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Showing content with the highest reputation since 02/21/2018 in all areas

  1. 3 points
    A deep intrinsic problem with FMEA is how we calculate RPN (Risk priority number) by performing a mathematical operation on three ordinal scale data. Severity, occurrence and detection are purely ranked numbers and we never get to see the absolute difference between two ranks so any mathematical operation like addition, subtraction or multiplication don’t hold true however they can definitely throw a mathematical number. We calculate RPN in the similar fashion and then use this number to prioritize risks. Moreover, three building blocks of RPN are not on the same scale. They have different priorities in different organization. Severity should definitely be considered of top most importance. Let’s look at a scenario. We will try to calculation RPN for two earthquakes with different magnitudes. One at Richter scale of 2.0 and another at 6.0. 1. Richter scale 2.0 earthquake: Severity = 2 (as per Richter scale reading) Occurrence = 5 (assuming that this occurs very often) Detection = 4 (we would use same detection for both scenarios) RPN = 2 * 5 * 4 = 40 2. Richter scale 6.0 earthquake: Severity = 6 (as per Richter scale reading) Occurrence = 1 (very less frequent) Detection = 4 (we would use same detection for both scenarios) RPN = 6* 1 * 4 = 24 If we simply go by prioritizing risks as per RPN, then the first risk would get prioritized however practically that’s a lot safer than Risk 2. Richter scale 6.0 earthquake is rare but if it occurs for once, it’s a disaster. The RPN calculation doesn’t take care of such individuality which makes a great sense in practical scenarios. One way to overcome above problem could be to use weighted count method for calculating RPN. Severity should get highest weightage (may be 3), followed by Occurrence (may be 2) and then Detection (may be 1). Let’s redo the above earthquake scenario and we would call our metric as Weighted Ordinal RPN (WO-RPN). 1. Richter scale 2.0 earthquake: Severity = 2 (as per Richter scale reading) – we would consider it as count 2 and multiply it by weightage 3: gives the value of 6 Occurrence = 5 (assumption that this occurs very often) – Weightage 2, so count gives 2*5 = 10 Detection = 4 (we would use same detection for both scenarios) – Weightage 1, so count gives 1*4 = 4 WO-RPN = 6+10+4 = 20 2. Richter scale 6.0 earthquake: Severity = 6 (as per Richter scale reading) – Weightage 3, count = 3*6 = 18 Occurrence = 1 (very less frequent) – Weightage 2, count = 1*2 = 2 Detection = 4 (we would use same detection for both scenarios), Weightage 1, count = 4*1 = 4 WO-RPN = 18+2+4 = 24 And this weighted ordinal RPN brings second risk as top priority which is the cause of the concern. I welcome your thoughts on this subject further.
  2. 2 points
    In my opinion second school of thought is more relevant in today's fast changing Digital world. If we have asked customers about what they want as innovation in cab booking they would have asked for incremental improvements but see how Uber and Ola has implemented innovation in this and reimagined complete process. Earlier we used to struggle to book a cab and now you can have it in few minutes. In today's scenrio even customers are not aware that how much innovation can be done through new digital tools and technologies. Take example of block chain which is innovating many industries which no body has imagined. Crypto currency is example of successful implementation of block chain. Who has thought of transferring cumoney using crypto currency in micro seconds.if we would have asked customers then they only have suggested to reduce TAT of money transfer. There are many more innovations happening where customers are offered products and services they have never thought of like PAYTM, Zoom video calls, chat bots to replace human involvement in call centers, driverless cars. So second school of thought is more apt, now even leaders don't hesitate to try innovation and fail early in place of not trying new things. New methodologies like Design Thinking along with Lean Six Sigma, Agile, Digital technologies are enabling organizations to think out of box. Now there is no box, you can think in any direction and disruptive ideas are acknowledged and appreciated more by clients. Everybody is looking for big improvements in products and services. In many scenrio s even customers are not aware about potential problems like information security, impact of automations on security, personal data leakage through social media so lot of innovation scope is there to identify potential problems and design solution for these. We are living in a world where people are not aware about potential problems from new technologies and solutions of these issues. So for innovation we can not depend on customers now, we have to reimagined customer problems and solutions through new tools and methodologies otherwise we will be left behind in innovation race and like Darwin said "it's not strongest of species will survive, only those will survive who can adapt to changes continuously" so if we will not change our approach for inovations we will not survive in this fast changing world.......Regards Vijay Sardana
  3. 2 points
    Brainstorming is an individual or group method for generating ideas and solutions to problems. Limitations in Brainstorming / How to overcome: 1. The focus on the quantity of ideas can be derailed easily by criticism or poor facilitation. In such case requires an experienced facilitator who is sensitive to group dynamics and social pressures and not afraid to note violations of the ground rules. 2. Group with a large numbers will not effective. In such case use group size 3 - 10, not more than that. 3. Extroverts or the senior people tend to dominate group work. In such case stop the involvement of senior people in the initial brainstorming session. 4. Some participants will not express their ideas “because of the belief that they will be seen as inarticulate or suggest ideas that have little or no values". In such case use brainwriting. "brainwriting refers to a group of methods that emphasize the silent generation of ideas in writing” 5. Participants social anxiousness or feeling that their ideas will be negatively evaluated by other team members. In such case use nominal group than the interactive brainstorming group. 6. Some participants stay quite during the brainstorm session. In such case use Round Robin method of brainstorming, which allows everyone to pitch in and contribute. 7. The quantity of ideas will suffer when one participant is speaking and blocking the idea generation of the other members. So it is better allow only one group member to speak at a time.
  4. 2 points
    Lean Six Sigma learning can impact your future in several ways: Enhanced ability to make the right decisions - Professional and business success depends on this. Lean Six Sigma provides a set of world's best decision approaches that have proved there worth in a wide variety of settings. It pays to learn these techniques. Personal worth - People who are able to solve key problems systematically are the most sought people in an organizational setting. Engaging others - It is possible for you to facilitate action-based team learning if you gain this competence. Lean Six Sigma training is a kind of leadership training. Improvement expertise - You can succeed with process improvement initiatives (in any industry or function) if you begin with the right fundamentals and build up the blocks well over them. All the above result in career and business benefits. Please feel free to discuss this topic here.
  5. 2 points
    Six Sigma is a powerful methodology that can be used to improve business processes. It is a structured approach to problem-solving that can be applied to any process - manufacturing, sales, marketing, IT, BPO, accounting, purchasing, you name it. All processes have variation. Variation is the cause of all evil - it leads to defects and customer dissatisfaction. Six Sigma methodology can be used to reduce variation from any source and thus improve costs, quality, and hence customer satisfaction. The standard methodology that is used to improve existing processes is called DMAIC. The acronym DMAIC stands for Define - Measure - Analyze - Improve - Control. If you think about it - this methodology is common sense. Before we start working on a problem, we need to have a good definition of what is the problem, why we are working on it, where is the pain area, what is in the scope of the project etc. All of these are accomplished in the Define phase. Secondly, in the Measure phase, we are interested in ensuring that the data used for further analysis is free of measurement errors. Six Sigma is about making decisions based on facts & data. If the data is inaccurate, we would end up making the wrong decisions. Hence, the measured phase ensures good data. Before making any improvements, it is also important to establish a baseline so that we can clearly communicate the benefits obtained from our project to other key stakeholders. The next phase, Analyze, is all about making the hypothesis and using data to either prove or disprove our hypothesis. We make the hypothesis about what is causing the problem and then establish the real root causes. The fourth phase, Improve, focus on getting the best possible solution to solve the root cause of the problem. The solution is optimized and any potential failure modes are resolved before the solution is deployed in the real world. The last phase, Control, is all about ensuring that the solution is sustainable in the long run. Any financial benefits obtained from the project are also quantified. Finally, the improved process is transitioned over to the process owner. As we can see from this paragraph, any problem can be addressed using this structured approach. Here are some things that should come to your mind when people talk about Six Sigma: Business Process Improvement Methodology 3.4 defects per million opportunities Customer focused Uses facts & data Quantify financial benefits Structured improvement approach
  6. 2 points
    Kano Model - is a product development theory which categorizes customer requirements with respect to product features into below five segments 1. Basic (must be quality) - as the name suggests, these are the basic expectations of a customer. If present, the customers are neutral, but if absent, it would lead to customer dissatisfaction 2. Performance (one dimensional quality) - features that result in satisfaction if present and dissatisfaction if absent. These are the stated needs of the customer 3. Excitement (attractive quality) - features that result in satisfaction if present and neutral if absent. These are the delighters for the customers. These needs are usually unspoken and are the differentiators for competing products 4. Indifferent - features that the customer is indifferent to as their presence or absence neither causes satisfaction nor dissatisfaction to the customer 5. Reverse - features that result in dissatisfaction if present and satisfaction if absent. These are the features that should not be present in the product Kano model is used to assess the product features on a periodic basis as the customer demands keep on changing. E.g. something that is an 'Exciting' feature today, will eventually become a 'Basic' feature tomorrow Nominal Group Technique (NGT) - is a problem solving tool that is used to generate and evaluate possible solutions. It is called 'Nominal' as it limits the interaction between participants in the initial stages as they are expected to write the possible solutions on a piece of paper. Once all solutions are written, the ideas are collected followed by a discussion on the evaluation of ideas. Usually voting is done to select the best solution. Sometimes multiple rounds of voting may be required. Using the KANO Model, we will get to know the customer requirements with respect to product features. The required features could either be present or absent. Then, NGT could be used in following ways 1. If the feature is present: to identify solutions to keep the variations and cost of the feature to minimal 2. If the feature is absent: to identify how the internal processes need to be modified / strengthened or what new processes have to be designed to be able to provide the new features
  7. 2 points
    Excellence : Excellence is defined as the quality of being extremely good So what is Personal excellence? In simple words, setting up the bar higher [benchmark] in whatever activities, the individual(who is compared with the rest) does. Process Excellence: Providing an environment where the processes are highly stable and controlled with a minimal or no variation and with minimum or no wastage(Muda). Focus is on continuous improvement to ensure processes are highly stablized Operational Excellence: It reflects the way how as a person, unit, you or your team/organisation excel at parameters such as Cost, Human Resources, scope, time, quality etc.,. By excelling at this, the provider of a service, can provide value to the customer with optimal/maximum efficiency. Business Excellence: It is through which you make your business, with effective strategies ,efficient business plans , best business practices so that optimal results are achieved at a sustained rate. How each one is related to the other one(s): Personal Excellence is directly tied to Process Excellence. If and only if the individual is interested to adhere to the processes laid out, then process excellence or for that matter any other activity can be successful . If the cultural shift/mindset is not there amongst the individual/team , then no change would work. This can be represented by the formula : Quality of the solution (Q) * Acceptance of the solution (A) = Effectiveness of the solution (E). Unless there is an acceptance to any thing (which is the human part) nothing can be done. So if the individual has the desire to excel at his/her work, then he/she would strive to make sure he/she/the organization achieve Process Excellence. Process Excellence provides a way for continuous improvement. Purpose of process excellence is to streamline all the processes , make them stable and in the process to achieve minimal degree of variation and minimal wastage. By having a process excellence system in place, grey areas in Operational excellence and Business excellence can be identified and improved/rectified upon. Practically it is difficult to achieve excellence in one when another one is absent. For instance, Business and Operational excellence would require process improvements. If streamlining does not happen there then there is no excellence in Business and in Operational aspects as well.Similarly without human intervention or the elevated mindset of the individual, it becomes difficult to successfully run the processes at a top-notch. From an organisation perspective, the organisation should Provide a conducive environment to work with wherein by individuals can be encouraged to share their ideas/thoughts and create a transparency, making them feel belonging to the organisational/unit's problems/constraints (Personal Excellence) Encourage individuals to showcase their creativity in designing/providing solutions to problems (Personal Excellence) Create Challenging contests and rewarding people on various categories such as best creativity,best solution, optimal solution,... (Personal Excellence) Setup process standards and metrics for each parameter(Define the expectation).Set the Upper & Lower limit & also customer specification limits (Process Excellence) Conduct awareness sessions on process expectations with reasoning and justifications. Provide details with SMART goals (Process Excellence) Ensure that individuals/teams adhere to the standards with constant monitoring through Audits/Inspections/reviews. (Process Excellence) Look out for scope for continuous improvements periodically and accordingly adjust the process baseline if required. (Process Excellence) Define the Operational parameters that requires excellence. (Operational Excellence) Conduct awareness sessions to key stakeholders on those operational parameters and provide the plan on when and how to achieve them (Operational Excellence) Ensure the status of operational excellence through Project Management Reviews/status reports and other similar artefacts and address the deviations (Operational Excellence). Preserve the best practices that were followed to achieve Operational Excellence (Operational Excellence) Define the strategies/plans needed for improving the business results (Business Excellence) Define the best practices in getting business-oriented goals/activities done (Business Excellence) Conduct Confidential meeting with key stakeholders and provide the envisaged plan to them and convey your expectation (Business Excellence) Conduct monthly/quarterly review meetings with respective units and look onto the 4-quarter dashboard. (Business Excellence) Get Business Mgmt section of Customer Satisfaction Survey from the customer to see if organisation is in target with its objective (Business Excellence) Document the outcome of the business results and the effective means to achieve them (Business Excellence)
  8. 1 point
    Gurneet (Banta's wife) displays her flow chart learning through a real life domestic flow chart.
  9. 1 point
    Six Sigma has a hierarchical structure similar to Martial arts. There are white belts, green belts, black belts, and master black belts. The white belts go through a very high level overview training about Six Sigma (typically 4 hours) so they understand some basic terminology about Six Sigma. All employees in the company are usually trained as white belts. White belts may help Green Belts or Black Belts with some data collection etc. The next level is the Green Belts who go through the Six Sigma training at the next level of details. Green Belts may go through few days to up to two weeks worth of Six Sigma training. Green Belts are expected to work on projects within their own functional areas. Green Belts are usually not exposed to advanced Six Sigma concepts, so they are not equipped to solve really tough problems. The third level is Black Belts who go through a more detailed version of the Six Sigma training. The typical duration of training varies from a week to four weeks worth of training. Black Belts are expected to work on more complex cross-functional projects that are strategically important for the company. Finally, the last level is the Master Black Belts. The Master Black Belts are responsible for coaching and training Green Belts and Black Belts. They may also work on large company wide projects. Sometimes people ask us if there is any minimum financial benefits that Green Belt and Black Belt projects need to deliver. There is no hard and fast rule about minimum savings that these projects need to deliver. The amount of benefits will also depend on the size of the company turnover, number of employees, opportunities for improvements etc. Some companies may have a target for Green Belt and Black Belt savings - but these are usually applied as an average across several projects rather than for individual projects.
  10. 1 point
    Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) is calculated by multiplying the yields for each process. Let me illustrate an application of this metric using an example. XYZ company manufactures friction material that goes into auto disc brake pads. The processes under consideration start with the Mix, which is subjected to pre-form process, and then compression molding and then grind finish. Let's assume that the standard weight of mix required for each pad is 100 gms. If 10000 gms of mix is fed into the processes, the yield for each of the 3 processes, Preform, Comp. molding and Finishing are tabulated as below: The yield for each process is calculated in the last column, and the resulting RTY is 0.8, which means that when quantity of mix equivalent for 100 pads was fed into the system, we ended up getting only 80 pads. The loss of yield can be categorized into 2 categories. 1. Due to the losses due to spillage, gaseous waste, finishing dust (SGF) 2. Due to rejections that were either scrapped or reworked. (SRW) The RTY brings out the practical yield from the process at large. If we take a six sigma project to improve the RTY (say from 0.8 to 0.9), it will lead to the revelation and analysis of the 'Hidden Factory' in terms of Scrap and Rework handling that is going on in between the processes. Further probing would lead to a question about how much of SGF wastage can be reduced. It is likely that the factories will have practices by which Reworked material for a particular process will be fed into the next process. Similarly the wastage due to spillage may be retrieved and re-routed to the preform process. The grind dust may be collected and recycled at permitted proportions into the molding process. Assume around 2% of the SGF and 8% of the SRW are re-introduced into the process, the resulting yield (if we didn't consider RTY), would have worked out as 90%, and we would have missed out on exposing and quantifying the "Hidden Factory" and the opportunity for improvement
  11. 1 point
    Great job, Vastupal and Venugopal for providing a detailed and well explained answer. The chosen best answer is that of Venugopal as the table makes the description easy to read and understand.
  12. 1 point
    If we want to ensure that a statistical test picks up a significant effect, what will we want to increase - confidence or power of test? Before proceeding to find the answer of above question, we should know about Null Hypothesis, Alternate Hypothesis, confidence and power of test. Null Hypothesis: This Hypothesis indicates that there is no significant effect. Alternate Hypothesis: This Hypothesis indicates that there is a significant effect. Confidence: It is the probability that the test accepts Null Hypothesis when Null Hypothesis is True. Power: It is the probability that the test rejects the Null Hypothesis when Alternate Hypothesis is True. The statistical Power ranges from 0 to 1 and as statistical power increases, the probability of making type 2 error decreases. For a type 2 error probability of β, the corresponding statistical power is 1-β. Means we are accepting the Alternate Hypothesis Test when it is true. Type 2 error is not rejecting the Null Hypothesis when in afcr the Alternate Hypothesis is true. SO by decreasing type 2 error, we are decreasing the probability of Null Hypothesis. Alpha, the Type 1 error that you are willing to accept. Its value is set from 0.1 to 0.5. An alpha of 0.5 means that you are willing to accept that there is a 5% chance that your results are due to chance not by test.Type 1 error is rejecting the Null Hypothesis when it is in fact true. Confidence level is 1- α. If we want to increase confidence level, then there is need to decrease value of α which indicates that we are accepting Null Hypothesis when Null is True, means that a statistical test is not picking of any significant effect when confidence is increasing. So, from above explanation we can say that, if we want to ensure that a statistical test picks up a significant effect, then we will want to increase power of test.
  13. 1 point
    It is great to see detailed answers for a question on a tool deemed as complex by many Six Sigma experts. The question sought answers to what apart from subjectivity in the rating scale is the limitation with using RPN. Most answers bring out one key point that RPN does not draw your attention towards the severity number. This is explained very well in several answers - hence making it complex to choose the best answer. Breaking the tie is the "suggested treatment" to this limitation which is provided by Vishwadeepak Choudhary, hence chosen as the best answer. I do recommend everyone reading all the answers to get a well rounded understanding.
  14. 1 point
    Hi Veeranaga It is like jumping grade 5 and going straight to grade 6. There are some who can cope up with the jump and then there are those who want to take it one step at a time. Similarly, going directly for Black Belt is possible, but it will involve extra effort from one (brush up the basic knowledge and then do a lot of self study in order to understand the GB concepts as GB concepts will not be covered again in a Black belt course). So even though doable, i do not recommend it as I believe the foundation needs to be strong and GB is the foundation for BB and MBB.
  15. 1 point
    Hi, Please use this link to download pdf files for self-study - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/files/category/10-basic-maths-for-six-sigma/ All the best.
  16. 1 point
    Q 71. Some of the commonly used measures of customer satisfaction are given below - NPS (Net Promoter Score) - Loyalty and referral check. C-SAT (Customer Satisfaction Index) - Satisfaction attained by the use of product/service. Churn (Customer Churn Rate) - Customer loss assessment. CAC (Customer Acquisition Cost) - CAC is all the costs spent on acquiring more customers (marketing expenses) divided by the number of customers acquired in the period the money was spent. CES (Customer Effort Score) - Customer effort assessment in getting work done/ issues resolved. What will be your ranking for the five metrics (NPS, C-SAT, Churn, CAC, CES) as per order of importance for performance of an App based cab service provider and why? This question is a part of Excellence Ambassador initiative and is open for 3 days. There is a reward of 2000 points for best answer in 3 days. All rewards are mentioned here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/excellence-ambassador-rewards/. The scoreboard is here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-scoreboard/ All questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/
  17. 1 point
    Earlier it use to be 7 waste Now Made as 8 waste in nature It come under MUDA of Japanese Term conversion as "Waste" To remember the 8 Wastes, you can use the acronym, “DOWNTIME.” •Defects – Products or services that are out of specification that require resources to correct. •Overproduction – Producing too much of a product before it is ready to be sold. •Waiting – Waiting for the previous step in the process to complete. •Non-Utilized Talent – Employees that are not effectively engaged in the process •Transportation – Transporting items or information that is not required to perform the process from one location to another. •Inventory – Inventory or information that is sitting idle (not being processed). •Motion – People, information or equipment making unnecessary motion due to work space layout, ergonomic issues or searching for misplaced items. •Extra Processing – Performing any activity that is not necessary to produce a functioning product or service. With respect to the above Question We can put to Good Use In organisation by ways such as Alert or Warnings , Reduce or try to Eliminate depending upon the Nature of waste. Considering Mechanical System 1) We can reduce or eliminate Defects by control methods including Mistake proofing /Poke yoke 2) we can reduce or eliminate Overproduction by changing from PUSH system to Pull System , Made to Stoke to Made to order , Reverse Kanban ordering and super market. 3)Waiting is tricky but need to Reduce by methods such as SMED (single minute exchange of Dies),Line Balancing, controlled Inventory /safety stock( again a waste if inventory). 4) Transportation by using conveyors instead of human motions , plant layout reorganization from process to product layout , cell systems etc...re-planing activity to have less motion and movements , using ergonomic design of Work benches and assembly lines 5) Inventory Complete elimination may not be possible but reduction should be made using methods such as batch production , pull Kanban and made to order etc... 6)Motion here motion is for human and transportation is for Products so motion can be worked out with Ergonomic study , moving assembly line (car assembly line), usage of jigs for manufacturing and assembly, usage of Power-tools and automation. 7) Extra processing / over processing this needs to be addressed by working on VA and NVA (value added and Non Value added ) study . eliminating process depending on functional need of the products rather than aesthetics. controlled working environment rather than safety stock ( working towards the mean rater than UCL )which may sometime process to rework ( myth of keeping stock to rework rather than scrap / salvage allowance ) the 8th waste Talent utilization is done by considering the views of all members and allocating roles and responsibility depending upon talent and behavior rather than hierarchy and influential / favoritism , utilizing everyone in stand up meetings andsolving problems as a team
  18. 1 point
    Hypothesis Testing is among the most powerful tools used in Business Excellence. It takes away the decisions based on gut feeling or experience or common sense e.g. Site A has better performance than Site B, we should hire more experienced employees as their accuracy is higher, it takes lesser time if we use System A vs System B, older customers are less likely to use self-help as compared to other age groups, are we meeting the cut-off defective %age or not, based on the proportion defectives we see. Hypothesis testing allows to collect valid sample sizes and make decisions for population - it keeps the gut feeling and statements such as "in our experience" out of the picture. You have statistical proof of whatever you "feel" or "think" is right. What must be kept in mind is that it is an OFAT testing technique - only one factor under consideration can be varied while all other Xs must be maintained constant. Hypothesis Testing can be used in any and every phase of the DMAIC cycle. Define - Usually all "1" tests or tests where we compare a population to an external standard are used in this phase e.g. 1 proportion test (if I have x out of y defects, am I meeting the client quality target of 95%?), 1 Sample Z, 1 Sample T, 1 Sample Sign etc. (Has the cost of living gone up as compared to the mean or median cost 10 years ago?). It helps us decide "do we even have a problem". Measure - One can look at data and the eye can catch a "trend". But can we really say that the performance has dipped, is the difference in performance statistically significant. Hypothesis testing can give you the answer. Analyze - this hardly needs any explanation as everyone has using hypothesis testing extensively in this phase to compare two populations or multiple populations e.g. do the five swimming schools create the same proportion of champions out of all enrolled in them, is the lead time for a process on machine A better than machine B, does Raw Material X give better quality than Raw Material Y, does Training Methodology 1 give better results as compared to Methodology 2, 3 and 4, does Vendor A have fewer billing discrepancies than Vendor B etc. Improve - tests involving two populations are generally used. E.g. comparing Y pre and post solution implementation (we implemented a solution to improve the yield of a machine). Is the post-solution yield higher than pre-solution yield, is the TAT post solution better than the TAT before implementing the solution, are more customers buying our product than before etc. Control - We get different CTQ numbers every month post we made an initial improvement. Can we really say that we have improved as compared to before? For 5 months after improve, if we saw a lower number for the metric, was that really different than other months. Can we say that we are consistent? We can use Hypothesis testing again. Business Excellence is nothing but an iterative process to drive excellence throughout the business. As Hypothesis Testing helps us validate or invalidate what we suspect every step of the way in the DMAIC cycle, it is a "must use" tool for the armor.
  19. 1 point
    Personal Excellence is all about the excellency in our own life. It helps us to achieve more meaningful life in terms of making balance in our relationship, emotional intelligence, our professional career and to make our life more productive. Process Excellence is a continuous improvement process to increase productivity and quality and at the same time to reduce cost with minimum variation. It is all about effectiveness and efficiency of a process. Operational Excellence is something within the organization where all the activities follow some define process flow. It helps to control disrupt in operation or process due to any changes in some interlinked department or process. It ensures that employees of the organization understand the work flow and help to create the culture to practice the standard operational procedure (SOP) and the organization values. Here the focus is customer. So we can say end to end process for better customer satisfaction with low cost. Business Excellence is something where we consider the organization as a whole, consider all the stakeholders and it helps to achieve business goal of the organization. It starts with business strategy, communication between different stakeholders and departments, then to have define process flow, cascading it in the ground and then internalization and ope-rationalization of the strategy. A organization can have very effective and efficient process and operation but poor communication, weak strategy, loophole in the change management system will not help to achieve business goal and hence to achieve Business Excellence.
  20. 1 point
    Dear Sandeep, Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is there in the industry for quite sometime now but more popularized in last 3 or 4 years. Considering the competition in every industry, every organization is trying to keep their operating cost low and provide the right product or service with right quality to the customers. It has become mandatory to every organization to search and implement new methods of production to improve the margins and quality at same time. RPA is becoming new buzz word or new method to talk and implement as every customer, organization, Industry are looking for change and a quick change. As a Lean Six Sigma Practitioner, our role has become more significant during initial stages of RPA implementations. In a simple way, A LSS Practitioner can identify and suggest the right opportunity to implement RPA by following structured method. Few debates are there saying that there is no involvement required from LSS Practitioners in RPA implementations as these would be pure technology driven. At the same time, I have observed that many projects are not able reach their end objective on time (Please read the line again... NOT ABLE TO REACH THEIR END OBJECTIVE ON TIME) due to lack of structured methodology during initial phases. A Lean Six Sigma Practitioner can support/add value to make the RPA projects success as below. 1) Understanding the objectives and preparing the business case for improvement 2) Establishing right metrics to measure the improvement 3) Preparing detailed VSM to identify highly manual repetitive time consuming process steps. 4) Estimating the benefits by performing cost vs. benefit analysis (All the processes may not yield greater ROI but many qualitative aspects to consider) 4) Design/Re-design the process to make it suitable for RPA (Please note that automating the process As-Is may not give desired results) 5) Standardize the input and handoffs 6) Support the RPA developers with suitable functional guidance 7) Tracking and Monitoring the projects with robust governance models (Depending on PMO structure in the organization) 8) Evaluating the outcomes (Metrics, Benefits) post implementation Depending on organization's project management structure, LSS Practitioner can have greater role to play in implementing RPA projects. Few organizations have started RPA consultant roles to manage all the activities mentioned above and few are managing with existing LSS teams. Fundamental method would be the same irrespective of organization structure however, LSS practitioners will have additional edge of LSS methods and concepts to get quick results. Hope this helps.
  21. 1 point
    Dear Ajith, it really depends on what your objective is. A lot of tools can be used for transactional quality in BPO - you may find out the capability (using DPMO, DPU or Defectives method), you could do a Pareto on the defects, you could do a Pareto for defects at team level, you could do mistake proofing to avoid some of the defects (e.g. removing access for frontliners for anything they aren't authorized to give e.g credits), C&E for low quality, Brainstorming for better transactional quality etc. You could really take your pick based on the intent of using the Six Sigma tools.
  22. 1 point
    I observed that the scope of six sigma has increased it is now applicable in many industrial sectors. When Bill Smith created this methodology his main focus was defect reduction and improvement which brings excellence and process improvement, later on Quality formed the core of other methodology/framework too. I have seen that the approach of employees toward quality management has not yet changed, they still consider this as the job of quality unit, as for them quality means compliance, reporting, QMS manual and most importantly Audits. I found that organizations are spending good amount of money in quality related training/workshops/paperwork etc. but still are not successful in changing the approach of individuals. At high level, every organization’s policy talks about quality and its importance but at ground level due to fixed processes, departmentalized structure it become a task of small number of people, like managers and specifically of those who belongs to quality department, since it’s their job. Induction program- By definition an induction program is an important process for bringing staff into an organization. It provides an introduction to the working environment and the set-up of the employee within the organization. An induction program is part of an organizations knowledge management process and is intended to enable the new starter to become a useful, integrated member of the team. But I believe now organizations have a need to adopt a new approach of induction program: Organizations should provide Process Excellence/Quality training to each and every employee at the time of induction, this training they can design as per the requirements of their LOB (Line of Business). Also when induction of an employee gets conducted at that time we can tell employee that they are suppose to share their views (positive or negative) after six months from now about quality of process/operation to which they belongs (preferably through a presentation) so that this training of quality not become just a training and they feel involved with the things they have learned. This kind of treatment at induction will make employee responsible for his own quality as well as quality of his team and organization. Why this should be done at induction program because when we start with induction: 1. The new employee will feel himself linked with the quality department. 2. This will make new employee feel that he is responsible for the quality of operation to which he belongs. 3. This will convey a message to employee that organization has a serious approach towards quality. This approach will bring mutual benefits and this also links with the high level objective of each and every organization that is “alignment of individual objectives with organization’s objectiveâ€. Now the question comes since induction is for new employee what will happen to those who are already working? For this we need not to do anything but to ask them to attend this “Quality session†which we are conducting for new employees and they can join this from there and then. I believe that each and every individual should feel himself responsible for quality and there is a need to make quality a routine habit rather than an event.
  23. 1 point
    "Yad yada charati shreshta, tat tat devetaro janah, sa yat pramanam kurte, lokastanuvartate." Whatever the leader or the noble do, the others follow. Whatever standards they set, people behave accordingly. Leaders will always be dynamic and trend setters. They will form new teams with the available members. To emerge at the right time is the quality of a leader and if a wrong leaders emerges, they will not last long.
  24. 1 point
    Transactional quality in BPO segment is nothing but Quality Assurance in reality. The idea is to facilitate the delivery teams to equip themselves with holistic quality plan, checklists, SOPs, reports, dashboards and RCA tools to run the quality plan regularly. It is primarily useful in combating special cause variation. Transactional processes could be: Preparing financial statements, Online banking services etc.
  25. 1 point
    There are two primary methodologies in Six Sigma: DMAIC DFSS The Six Sigma DMAIC methodology described in the post earlier is for making improvements to existing processes. The second methodology DFSS stands for Design for Six Sigma. This methodology is used for new products and services or when the improvements that can be made with DMAIC is not sufficient. There are several approaches to DFSS: DMADV, IDOV, etc. The most popular approach to implementing DFSS is using DMADV (Define - Measure - Analyze - Design - Validate). More than 70% of the DFSS implementations use the DMADV approach. DMAIC can be considered to be reactive in nature, in the sense that a process already exists and is making defects. DMAIC approach is used to identify the root cause of the problems and then fix it. On the other hand, DFSS is mostly a proactive approach. A process does not exist yet and DFSS is used to truly understand customer requirements and then develop a process that provides exceptional levels of quality and process performance.
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