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Showing content with the highest reputation since 10/13/2019 in all areas

  1. 5 points
    Description - Bench happily highlights that while planning his career, he had considered the choice between being a Generalist or a Specialist early in his life. Mark wants to know about the decision that he took. Bench says that he decided to keep options open for himself and proclaims himself as a "very general Generalist". After listening to Bench, Mark says that he has realized that he has taken a path different from the two options. He considers himself as a "specialized Generalist" or what can be considered as a "generalized Specialist". Bench want to understand what this means. Mark explains that he is a Business Excellence Master Black Belt. He calls himself a generalized Specialist as he specializes in problem solving which he can do in any sector. He further explains that he could be considered a generalist too as he can work with large variety of processes but in a specialized way. This cartoon depicts that Lean Six Sigma and Business Excellence competencies allows one to be specialized without dependence on a specific industry or functional domain.
  2. 5 points
  3. 4 points
    Check this debate between Bench and Mark on announcing winners for a contest. Is Bench incorrect here? Description - There is an announcement that the results for Men vs Women contests are about to be announced by Bench an Mark. The reward is to be given to better performing gender. To add spice to the contest, men and women had been divided into younger and older folks. Bench comes on stage and says that he will announce the result with some analysis. He explains that younger men have done better than younger women. He then goes on to show that older men have also done better than their older counterparts. With this analysis, he concludes that men have won the contest. Dramatically, Mark comes in and announces that the final winners are women. Bench argues with Mark saying that men were better in both the categories. Mark says that overall percentage pass rate of women is better than that of men and shows the aggregate scores. Mark highlights that the award was meant for better overall performance. Bench cannot figure out how this makes any sense. Bench continues to think that if there are only two categories possible and men did better in both, men should be considered winners. The cartoon highlights a possibility of misrepresentation that exists in many analyses, especially where sub-grouping is done and subgroups are analysed. Feel free to discuss this below.
  4. 2 points
    Bench still thinks of Six Sigma as a measure of process performance and struggles with the defects per million concept. Mark has continued to learn with evolution of Lean Six Sigma into a strategy driven Business Result Improvement Program. Are you ready to take your program to the next level? Do provide your comments on where do you think different organizations exist in this journey. This is an important discussion board for all Lean Six Sigma practitioners.
  5. 1 point
    Natwar Lal has provided four different service sector scenarios of Genchi Gembutsu and he is the deserving winner for this question. Do have a look at the response by Benchmark Expert - Venugopal.
  6. 1 point
    Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R Genchi Gembutsu translates into “Go and See”. It is a term that has emerged from the Toyota Production System. Japanese leaders like Taiichi Ohno insisted that engineers need to visit Gemba and observe to see how value is created and how waste gets generated. The context in these situations was a manufacturing shop floor, or an actual usage of and expectations from a product by the end customer. In many of the emerged businesses like software development, IT services and e-commerce, we may not have a comparable ‘shop-floor’ atmosphere. However, we have customers, customer expectations, customer usage related experiences, competitive offerings etc. Similarly, we have design teams, operations teams, customer relations teams etc. Any software being developed is meant to interface with a process of human to serve some purpose. Many times, we see that there is a ‘requirement’ document that is created by the user (could be a internal or external) based on which the development commences. The developed software product seldom comes right the first time and will require more iterations of rework until it meets the user’s requirements. Applying the principle underlying ‘Genchi Gembustsu’ is very important to reduce such wastage of effort and resources. For example, imagine a software development exercise for creating a web interface for potential customers who want to approach a bank for any product. The developer would have to feel the requirements by Becoming a potential customer himself / herself Obtain first hand inputs from a representative sample of potential customers Study the similar facilities provided by competitors in the market Visit the recipients of these inputs (could be the sales team or contact center) and understand the how best the inputs should be received by them for further actions. Possible areas for ambiguous interpretations and to improve the user-friendliness Adaptability of the portal with multiple applications and mobile devices. Ability to reach through popular social medias. Areas where flexibility of coding is important, considering possibilities of ongoing modifications and up gradations. The above are just examples to illustrate the possibilities. With adequate involvement of right teams and brain storming, one could arrive at the points as most appropriate for the situation. Taking example of an e-commerce platform, the most obvious Gembas will be the ‘end-user’ and all the locations where the customer requests and inputs are made use of.. viz. the teams involved in processing of order, logistics, payment and delivery. As discussed in above examples, customized list of check points has to be evolved. Direct knowledge and feel of the inbound and outbound users will also help in developing appropriate ‘test cases’ for effective and efficient UATs.
  7. 1 point
    Genchi Genbutsu - "Go and See" to investigate the issue and truly understand the customer situation. It basically refers to go and observe the process where the actual value is being added. As the question suggests, it makes perfect sense to use in in manufacturing however it is a myth that it is only used in manufacturing. As a concept Genchi Genbutsu is domain and industry agnostic. While preparing process maps, we usually tell the participants to create a map of "What the process is" and not "What it should be" or "what you think it is". One of the best means of understanding "What the process is" is to pick up a transaction and do a walkthrough of the process with it. This is Genchi Genbutsu for you as when you do a walkthrough of the process with the transaction you actually go to the process and see how it works. I am providing some examples below where the idea is same "Go and See". 1. Issue Resolution: when you raise an issue, the first thing that the agent / engineer will do is try to replicate the issue. They might do a screen share or take control of your computer and replicate the issue to understand where to attack and what to do 2. Software Testing: The first one happens when the code is compiled. The compiler does a walkthrough of the entire code and highlights the section of the codes that could not be compiled due to incorrect coding. Second happens during the multiple stages of testing - unit testing, integration testing and UAT. If a particular test case fails and the code is sent back to developer, the developer will first recreate the situation to see the failure (this is Genchi Genbutsu) 3. Medical conditions: Various invasive and non-invasive screening methods are used to first go to the specific location in the body and see the extent of the problem. E.g. X-ray, MRI, CT-scans, angiography etc. 4. Servicing of car: when you take your car for its regular service, the mechanic will first take a test drive of the car. What he is trying to do is to get a feel of how the car is driving so that he could pinpoint the issue which he will not be able to do unless he drives it himself.
  8. 1 point
    As Uday and I were in the final year of our graduation, everyone around us was sure of Uday's future. They said Uday could sell anything. Others spoke highly of his emotional intelligence. Sounds like an instant marketing hit, doesn’t he? Well, so he was! Filled with the indomitable energy of a sales newbie and exuding charm he sped his way to step into the shoes of a Area Sales Manager after 5 years of introductory sales engineer experience. Although he surmounted every problem that came his way, human errors made by subordinates served as regular bottle-necks. He’d ensure the avoidance of billing errors on his own but communication gaps would result in one. He would often suffer the embarrassment of differential pricing quotes for the same offering. And his team's efficiency was blotched with documentation errors, material dispatch errors, poor after-sales service etcetera all along the way. These debacles soon earned him the ire of his clients and he began to invest substantial time in resolving issues with them. What came to his rescue during such delicate times were his soft-skills. His juniors hero-worshiped him. They all said that Uday had his way with the clients and had to be seen tackling them to be believed. His success prevailed. The changing times soon saw him as GM Sales and in his stewardship saw the automation of many processes. Just when he was expecting technology to result in perfection, errors persisted due to a high rate of attrition amongst sales professionals. Uday sought help in sales counselling sessions but the organization was still infested by errors, reactive measures and rework. One hadn’t an option but to become complacent in the current situation of mediocrity. Majority of Uday’s energy was directed towards client conflicts and retaining business. Still exuded charm, our man, but perfection still eluded him. 15 years into the job and following a linear trend, Uday was now the Vice President of the sales department. Towering now over a fleet of GMs and reporting only to the CEO, he collaborated with the New Product Development Team and the Hiring/Training Team. Banking still on his insight into the customer psyche and high emotional intelligence and his reputation as the best Sales Workshop Facilitator, Uday now became the direct contact for strategic high value clients. But what sounds like a success story had a bitter glitch. With all he had accomplished in his 18 years long stint, Uday still couldn’t bask in the glory of his success without disturbance. He convinced himself that he had stuck to the same organization too long. It was now time for him to shift his allegiance. He flowed with the trend of his time and joined a multinational organization. This is where Uday had the greatest revelation of his life! The skill set he had acquired over the past prolific 18 years of his life seemed redundant now. The processes here were highly streamlined; devoid of quotation disputes, erroneous and delayed invoices, shipment delays and other organizational inefficiencies. It was there and then that the great truth had dawned on him; his coveted moment of corporate enlightenment; the great organizational consciousness that he had come in terms with: his new organization swore by and soared with Six Sigma- the ultimate organizational truth and saviour. Six Sigma had his creative juices flowing. He no longer felt contained or restricted. His approach was futuristic; prevention was the thumb-rule not mitigation. He soon collaborated with the Leadership Team and formulated a new sales model which heralded in astronomical revenues. Uday realized that he could never enjoy such potency of thought in his previous organization where he wasted much of his energy tackling trivialities. Much like Buddha, he attained the great consciousness the hard way. But it needn’t be so tough, does it? One can only imagine the greatness he and his organization could’ve scaled had he stumbled upon Six Sigma earlier.
  9. 1 point
    Looking at the above differences, it becomes clear as to why Test of Equivalence is considered as opposite of Hypothesis testing. Having laid down the differences, there are some similarities as well 1. Both work with samples and apply the concepts of Inferential Statistics (Significance Level, Confidence Intervals etc.) 2. Researcher is interested in Alternate Hypothesis in both (even though the alternate hypothesis are opposite in the two) Choice between hypothesis testing and equivalence will depend on the purpose of the study. Equivalence tests are most commonly used in pharma industry to check if a generic drug (lower cost option) has the same efficacy as the patented drug. To summarize, equivalence tests could be used wherever we want to use substitutes to an original item without significantly impacting the final outcome. Some e.g. that I could think off 1. Construction - Substituting building materials without impacting the compressive strength 2. Chemical / oil / pharma - Substituting chemicals without impacting the reaction time 3. Medical devices - substituting the type of laser without impacting the burning efficiency and precision 4. Tyre industry - substituting the rubber components without affecting the grip or the life of the tyre
  10. 1 point
    Hahaha!! Bench is a victim of not knowing Simpson's Paradox OR Both Bench and Mark are victims of lack of Operational Definition for winning criteria PS - I got to know about Simpson's Paradox from the 2 weekly questions that are asked. So thanks for it. For the uninitiated, go to Forum Dictionary and search for Simpson's Paradox!!
  11. 1 point
    Null hypothesis assumes that the population mean is the same as a target value or another population mean. In equivalence testing, the null hypothesis assumes the population mean differs from a target value or other population mean. For example, difference between a 2-sample t-test (Hypothesis) and a 2-sample equivalence test can be best illustrated as, 2-sample t-test to test whether the means of two populations are different. The hypotheses for the test are as follows: Null hypothesis (H0): The means of the two given populations are the same. Alternative hypothesis (H1): The means of the two given populations are different. If the p-value for the test is less than alpha (α), then the null hypothesis is rejected and concluded as the means are different. In contrast, 2-sample equivalence test is used to test whether the means of two populations are equivalent. Equivalence for the test is defined by a range of values that you specify (also called the equivalence interval). The hypotheses for the test are as follows: · Null hypothesis (H0): The difference between the means is outside equivalence interval. The means are not equivalent. · Alternative hypothesis (H1): The difference between the means is inside the equivalence interval. The means are equivalent. If the p-value for the test is less than α, then you reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the means are equivalent. Small differences between products are not always functionally or practically important. For example, a difference of 1 mg in a 200 mg dose of a drug is unlikely to have any practical effect. When an equivalence test is done we must enter equivalence limits that indicate how large the difference must be to be considered important. Smaller differences, which are within the equivalence limits, are considered unimportant. In this way, an equivalence test evaluates both the practical significance and statistical significance of a difference from the population mean. To choose between an equivalence test and a standard t-test, consider what needs to be proven or demonstrated. The objective of hypothesis test is to conclude the samples are different but when we want to prove that the samples are equivalent we use equivalence test. Equivalence testing is a better approach as compared to usual hypothesis testing when New food item meant to be a substitute New generic drug compared to old standard (bioequivalence) This process makes more sense logically because more samples gives us more power for detecting ‘equivalence’. An alternative to the two-sample t-test is TOST, designed specifically for bioequivalence testing of pharmaceutical products. It has recently been expanded into broader applications in pharmaceutical science, process engineering, psychology , medicine , chemistry and environmental science. An equivalence test forces us to identify from a practical perspective how big of a difference is important and puts the burden on the data to reach a conclusion of equivalence.
  12. 1 point
    Sampling Errors are of two types (as already mentioned in the question) - Biased and Unbiased. Biased Sampling Error - is one which results in a bias in the sample. The effect of this bias is that the result of the sample will not reflect the true nature of the population. There are three sources of such bias 1. Survey Bias: where the survey questionnaire or the process of collecting data is biased 2. Researcher Bias: bias introduced by the researcher of the study 3. Respondent Bias: bias in the responses if the respondent chooses not to give the correct answer Unbiased Sampling Error - is one which is the resultant of chance. The sample will never reflect the population simply because the observations will vary from each other. Selecting a large sample size is one way in which both these biases could be avoided. However, since our analyst has decided to choose a smaller sample size, he should take care of the following things 1. Sampling method: choose the one which gives a random representative sample 2. If there is a questionnaire involved, then ensure that there are no leading questions or questions for which the respondents might have a tendency to not give the right response. Make the survey anonymous so that respondents could give correct responses 3. Determine which is more important - alpha or beta error? Since sample size is fixed, he could then determine either the significance level or Power of the Test that he is going to get and whether it is ok or not
  13. 1 point
    A Tollgate Review, as the name indicates, is like a checkpoint in a Six Sigma project at which the various team members meet and determine whether the work has been performed as indicated in the project plan and whether the objectives mentioned have been achieved. Here are some of the key factors to be considered while planning a tollgate review to ensure the review is effective and the project moves forward as planned. 1. Tollgate reviews to be planned in advanced and timelines to be adhered as planned, Review cancellation or rescheduling should be avoided 2. Attendance must be made compulsory for the reviews and scheduling should take care of availability of all stake holders 3. Top management should be part of the program right from project selection till closure and they should be part of all reviews 4. The reviews should have a clear agenda and discussion should be confined only to the agenda points 5. Chairperson of the meeting should ensure all participants are given chances to voice their opinion 6. Chairperson should steer the meeting in such a way that the opinions are taken in positive manner by the functional representative. 7. The points need to put forward as support required rather than a complaining mode 8. Every action discussed in the meeting should be aligned to a single owner and time lines (as agreed with the action owner) 9. All actions need to be governed and closed 10. Support required from Senior management should be explicitly discussed and required actions to be taken 11. Meeting has to be minuted and circulated with clear mention of actions / action owner and dead line. 12. The status of previews review meeting has to be discussed first in the next meeting.
  14. 1 point
    One of the reasons for project failure is 'Lack of Planning' and this not only includes planning for what one is going to do in the project but it also involves planning on how to check that the project is on track. Doing effective tollgates is an excellent mechanism to check the progress and ensure that project is still on the right path. For the tollgates to be effective, one basically has to seek answers to 5W and 1H (What, Why, Where, When, Who and How) Let us look at each element in slightly more detail 1. WHAT - Determine the requirements. What is the purpose of the tollgate? What is the information / artifacts that are required? What questions have to be asked? 2. WHY - Determine the objectives of the tollgate. Why are we doing tollgate? Why is it important to do the tollgate? Is the purpose only to review or also to approve? 3. WHERE - Determine the logistics of the tollgate. Where are we doing the tollgate? 4. WHEN - Determine the frequency, duration of the tollgates. When should the tollgates be set up during the project lifecycle? 5. WHO - Determine the participants in the tollgate. Who should be presenting the progress? Who should be audience during the tollgate? Who should be asking the questions? Who is going to take down the action items and meeting minutes? 6. HOW - Determine the decision criteria for acceptance / rejection of the tollgate. How are we going to judge the success of the tollgate? How many tollgates are required in the project lifecycle? If the team has thought through the above indicative questions, the chances of having an effective tollgate increases manifold. An effective tollgate will have following benefits 1. Keep the project team honest and true to the project objective 2. Ensure that scope, cost and schedule creep DO not happen 3. Effective communication across various levels in the organization (as the sponsor and/or other stakeholders may not be too close to the project) 4. Any issues / challenges are brought to notice at the right time and to the right people so that solutions could be identified
  15. 1 point

    From the album: Oct-Dec 2019

    © Benchmark Six Sigma

  16. 1 point
    Bayes theorem is highly applicable in business scenarios wherever we want to find the probability of occurrence of any event when we have certain clues and guides regarding the processes impacting the outcome of happening of any event. Bayes theorem is closely associated with the Prior and Posterior probability in which the all the evidence and data associated with the occurrence of an event is well known in advance and that is primarily used to calculate the probability of occurrence of an event. One of the example associated with the manufacturing of textile machinery wherein the Bayes theorem applicability can be tested is: the consumption or procurement of the textile machinery are dependent on several factors. Lets say the most important factors among all those is the tax exemption announced by the Ministry of textiles for textile promotion. This is one of the probability with which the Original Equipment manufacturer can determine the probability of selling of the textile machinery. Thus Bayes theorem is associated with the degree of belief of a certain process to achieve certain specification. It can be accounted in two scenarios : Pre and Post gathering the evidence. once the probability is calculated before gathering the evidence it is called is Prior probability calculation and in case, probability is calculated after gathering the evidence, it is called posterior probability calculation.
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