it helps in controlling the over work of employees. By not having Kaizen, the disadvantages would be a). Impact of other two type of improvements may not be effective as still the processes would be weak because non-value added activities would be present because those 2 improvement types may not have addressed this aspect b). Kaikaku and Kakushin focus on system improvements primarily and will not focus on individual standards unlike Kaizen . As a result, employee focus would be missing c). Employee morale may go down as cultural challenge is thrusted upon and as there is no Kaizen which speaks about Muri . Employee might spend long hours to adapt to the cultural changes brought by other 2 types of improvement Case 2: If Kaikaku not utilised: 1. 1. Potentially it could happen that small changes might keep on happening eternally for ages with not much impact 2. Management/Key stakeholders may not be able to take decisions on issues/problems Case 3: If Kakushin not utilised: 1. 1. The Organisation will not be competitive in its business 2. 2. Difficult to grow in niche market 3. Business growth and hence revenue will be stagnated 4. Morale of top management will go down Example for Kaizen, Kaikaku, Kakushin: Assuming we are in a primitive age of IT , explaining the concepts of Kaizen, Kaikaku and Kakushin Problem Statement Before Kaizen Kaizen Results Often multiple developers working on same code/functionality creates instability and also delays deployment of files Code written by one developer is inadvertently overwritten by another. This happens at times on the delivery date creating customer escalation Have a Version Control System which will alleviate the problems Version control eliminates overwriting. Latest code is always used for delivery and right file is deployed eliminating customer escalation Now Version control available . Next issue. Problem Statement Before Kaikaku Kaikaku Results As more than one developer working on same file and multiple files, changes need to be frequently deployed in the code repository which is not happening Due to time pressure , code deployed in the code repository throws error while testing the application . Tester would not be able to test in such a case Do a Continuous Integration (CI). Have an Integration Server which can seamlessly integrate all codes and provide a build (compilation of the code –ready for consumption by the users) and also intimate whether build is failed or passed Tester and Developer can get notification about the success or failure state. It makes easy for testers to test In today’s environment , Time to Market is the key. So the sooner we make the changes , the faster we should deploy it in the production environment . Else business would be lost. Now as we frequently make changes and deploy it in our local environment and test the application, do we have the capacity to deploy those changes in real time(production environment?) Problem Statement Before Kakushin Kakushin Results As frequent changes are done to the code and tested in local environment , it becomes difficult to deploy the changes everytime in production as the environments are different and we need to make changes in various places including code so that northing gets broken in production Takes 2 days of effort to do the manual changes . Also the stress in doing these changes (staying at office for long hrs) takes its toll on the health of the individual . More SMEs required to do this job since its for more than 1 day Automate the deployment part Avoids manual effort for deploying the changes 1 SME who knows automation is alone required If automation sequence is done properly, no mental stress or boredom will happen
  19. 2 points
    Necessary - X is a must for Y to occur. Y cannot occur unless X is present. Sufficient - X is enough to cause Y. However, Z may also cause Y. Scenario 1 - Cause is necessary but not sufficient. X occured at some time for Y to have occured but alongside other factors. In this case, other causes that could have caused Y when combined X have to be found. E.g. there was a case of cars catching fire if hit from behind when the right indicator was on. Having the right indicator on was necessary but not sufficient for a car to catch fire. It had to be combined with the other factor of being hit from behind in order for it to catch fire. Hence, we are looking for critical combinations of other causes with this X. 2. Cause is sufficient but not necessary - means that X on it's own can cause Y. But this is not the only cause leading to Y. It is required in this case to make sure that other causes are also found out, else the problem may remain unresolved even when X is fixed. E.g. not having enough water in a day can cause headaches. But so can not eating on time. Even if you keep having water, but not having food could.still trigger the headaches. 3. Neither sufficient nor necessary - Even if X happens, Y will not occur. In this case this cannot.be deemed as a root cause. Solving for this X will be futile. Other causes ought to be explored in order for the problem to be solved. E.g. an executive assistant not having an app for calling a cab for her boss is neither a reason sufficient to not get a cab, nor is it necessary. A cab can still be called via a phone call, by asking someone else to order, or booked through a website, by hailing from the street. 4. Both sufficient and necessary - must be solved for as whenever X occurs Y will occur. If this is not solved, you have not resolved the problem
  20. 2 points
  21. 2 points
    To define the above I will start with defining Business Excellence: Business excellence is often described as outstanding practices in managing the organization and achieving results, all based on a set of fundamental concepts or values. These practices have evolved into models for how a world class organization should operate studying each other's operational styles. The most common model include; Baldrige (MBNQA)- used in over 25 countries including US and NZ European Foundation for Quality Management- Used throughout Europe Japan Quality Award Model-used in Japan Singapore Quality Award Model- Singapore The most popular and influential model used in the western world is Malcolm Baldrige Award Model which consists of practices that are incorporated into six approach categories: Leadership Strategic Planning customer and market focus Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management workforce focus Process management Business results The model revolves around values like Visionary leadership where there is organizational and higher leadership commitment for achieving excellence, Customer driven Excellence where goals of the organization are made to satisfy ever changing customer demands, Organization and Personal learning to include People and its operations towards excellence, Valuing employees and Partners to have everlasting engagement for excellence, Focus on the future, Managing Innovation, Management by Fact, Social Responsibility, Focus on Results and Create Value and Systems perspective throughout. Now to define operational excellence the philosophy of the workplace is built around problem solving, team work and leadership results in the ongoing improvements of the Organization. the process involves focusing on the customer needs, keeping the employees positive and empowered and continually improving the current activities in the workplace. Several tools like applying Lean Six Sigma, TOC are used. Process excellence is about process effectiveness and efficiency of the operations handled by an organization. It requires processes to be designed and improved for consistent delivery with minimum variation (applying six sigma) and minimum waste (applying Lean). This will strengthen to meet the objectives of operational and business excellence. Personal excellence is being the excellent personal assets for the organization in which the people continuously evolving themselves with agility to bring about continual improvements in the processes they are involved helping meet the organizational goals. In nutshell the relationship is as below Personal Excellence leads to ---> Process Excellence leads to ---> Operational Excellence leads to ---> Business Excellence Business Excellence drives ------>Operational Excellence drives ------>Process Excellence drives ------>Personal Excellence
  22. 2 points
    Let’s define personal excellence since the rest is defined by the companies. A combination of personal values, skill (both hard & soft), communication, interpersonal relations and abilities to judge, discriminate and make a decision falls under the personal excellence. But when should one use what quality is up to the individual’s wisdom? Personal, Process, operational and business excellence are indeed related. A group of personal excellence leads to process excellence. A combination of personal and process excellence leads to operational excellence which eventually leads to business excellence. The ultimate goal is to excel in business. However, Personal, process or operational can be substituted or interchanged to meet the ultimate goal. A process that is immaculately planned and successfully implemented can be an alternative for personal excellence, indicating a successful operation. Having said this, the organizations should focus on Personal and operational excellence. A combination of people and processes -leads to business excellence. 100% people oriented or 100% process oriented is not a healthy ambiance. Two decades back, when people had personal values and aligned themselves towards the business goals – people oriented companies were successful. The decline in values encouraged process implementations. Hard core process snubs creativity. When fragmented a group of Personal excellence eventually leads to business excellence.
  23. 2 points
    Applying Pareto Analysis for all kind of issues even for those issues where the complete set of data isn't available (E.g. For the scenario documented here). Not knowing the fundamental idea or principles of Pareto Analysis and usage of cause and effect (80/20) in reversed order (20/80) to substantiate the hypothesis. Wrong classification of data leads to wrongful identification of the cause. Collection and classification of data are the foundation of Pareto Analysis. Thank you. Your feedback is welcome.
  24. 2 points
    Data points being mutually exclusive Adding weightage to attributes Choosing which attributes should participate in pareto
  25. 2 points
    While plotting defects on pareto, severity of defect is ignored and only occurence of it is considered. So if a severe defect does not contribute to 80% band and falls in 20%, there might be chances of it getting unconsidered
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