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  1. 3 points
    Against:- Zero defect is a Nirvana stage. When there is no waste, no unwanted activities in process of making a product. No matter how much money you invest, there will always be some waste generated/ some activity that is a not adding any value to the product. You take any organization with world class equipment,processes, technologies. They are still struggling to achieve Zero Defect, because it is practically impossible. I am not telling that Organization should stop working to achieve zero defect. Considering "Zero defect" as a concept is brilliant. It motivates and drives people for continuous improvement. If Zero defect is possible why do organization struggle to achieve 6sigma level. i.e 3.4 DPMO. why don't they target higher sigma level where there is 0 DPMO. six sigma is only one aspect of Zero Defect
  2. 3 points
    Everyone has brought out great points which deserve to be respected. The passion to believe that 'Zero Defect' is NOT an impossibility is very encouraging. However, prior to this debate, the question was initially asked as a Yes / No question with no conditions and no room for explanations or deeper interpretations - "Is Zero Defect achievable?". All the answers that support this have some conditions attached., viz. it comes with a cost, it is possible with sufficient planning, could be done with mistake proofing, it is a management concept etc. etc. I am a strong supporter of the zero defect thought process, but when it comes to answering this question unconditionally, I would maintain a "no". No quality standard is complete without a "corrective action" clause. Big brands do have well defined customer service clauses that include warranty services and product recall procedures. Inspection and rework lines are built in even the best of production lines. Robust design and Mistake proofing techniques have greatly helped in improving efficiencies and reducing human dependencies and thus reduced errors. Even then, it is hard to find a 100% mistake proofing for all processes in a production line or a service industry. Even a 7 sigma process is termed as 'Near Perfection', but still not perfect! All of us know that the normal distribution will touch the X axis only at infinity! When we buy a product, say a Television set, we expect it to perform defect free for a reasonable period of time. In a large population of TV sets from highly reputed manufacturer, the defect rate is expected to be extremely low, but certainly it is still not zero. You may visit the nearest service center for any product to find out! Yet for those small portion of affected customers, what is considered very important is the prompt response and remedy with least inconvenience. When we say zero defect, it cannot be even one in a million. It is very important to encourage the philosophy of 'zero defect', and continuously strive towards it, but one has to be very careful before making a claim of achievement. An organization might do its best to overcome most of the factors that are controllable, but there are factors that may not be controllable and it wouldn't be practical to build a factor of safety for all such factors. We should not permit over complacency to set in that would come in the way of planning good remedial and recovery plans, for which failures need to be anticipated and mitigation plans built in. Many safety systems that necessarily may not prevent failures, either due to product or due to external factors, but help in reducing severity of the impact in an 'unlikely' event. Just as in an FMEA exercise, we tend to prioritize the actions based Severity, Occurrence and Detection, but may not necessarily eliminate all possibilities 100%. The "Zero defect" thought process will continue to be key driver for continuous improvement, and would help to intelligently understand and manage the variabilities more proactively to provide products and services that keep up with ever revising Quality and Reliability expectations.
  3. 3 points
    I agree with Ms. Reena And Ms. Kavitha but I would like to add some points to explain more for Mr Venugopal as I am not agree with you because here we are not talking about zero defect in general. We are talking about zero defect in industries, services sector, telecom sector, manufacturers, car manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers and many more. For any organisation business performance and profit making and satisfaction of customer is the main goal. If any organisation has aimed to achieve some financial goal with satisfaction of customer and if they achieve it then we can say that they have zero defects. It depends on how we are interpreting it and where we are applying it. I agree with Ms Kavitha that it involves a lot of cost and previous planning also. If we talk about car Manufacturing industry then here we have different methods to meausre JD Power customer service index, customer satisfaction index and Initial quality study. For example if I give example for Honda City, it has IQS score on first position since last more than 10 years and Honda aims to be number one in IQS study, and Honda is achieving it continously year after year, although they have invested huge to achieve and maintain consistency on first position in its segment, here we can say that Honda is achieving zero defects because Honda aimed to be number one and achieving it also.
  4. 3 points
    There are many situations where we really require zero defect. like already pointed out "Surgical set up" , or a "plane landing". The question here is not about zero defect required or not.. It is about "Is zero defect achievable?" When we say zero defect does it mean: 1. Absolutely no defect from a process... for how much duration? For ever? 2. Are we drawing some upper and lower tolerance on % defects or DPMO. and so long as the defect rate falls with in a service level agreement, are we going to accept it as zero defects? 3. if we are talking about a particular product, on which multiple defects can manifest,... when we say zero defect, are we referring to the non-occurrence of a particular defect or do we mean that no defect type should occur? 4. Are we referring to only the final output? Are we ok to have inprocess defects, but the final outcome is expected to be zero defect? 5. When we say zero defect, are we ignoring other factors like delivery time, processing cost, productivity etc? WHAT IS ZERO DEFECT? DEFINE IT.
  5. 3 points
    This is a multiple choice question carrying 100 points for right answer. Closes at 11 PM IST tonight.
  6. 2 points
    Hi All Enclosing an article I came across which supports the concept that Zero defect is achievable; how it is achievable? Intelligent Approach to Zero defect manufacturing.docx Zero defects basically works on two premises: 1. Defects reduction 2. Waste elimination With a proactive approach right from the beginning of the process; continuous monitoring - evaluating - implementing, one can definitely achieve a stage of zero defect. It may take a couple of cycles...to assess, to reform...to ultimately reach a stage of zero defect. One cannot perpetually have defects in a system which is put through stringent checks and has well-controlled processes and default detecting mechanism.
  7. 2 points
    Hi All, If you ask zero defect is achievable or not? my answer would be "Yes". As rightly said by Reena and Vastupal, with high quality assurance at the time of project start and effective planning makes the zero defect possible. Again, if you ask me zero defect at the very normal or affordable price is achievable, then answer is no. It is achievable only with high cost involving technology & tools like Mistake proofing, standard work,etc, will helps us detect defects, correct it and send it to customer. Zero defect is again possible, if Perfection is achieved through constant practice. For eg, In surgical set up, a senior most doctors out of practice, he is able to achieve perfection in surgeries that they do. Zero defect is achievable in a way we perceive things. Zero defect is something that doing the things first time right. Hence, in a practical situations and theoretically zero defect is not possible. and if high cost is involved in detecting and correcting defects then, zero defect is possible. simply to say, it depends on the situation we want to explore.
  8. 2 points
    Looks impractical yet I would support 'Zero defect is achievable'...as Mr.Vashisth rightly said, "it is the way we perceive zero defects". With effective planning and quality control measures in the beginning of the process till the final delivery, defects can be effectively mitigated. If whatever planned is delivered with satisfactory results within given time frame, we assume it is done with zero defects. The debatable point here is whether it is desirable...the kind of stringent measures n stress it involves, should it be practically realized?
  9. 2 points
    FOR I would like to say that zero defect is achievable but it depends on how we are doing its interpretation. Theoretically and practically it is not possible to achieve zero defect. But I would say zero defect means get things right at first time. So we can achieve zero defect. For example if I talk about to finish the project. During finishing of project we have so many steps which are having their own deadlines and conditions. If we are completing all steps in time with all requirements and finish our project on time we can say that there was no defect because whatever has been planned earlier is achieved now. Also lean manufacturing and continous improvement focus on preventive maintainance to reduce and eliminate waste activities so that we can achieve our targets.
  10. 2 points
    Q 49. What is the differences between Lead Time and CycleTime? What is the reason for confusion in the two definitions? Cycle time, lead-time are the most generic terms, which always get confused in terms of usage and representation of the work. Some people may call the avg time taken to complete a chart – as production lead-time not cycle time. Some call it as cycle time. Hence understanding the term what it stands for is very important to avoid such confusions. These confusions will lead in wrong data collection, poor / worse decision making. Definitions: 1. Cycle time – it is the time taken to complete one unit’s production from start and finish. It is based on work process based. CT = Net production / no. of units produced 2. Takt time – It is the rate at which you have to complete the production in order to meet the customer requirements. It is based on customer demand. TT = Net production / customer demand 3. Lead time – It is the time taken for production of one unit through its multiple processes of operations from frond to end. i.e from the order received to payment received. LT = T from order to dispatch. Difference between Cycle time and Lead time: Aspects Cycle time Lead time Definition "Cycle time" is the time it takes to complete the production of one unit from start to finish. "Lead time" is the time it takes for one unit to make its way through your operation from taking the order to receiving payment. Meaning CT starts when the actual work of production is started in the unit and ends when it is ready for delivery. It measures the time elapsed between order and till delivery to he customer Perspective / View this is done in terms of organization's perspective this is done in the customer's perspective. Rate of Measures Measures the work completion rate. More of a mechanical process capability. Measures the arrival rate Aims to measure cycle time in terms of demand Customer waiting time. It is measured in Amount of time / unit( minutes / customer , Parts / hr) minutes / hours etc Relationship related by Work in progress but within the unit Related by work in progress, but there is no unit. VA / NVA It segregates the Value add activity time from NVA. It includes both VA & NVA Cases if one time is higher, If CT is higher than Lead time, demand of the customer is not met. If lead time is higher than CT, inventory is more. Example A train manufacturer offers custom manufactured replacement parts to customers. When an order is placed it is goes through several internal business processes each with its own cycle time including order processing, manufacturing and delivery. The lead time is the sum of these cycle times plus a delay of two days due to a manufacturing backlog. Conclusion: Cycle time and lead time are two different entities from the different stakeholders perspective. Both are related by common term of net production, work in progress, etc. But the difference is lead time is measured from customer’s point and cycle time is done in internal process point of views. Both are to be well understood with its own limitations in terms of usage. To me, the word production gets into confusion mode to many. Another example, in a coding company, client provides a batch today at 8 am to the company to code and give. If the company delivers the completed batch at 8 pm, the lead time for this process is 12 hours. But when the batch start time and end time is noted, the cycle time taken to complete the batch is only 2 hours. It shows that the inventory is more. Here the company would have involved in other client works. Hence, understanding the concept is very important to define the data collection process and in valid decision makings. Thanks Kavitha
  11. 1 point
    Gurneet (Banta's wife) displays her flow chart learning through a real life domestic flow chart.
  12. 1 point
    Is Zero Defect achievable ? This is launched as a debate question now. The question carries 2500 points and is open for a week. You need to take a stand and respond to other’s views while supporting your own viewpoint by commenting on posts (use quote option to comment on other's responses) You may respond as YES or NO and provide your justification. Feel free to comment on others responses and provide your point of view.
  13. 1 point
    Hi Rajesh You mentioned that improve your process will minimise defects is management myth. I strongly disagree with you on this. Even the very basis of any organisation we call it as 5 S implementation, also helps to reduce and minimise defects and prevents us to produce wrong products and stops our failure in various ways. Improving the process is far beyond this which involves a lot of study, lot of technical sports, upgrading to latest technology. There are various industry around us where defects are minised and process improvement is one of the many reasons to deliver defect free products. Why every organisation is focusing on continous improvements which also applies on process also, then I think this will also be management myth. All ISO organisation, standards are focusing on this why?? This is not a management myth sir, this is what is something practical proved by leaders and organisations. You can see examples that there is need to change according to time and technology up gradation to latest techniques to be in the market. If any organisation does tune with latest trends they face a difficult time to sustain in market. See example of Nokia which was stuck with their own operating system but Android was going on in almost every mobile industry, in end it was take over by Microsoft and now they are coming g with android... And same case with blackberry phone. And also same case with hmt also. So it is very necessary to continue improve your process which lead to you get in tune with latest trends and be in market and make profits to grow in future although you need to invest a lot to apply this. If all these management myth then I think every manufacturing industry or any organisation will turn into a garage or some workshop in City where all are mixed and take a lot of time to do anything because nothing is defined properly, what, how, when, where to do any operation. Thanks for your feedback in url but if you see clearly all has mentioned about continous improvement to achieve better and better and achieve zero defects and ZD is different for everyone in their own terms and point of view.
  14. 1 point
    Hi Sathya, So, you mean to say that out of 10 flight landings on a given day, we get one crash per day on a regular basis, because human can go wrong? Everyday, one patient dies of cardiac arrest when he had gone for a simple tonsillectomy procedure? Never, with regular practice, frequent upgradation of the system in terms of knowledge, technological advancements, etc, the errors are at the zero level. With continuous monitoring, application of process maps in order to eliminate the waste and minimise the defects, the zero defect concept is possible.
  15. 1 point
  16. 1 point
    Hi Sumantha, As Vastupal said rightly, the defect car is not produced continuously. knowing that the defect has happened, any organisation would die to implement some of the six sigma tools like RCA, Poke yoke, etc to rectify the mistake knowing the error is costly. I agree with the story that they recalled the cars due to its possessed defects, but they did not produce the same knowing that zero defect is not possible. They would have definitely worked towards achieving zero defects since the damage to the users of the product is high, if the product possess any defect.
  17. 1 point
    Zero defects is achievable: My view is Zero defect is achievable one. Zero defects is a concept that mentions that Defects are not acceptable and Do things Right at the very First Time. Involvement of the Top Level management to the Bottom level workers, Rigid Error Proof Systems, Tight Inspection of the Products & continuous improvement are the possible methods to achieve Zero Defects. Zero defects concept also involves the Cost of the error Proofing system & their maintenance.. If the Top management is mainly focused on Zero Defects & the Cost is secondary then it will be a Great idea. Similarly in a Company there are some Zero defect Lines & it is being achieved in those lines....
  18. 1 point
    Against Zero Defect is achievable:- I agree that Zero defect is a concept rather than target It should be used for motivating people to achieve zero defects. It drives continuous improvement activities. However, the question is ZERO defect is achievable or not. To achieve zero defect we need to eliminate waste from the process. Waste means any unproductive activity that does not add value to the product. Eliminating all those Non-value added activates/waste is practically impossible. The question is not about the concept; it is about actually achieving zero defect. Therefore, my vote is against
  19. 1 point
    Dear Mr. Venugopal, you will appreciate that nothing is possible unconditional or occur in isolation. There are always certain set of conditions required to complete a task. If you ask me 'can you cook - write yes or no? What should I write...'yes' I can cook provided I have gas stove, utensils, raw material, etc. or should I reply 'no' as I cannot cook unconditionally. How would you respond to this question?? There are always certain prerequisites for the completion of job and that is what is discussed by people who feel 'zero defects is achievable if proper procedures are put in place. The reply can be negative only if we feel, come what may, it cannot be achieved. You also wrote "I am a strong supporter of the zero defect thought process......It is very important to encourage the philosophy of 'zero defect', and continuously strive towards it". I think one can support and encourage a philosophy only if one believes in it!!
  20. 1 point
  21. 1 point
    While VOC is considered as a key starting point for business excellence, can overemphasis on VOC be detrimental to business? Explain with examples. (This question is part of episode 2 of Excellence Ambassador series. It is open till 10 PM IST on 10th October 2017)
  22. 1 point
    Six Sigma projects identification in BPO In a BPO, the following types of projects are commonly carried out. Reducing the number of errors for XYZ team to 0.5%Reduction of FTEs by 30 by process reengineering in XYZ teamTransitioning support staff into billable slots after 3 months of stabilizingEnsure that 90% of the jobs do not require reworking for XYZ teamReduce sloppy errors to 1 per week dayReduction of IRR across XYZ, ABCImprovement of average productivity of XYZImprove skill index of production staff across the companyAchieve a utilization of 75% across production lines in XYZAchieve an overall internal quality target 98% for the client in ABCEnhanced revenue generating opportunities by proper capacity managementImprove the updating process of the client's databaseAchieve 80% capability among production staff to function at priority levelIncrease through-put by removing unitization QC processReducing the timeline of roll-out of new process Examples of companies who have been implementing Six Sigma in BPO- Among Banking BPO's, ICICI OneSource, AMEX, BoA, HDFC have been benefiting from Six Sigma. WNS Global Services, Office Tiger, GE Capital are others who have benefited.Among users in the Call Centers GENPACT, Wipro, Accenture, HCL, EXL, Patni BPO have been utilizing Six Sigma methodology. Benchmark Six Sigma has been conducting in-house training and has tie up with several leading BPO's.
  23. 1 point
    I observed that the scope of six sigma has increased it is now applicable in many industrial sectors. When Bill Smith created this methodology his main focus was defect reduction and improvement which brings excellence and process improvement, later on Quality formed the core of other methodology/framework too. I have seen that the approach of employees toward quality management has not yet changed, they still consider this as the job of quality unit, as for them quality means compliance, reporting, QMS manual and most importantly Audits. I found that organizations are spending good amount of money in quality related training/workshops/paperwork etc. but still are not successful in changing the approach of individuals. At high level, every organization’s policy talks about quality and its importance but at ground level due to fixed processes, departmentalized structure it become a task of small number of people, like managers and specifically of those who belongs to quality department, since it’s their job. Induction program- By definition an induction program is an important process for bringing staff into an organization. It provides an introduction to the working environment and the set-up of the employee within the organization. An induction program is part of an organizations knowledge management process and is intended to enable the new starter to become a useful, integrated member of the team. But I believe now organizations have a need to adopt a new approach of induction program: Organizations should provide Process Excellence/Quality training to each and every employee at the time of induction, this training they can design as per the requirements of their LOB (Line of Business). Also when induction of an employee gets conducted at that time we can tell employee that they are suppose to share their views (positive or negative) after six months from now about quality of process/operation to which they belongs (preferably through a presentation) so that this training of quality not become just a training and they feel involved with the things they have learned. This kind of treatment at induction will make employee responsible for his own quality as well as quality of his team and organization. Why this should be done at induction program because when we start with induction: 1. The new employee will feel himself linked with the quality department. 2. This will make new employee feel that he is responsible for the quality of operation to which he belongs. 3. This will convey a message to employee that organization has a serious approach towards quality. This approach will bring mutual benefits and this also links with the high level objective of each and every organization that is “alignment of individual objectives with organization’s objectiveâ€. Now the question comes since induction is for new employee what will happen to those who are already working? For this we need not to do anything but to ask them to attend this “Quality session†which we are conducting for new employees and they can join this from there and then. I believe that each and every individual should feel himself responsible for quality and there is a need to make quality a routine habit rather than an event.
  24. 1 point
    SJ has explained this in detail. Two more lines to summarise - In a two sided specification limit, Cpk multiplied by three is the smaller of the two sigma levels (sigma level upper and sigma level lower) In the example above Cpk = 1 and Cpk multiplied by three is Sigma Leval (Upper).
  25. 1 point
    Six Sigma is a data driven approach: It is an easily appreciable fact that decisions should be taken based on data (to the extent possible) and should not be based on the gut feel or judgment. Six Sigma provides us with information on which and what type of data should be collected, how it should be collected and how it should be analyzed. Example - In a bank, the number of employees was increased based on the gut feeling of the senior management, while the biggest competitor of this bank analyzed the trends of work flow for future projects through simulation and created flex-profiles to reach very high service levels while maintaining the same manpower count. Six Sigma is a process focused methodology: Everything that you do in the workplace has a process behind it. For bringing improvements it is always good to study the underlying process along with the results, especially if we are looking for a long lasting improvement and not a temporary quick-fix solution. As Deming said - 85% of the problems are due to system and process deficiencies and not due to human errors. Behind most human errors is a weak process. Example - The chances of the wrong module being integrated into a software development can not be eliminated by just a reward or punishment mechanism. Six Sigma provides a structured step by step roadmap: If a business problem is being resolved by a cross functional team over a period of time, it pays to utilize a structured methodology (like Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) with review stages. Example - If a company wants to reduce the TAT for a maintenance process, the situation is best addressed by following a structured methodology where all problem-solving team members stay focused and can see visible progress. Six Sigma uses noncommon-sense approaches: If common sense approaches were sufficient, there would not have been any chronic (repetitive) business problems at all. Example - To improve customer satisfaction index by 25% in 4 months time, you would need not one but a series of non-common sense approaches which Six Sigma provides. Six Sigma integrates the best of tried and tested management methodologies over the years: Six Sigma has weaved various time tested management techniques in one roadmap. Also, Six Sigma is not rigid. It is an evolving methodology. New tools are being added to the Six Sigma toolkit by innovative practitioners. Recently, in a Benchmark Six Sigma Conference, speakers from Wipro, Infosys, Patni, Kanbay, Accenture, TCS, showed how Six Sigma methodology is being applied innovatively in their organizations. Six Sigma improvement projects are mostly validated by financial benefits or by an impact on a KPI (Key Performance Indicator): Whatever improvements we bring at the workplace must show in business results. People who make this possible are an important resource in any organization. Example - A Six Sigma Green Belt who was successful in 5 out of 5 projects got excellent recognition in a company. (More and more companies are now linking employee and team growth with efficiency or cost measures). Six Sigma works on improvements on a project by project basis by people trained as improvement experts (called Green Belts and Black Belts): Improvements can be brought on a project by project basis and by no other way. Unless improvement areas are converted into projects, with assigned responsibilities and authorities to correctly trained people, the problems remain what they are. Example - In one manufacturing company certified as ISO 9001, long customer wait times for repairs during warranty were identified as an improvement area during each internal audit, but no one was trained on techniques to bring improvements (and the issue was not converted into a project with accountability). When this company started practicing Six Sigma, the same improvement areas could be carried out with meaningful ROI from each improvement project. In organizations of any size or complexity, Six Sigma methodology poses the following questions repeatedly: Are we working at the best possible performance levels for our key processes? If the answer is yes, is it feasible to explore new processes that can set new benchmarks and give our company a bigger competitive advantage? If the answer is no, what is it that is stopping us from forming and supporting a team that can enhance the performance level in a manner that makes business sense. The age-old algebraic equation says it all: Y = f (X). If Y is the effect and the Xs are the causes, then putting all the focus on the Y or guessing which X is most significant are both bad ideas. One thing Six Sigma helps with is understanding these relationships statistically so work can be directed at the cause or combination of causes (Xs) most likely to change the effect (Y). This activity helps break the endless string of firefighting brought on by never really getting to the root cause of any effect. This equation is at the heart of the Six Sigma methodology and with the DMAIC and DMADV roadmaps drives a company through a logical, sequential process to efficiently find the significant Xs and act on them. This gives the highest probability of success and helps turn the tide of reactive behavior.
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