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  1. 3 points
    The following Japanese words related to “handling of manpower” in production process according to the organizational requirements; Shojinka: This is the Japanese word that originated from the lean manufacturing principles of Toyota. When we translate from Japanese to English, it gives direct meaning of “Various people”, shortly it can be “Vary people". i,e Flexible manpower lines maintain productivity with fluctuating demand. Shoninka: It means “Manpower saving”, by providing machines / equipment in order to free one or two operators: Shoryokuka: It means “ labour savings” partial removal or combining two operations by automation to support the process Productivity = outputs/ inputs i.e it is a measure of efficiency of production line. More often the Shojinka is defined as having to main categories; first, the workers are multi skilled and they can perform in multiple workstations at a time in a production line. The second is, the line should be designed in a way to accommodate or vary people based on the fluctuating customer demand. In simple words; Shojinka can be defined as “ability of a production line can be balanced when the production volume goes up or down" Demand Vs Supply: Shojinka techniques developed based on the Demand Vs Supply and no excess production as they considered as an inventory by deploying flexible machines and man powers. Capacity planning is the process of determining the production capacity needed by an organization to meet changing demands for its products. The capacity is normally developed based on takt time: Takt time: Available production hours per day / customer demand per day (Generally it is calculated on annual basis with full speed of line capacity). When the demand fluctuates, the organizations have some broad questions; · How to absorb the fluctuations in demand that will occur over next 12 months? · To what extent should inventory be used for this purpose · Can demand fluctuations be met by varying size of workforce (Shojinka?) · Why not absorb the fluctuations by changing activity rates and varying work hours( overtime) · Why not outsource to maintain a stable work force and let suppliers change activity rates to absorb demand fluctuations? · Will the organization lose orders if doesn’t meet all demands? Should the organization adopt this policy? Each of these choices determine the moves of the organizations. The organizations will adopt basically three strategies of planning to managing supply · Chase strategy: - when demand fluctuates, the organizations should adjust the capacity to match the demand as close as possible. E.g seasonal business demand like sale of apparels during festivals · Level strategy: - a firm maintain constant capacity over a period of time, irrespective of fluctuations in demand; e.g When more investment or skilled labour required, this strategy will apply · Mixed Strategy: Individual firms devise infinite combinations of the above strategies based on the situation. Shojinka is suitable to apply when organization adopts chase strategy. Flexible manpower line: The production line is designed in such way to meet the changing production requirements: Before designing of any production capacity, the following parameters to be considered; Takt time : Net production time / Customer demand Cycle time : Net production time / No.of Units produced No. of stations / Operators: Cycle time ( Work content) /Takt time In the competitive market, the organization has to prepare some strategy to prevent the business loss and shojinka is a solution for the flexible manufacturing; Calculating Manpower / machines: The following formula will help us to determine the manpower / machine requirements to meet the demand; Overall cycletime / Takt time = Manpower / machines Cycle time is the sum of the processing time to complete one unit of assembly Examples: Case: 1 Overall cycle time: 240 secs Takt time: 80 secs No of manpower = 3 So, we can use the manpower formula and assign no. of operators based on the demand Case: 2 When demand goes down, we can remove the manpower and he can be used in other machines/ assembly lines; Overall cycle time : 240 secs Takt time : 120 secs No of manpower : 2 When the demand low, we reduce 30% manpower and two manpower will produce the output to meet the low demand. Shojinka demands employee training, multiskilling to manage / operate different machines / practical standard operating procedure in place for flexible manpower line. Advantages of Flexible manpower line: · Avoid overproduction · Better usage of capacity · Smooth material movement · Kaizen culture Disadvantages of Flexible manpower line: · Design of production process is complicated as the forecast are not realistic · Require high skilled operator · Not suitable for small, medium size industries Conclusion in my purview: At the present time, most of the industries look for outsourcing when the demand peaked up. The peak demand may not be long-lasting, as the demand lows they withdrawn the order from the supplier. This will affect the supplier relationship in long term. However, organization should design flexible manpower line to the peak volume and if the demand is lower, the assigned manpower can be used in another production area, provided if they are competent. But practically it is complex in real time production situation. Industries, normally extend their work hours to meet the peak demand and cut off the extra hours if the demand goes down. If the forecast is realistic, the cell design is flexible to manpower, Shojinka is a best tool to apply.
  2. 2 points
    For any process or department we must know and highlight abnormal conditions which needs to to eliminated. And to recognize abnormal, it is must to understand what normal is. Nominal condition defines standard of process on which it s operating within acceptable limits. It is a very important concept and we have to understand better what nominal condition is. The first thing to define Nominal condition is to establish acceptance limits. For example, we know that parts are producing from different tools which have different rate of production or has different SPM(Strokes per minute), A part of high SPM of 12 will be produced 720 units in one hour on the other hand a part of low SPM of 8 will be produced 480 units only in one hour. SO we should define limit because at the end of that day we are knowing that we will achieve our target . other example for the same is rules change by government in Engines from BS4 to BS 6 before it was BS 3, every time they are giving some acceptable limits for emission control so that companies do modification accordingly and set their target and range accordingly during production. The second important key to define nominal condition is to be able to measure it in process metric. For example machine has a capacity to produce 4000 parts in eight hour and so every hour it should finish 500 parts, so if you are knowing that at particular time you are supposed to finish 2000 parts but you are behind that target it means you are out of your Nominal condition. One should be able ot measure the condition real time e.g. at the mid hour mark - what is the count which gives you the opportunity for correction. It is hard to correct when the measurement cannot be real time (or with lagging measurement) The most common challenge is to maintain it for a long time. Mostly people think that it is one time activity and left after achieving it, but actually it is day to day activity and there are chances of continuous improvement. Like Toyota has implemented it long time back but still they are continuously working on it to improve it further and to maintain it further. Mostly people think that this can be used in manufacturing facility only but it can be used in any department of the company. There may, however be a lot of resistance to such a change.
  3. 2 points
    The chosen best answer is Mathi's. He has provided a detailed description and a brief example. Suggested reading - Prashanth's answer for a detailed example and Mohiuddin's answer for how different levels come into play with Shojinka. Vastupal outlines some clear advantages of Shojinka. Every answer to this question has some unique points mentioned. Happy Reading (and learning!)
  4. 2 points
    If lean is applied in absolute terms with no additional features or Bells and whistles the this will lead to a stagnation situation, with little or no scope for improvements in products or value addition. These small additional features tease the boundaries of lean and play an important role in newer developments The brilliant examples of bells and whistles in the past 15 years had been a camera in a mobile phone, pedometer in a wristwatch. These features create their own space and market and can become a niche. I strongly advocate that such bells and whistles must be encouraged and given due respect for innovation and science.
  5. 1 point
    Hi Shuriti, Lean Six Sigma learning can impact your future in several ways- 1. Enhanced ability to make the right decisions - Professional and business success depends on this. Lean Six Sigma provides a set of world’s best decision approaches that have proved their worth in a wide variety of settings. It pays to learn these techniques. 2. Personal worth - People who are able to solve key problems systematically are the most sought people in an organizational setting. 3. Engaging others – It is possible for you to facilitate action based team learning if you gain this competence. Lean Six Sigma training is a kind of leadership training. 4. Improvement expertise - You can succeed with process improvement initiatives (in any industry or function) if you begin with the right fundamentals and build up the blocks well over them. You can explore more here- https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/forum/161-business-career-impact/ I would suggest you to call us at 9811370932 to know more about Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification.
  6. 1 point
    This album contains Benchmark Six Sigma Training Photographs from January to March 2019.
  7. 1 point
    Vastupal Vashisth has mentioned the two requirements for setting up nominal conditions and provided a clear example, and hence is the chosen best answer.
  8. 1 point
    The brilliant example is government changing the automobiles norms from BS4 to BS6 from April 2020. All automobiles manufacturers will have to redraw recertify and revalidate their stable and capable process meeting the current norms of BS4. 2nd example Government setting new requirements for pre-paid smart energy metering and more than 300 million energy meters to be changed all over India in a period of 5 years or so. Almost all energy meter manufacturers redrawing revalidating and getting their products approved for safety norms for pre-paid and remote cut off features. Again the stable and capable product not having prepaid and remote cut off feature will be rendered useless.
  9. 1 point
    Faizel Ahmed's answer is the chosen best answer to the question for the detail and easily legible format for the comparison. Mathi and Owen's answers also provide a good comparison and are a good read.
  10. 1 point
    What is Waste ? Waste is something that adds no value to a process. It is not worth to pay for an action which does not acts any value. The important aspects of removing waste is that improving profit is a necessity as far as a business is concerned but it should not be by charging higher prices but reducing the costs or to be precise eliminating the unwanted costs that occur which adds no value, which is regarded as waste. The basic objective of a firm is to deliver on time, with perfect quality at the right price, which can only be achieved by the elimination of waste in the process. Toyota Production System and TIMWOOD or WORMPIT T – TRANSPORTATION I – INVENTORY M – MATERIALS W - WAITING O – OVER PRODUCTION O – OVER PROCESSING D - DEFECTS The Toyota Production system was invented in Japan by two Industrial Engineers, Mr. Taiichi Ohno and Mr. Eiji Toyoda and has been successfully implemented in the Car manufacturing Industry. The TPS is based on three principles :- 1. Design out Overburden (muri) 2. Design out inconsistency (mura) 3. Eliminate Waste (muda) There are 7 kinds of waste or “muda” as per the TPS to be eliminated in order to run the production process in a reduced cost without compromising on the quality. The seven wastes to be eliminated as per the TPS are as below : 1. Over production – Producing goods even before a requirement is ascertained is referred to as overproduction. The TPS finds this as a waste according to their system, of JIT (Just in Time) as it incurs costs on different spheres. It creates excessive lead times, high storage cost and difficulty in detecting defects. Schedule and Produce as per requirement is what TPS follows in order to avoid this waste. 2. . Waiting – Waiting may be referred to as a situation where in the process gets a halt due or slowdown as goods may not be in the flow of the process is on a wait. The Batch and queue system is where in such kind of a waste is observed to a large extent. A minute of waiting is to be considered as total loss to the entire production unit. The reasons for such waste are due poor movement of materials, long production runs and long distances between work centers. 3. .Transportation – This cannot be avoided in a production system but the transportation of product in a process is cost incurring without adding any value to the product. Excessive movements and Handling may lead to damages and deterioration of quality of the product to an extent. The flow of materials should be in such a pattern that it is transported to the next location or process at the minimal cost and time for which the layout and the material handling equipment should be put at the right place. 4 . Inappropriate Processing – The Production System of Toyota stress on the usage of the right process for the right output. It would be an additional burden on the organization to use high precision equipment for simple process. Usage of flexible equipment with low cost automation is the best way to eliminate waste in a process. 5. . Unnecessary Inventory – Excess inventory creates high lead times, takes up productive floor space, makes it difficult to identify defects and inhibits communication. The mentioned factors contribute to poor operating performance in the system. 6. . Unnecessary or Excess Motion – Motion does not add value to a product in the system. It can be either of people or machines. Inefficient layouts results in excessive motion wherein no value is created and the energy of human efforts are wasted. 7. . Defects – It is an easily detectable waste. It is referred to as the most significant manufacturing wastes because they can actually lead to the generation of additional wastes such as Overproduction, Transportation and Excess Processing. It includes wastes like scrap parts, products that require rework etc. In addition to this the Toyota Production System has identified another waste which actually is not manufacturing specific but is very much related. Non utilized talent is a waste that was identified as the 8th waste. This kind of a waste occurs in a manufacturing environment when the potential of an employee is not completely utilized or his efforts are in such a manner that it is not providing any value in the process. Boeing Production System and CLOSED MITT C – COMPLEXITY L - LABOR O – OVER PRODUCTION S – SPACE E – ENERGY D – DEFECTS M – MATERIALS I – IDLE INVENTORY T – TIME T - TRANSPORTATION The Boeing Production System in 2000 was designed through the customization of the Toyota Production System. They also follow the principle of cost reduction through the elimination of waste and follows the JIT style. The basis of their production is based on the Pull system. In 2003, they expanded the base of their system of production by the implementation of the 5S Concept related to Safety and in 2005 they reemphasized the elimination of waste in their production system foundation which constituted the finding of additional waste other than those observed in the Toyota Production System. The wastes thus detected were :- 1 . Energy – This was a waste that was not getting sufficient attention and was not addressed earlier. It was observed that equipment power and person power was going in vain the production process constituting no value to the product. The problem was to be addressed and it was necessary to avoid false efficiencies, excessive power utilization and unproductive operations 2 . Space – Space is a resource for a production unit and has to be effectively utilized. It is necessary to utilize the available space to maximum utility so that the layout is properly designed without any unwanted elements. Conservation of the space in the area in done by the proper arrangement of machines, people, workstations, storage etc. 3 . Time - Though Waiting was mentioned in the Toyota Production System, BPS observed time as an important constituent in the production system. They had the concept that time is a non-renewable resource and wastage of it in any form was a loss to the production system as a whole. They identified time in the form of waste in the process of waiting, shutting down key processes, breaks or lunch breaks and waiting for communication. In addition to the three wastes they also identified another important factor that could create waste based on their 2003 upgradation of their Production system by the addition of the Safety Concept (5S). As per this parameter they say that, any situation, condition or environment that has the tendency to cause danger or safety hazard should be addressed. Thus an 11th Waste as per the BPS was identified as Safety Hazards. Mapping TIMWOOD with CLOSED MITT It can be very well said that the wastes identified by the Toyota Production System stands as the base and all the new wastes identified by the Boeing Production System has been formulated by the in depth analysis of the basic parameters. The difference in the industry and the continuous improvement is what constituted to the advancement of the identification of the three new wastes as per the BPS. While mapping it can be seen that all the basic wastes that has been found out by the TPS stands aligned with wastes identified by the BPS. TIMWOOD CLOSED MITT Mapping Overproduction Overproduction and Energy The production should only be based on the customer need. Overproduction will lead to a wastage of energy of humans as well as machines constituting a total loss to the system. Waiting Labor and Time It is necessary to avoid any wastage of time in a Production system whether in the case of humans or machines. Transportation Transportation Movement inside a production unit should be made such that a product will receive value at minimum movement. Excess Motion Energy and Time Excess motion by humans or machines constitute the loss of energy without adding any value to the product. An excess motion in certain cases will consume additional time which also constitutes a wastage. Unnecessary Processing Complexity The Process should be in such a manner that they are as simple as possible with any complexity involved. Unnecessary Inventory Idle Inventory, Materials and Space Raw material, components or finished goods in the form of inventory requires a huge sum for it to be maintained and space to be consumed. Defects Defects Doing things twice constitute additional cost and therefor e it is necessary to avoid them and it would be much worse if those are not identified. The scrap waste and is a resultant of the improper usage of raw materials. From the above mapping it can be compared and contrasted that the 7 wastes of TPS and 10 Wastes of BPS are inter related and that the classical 7 wastes is what has constituted to the advancement of the 10 waste concept. Both are tried and tested methodologies. An organization can adopt either one depending on the nature of the industry. The choice is with the organization and the production system they follow. The selected methodology has to be implemented and diligently followed for it to succeed.
  11. 1 point
    While R Rajesh and Somrita have given excellent answers, Somrita has categorically mentioned that Quick Win is a permanent solution and Stop-Gap mostly is not. The winner for this one is Somrita Chatterjee.
  12. 1 point
    Stop-Gap Vs Quick-wins Stop-Gap refers to the temporary action taken to fill up the current problem unless a better solution is provided. Quick-wins are the solutions which are identified while going the project analysis or brainstorming sessions with the improvement team. Quick-wins are permanent and not short-fixes as compared to a Stop-gap fix. Quick-wins may not imply much technology or analysis or discussions but they are very useful to the process. For example: Considering Service Industries, The Management is planning to implement automation to a particular invoice processing process for data entry part of the process. A particular stop-gap fix can be in this scenario would be increasing the target for each employee in the process to meet the customer needs but the actual and better solution should come when better techniques and technology is implemented in the process. 2) Management is planning to hire a better product or app for its employment services which is currently in progress. Updating the current portal with designs, patterns, contacts can be a stop gap fix. Coming up with a whole new change is the improvement.
  13. 1 point
    As mentioned in the question, the KNOT technique is used when data collection during Gemba walk is not reliable. However, to solve any problem, data is the pre-requisite. The KNOT Chart is almost like a matrix that can be created using an excel file. The matrix helps classify all collected information into 4 parts. The information collected is used towards finding the root cause of the problem and taking corrective action (commonly known as RCCA - Root cause and Corrective Action). K stands for "Know" and is used for facts that have validated data or evidence; N stands for "Need to know" and is used for information that must be collected; O stands for "Opinion" and is used when someone provides an opinion and it may not be verified information; and T stands for "Think We Know" - this is also not verified information or data. All information classified under N needs to be collected in order to solve the problem, all information classified under O and T needs to be validated as well and should be changed to a K. The bottom-line is that problem solving can be attempted only when we have verified information and objective data. Additional information such as Owner, Evidence, Priority level etc can be added to the KNOT chart. This helps in identifying and tracking actions to be taken during the RCCA process.
  14. 1 point
    Productivity is too often narrowed down to refer to maximising rate of output, whereas by definition and by inception, it is the effectiveness of effort and industry measured in terms of ‘rate of output per unit of input’. So it lends itself to a much wider scope than mere numbers. Henry Ford, the archetype of productivity, is often quoted as having said this of the Model-T's churning out of the Ford assembly line, “You can have any colour as long as its Black.” So this stands out as an oft-quoted citation that ‘mass production’ abhors creativity. But in reality, and history is a witness, that the Assembly line triggered creativity and innovation in so many ways to enhance productivity and quality. And on the other hand, the structure of manufacturing in an Assembly line did not constrain the ‘creativity’ of conceiving and designing automobiles of many a type, size and shape. This is deeply entrenched in Industry - from the first industrial revolution when creativity enhanced productivity and consistency; to the current Industry 4.0, where cutting-edge technologies are applied to make Industry intelligent and sustainable. All Industrial philosophies - be it the Toyota kind or the GE or the Apple, have creativity concepts, call it Kaizen, SixSigma, ZeroDefect, Business Excellence, Break-thru innovation, even the disruptive ‘Jugaad’, inevitably intertwined with Productivity for success in business. Be it in leap-frogging new business ideas and business models, like OYO or Uber, or selling an ‘iWatch’ (fitness wearable) or a loan on ‘Bankbazaar’ (financial marketplace) - the productivity is only possible and maximised because of the ‘innovative’ content and execution of the ‘package’ - i.e a product and its affiliated service offering. It like It is indeed the creativity that makes or breaks an organisation in the modern competitive world, where socio-economic factors can swing, as much as the market-forces of demand-supply. So while it is necessary to do well in terms of ‘productivity’, it also needs to be ‘creative’ and ‘innovative’. No organisation or individual can focus on one without the other.
  15. 1 point
    DMAIC approach should be used when you don't know the problem and solution but you do have target to achieve. For example : "We want to reduce our Fossil fuel consumption by 10 %" Here in this project we dont know what are the reasons for high FF consumption but somehow we need to reduce that so first will need to identify problem or reasons for high consumption and then solutions as well, hence we should prefer DMAIC approach. Kaizen approach should be used where one already knows the problem and the solution For example: "Changing single drive motor of high HP to multi drive motor of low HP for better performance and low electricity consumption" Here in this case changing motor is itself idea/solution for reducing high electricity consumption. In a nutshell DMAIC approach to be used for a Goal/problem and Kaizen approach should be used for idea for improvement.
  16. 1 point
    Gemba Study Gemba is a Process Walk, as an informational tour of the area where the work is taking place. Gemba Walk is a series of structured, on-site interviews with representative process participants and SPOCs’ with the goal of gaining a comprehensive understanding of the process. In a service based industry, interviews focus on detail such as process time, wait time, defect rates, root causes and other information that can lead to targeted improvements. It also helps in knowing the process environment and the work culture of the process. Gemba walks should not be confused with (MBWA), a different approach in which leaders simply wander about and get involved in what employees are doing. A Gemba walk should have a defined purpose, often associated with a specific concern related to a KPI or in other words, GEMBA walks are more of process driven. During a Gemba Walk, the concerned person asks very depth about the process being observed. Who is involved? What materials are used? What do you do? How do you know what to do? When does the task take place? What depends on the outcome? MBWA does not involve that degree of depth, nor does it usually have the same focus on asking open ended questions. Considering Service Industries as an example: The various steps involved in a basic Gemba Walk can be: 1) Prepare the Team It is important that the team members get prepared beforehand. Talking about the walk before the walk happens will help everyone feel more comfortable and open to interactions. 2) Have a plan or a strategy It is important that the supervisor has planned his questions before he approaches the people in the team. 3) Trying to follow the Value Stream Flow It is a good idea to ask employees about shift timings, work nature, hand offs between processes, targets, SLA, client meetings and calls. By having a fresh perspective on the old processes, it gives a perspective that it is helpful for them and not to criticize them negatively. 4) Don’t suggest much changes during the Walk or in any meeting It is not much a good idea to suggest changes and advice during the walk is happening. It is always better to go for suggestions later in terms of documented work or visualization tools (photos and video) 5) Document the observations It is always a good idea to jot down the observations about the process, current interventions and then proposed solutions with the study. It will keep everyone on the same page before and after the study has been made. 6) Follow Ups with the Employees It is important that once the proposed solutions are suggested, managers and senior management should involve in the changes and should be supportive to the employees as well. This helps in establishing the workplace connectivity and knowledge enhancement to themselves. Potential Areas of improvement that can be identified as: Work Force Management & Staff Utilization · Resource Utilization – Improving the Efficiency of the process overall · Login Leakage – Not an issue –if there is gap then agent to recover within the same month · Cross-Training – To mitigate the staff short fall and also in case of BCP situation Resourcing (Support & Management Staff) · Cross skill of Resources · Strengthen the QA calibration process · Quality tools and analysis/documentation exposures · Improvement exposures in terms of technology /Human improvements Floor Management · Daily updates and dialogue with the agents · Visual management on floor · Floor support by Team Lead · Noise on the floor needs to be in controlled. Quality · Improvement is main focus area – Not meeting consistently the target (monthly , quarterly) · Attrition rate in the process · Customer satisfaction scores and TAT
  17. 1 point
    Lean Six Sigma learning can impact your future in several ways: Enhanced ability to make the right decisions - Professional and business success depends on this. Lean Six Sigma provides a set of world's best decision approaches that have proved there worth in a wide variety of settings. It pays to learn these techniques. Personal worth - People who are able to solve key problems systematically are the most sought people in an organizational setting. Engaging others - It is possible for you to facilitate action-based team learning if you gain this competence. Lean Six Sigma training is a kind of leadership training. Improvement expertise - You can succeed with process improvement initiatives (in any industry or function) if you begin with the right fundamentals and build up the blocks well over them. All the above result in career and business benefits. Please feel free to discuss this topic here.
  18. 1 point
    Dear Ajith, it really depends on what your objective is. A lot of tools can be used for transactional quality in BPO - you may find out the capability (using DPMO, DPU or Defectives method), you could do a Pareto on the defects, you could do a Pareto for defects at team level, you could do mistake proofing to avoid some of the defects (e.g. removing access for frontliners for anything they aren't authorized to give e.g credits), C&E for low quality, Brainstorming for better transactional quality etc. You could really take your pick based on the intent of using the Six Sigma tools.
  19. 1 point
    Transactional quality in BPO segment is nothing but Quality Assurance in reality. The idea is to facilitate the delivery teams to equip themselves with holistic quality plan, checklists, SOPs, reports, dashboards and RCA tools to run the quality plan regularly. It is primarily useful in combating special cause variation. Transactional processes could be: Preparing financial statements, Online banking services etc.
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