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# Paynter Chart

Go to solution Solved by Ram Rajagopalan,

Paynter Chart is a graphical tool that was developed by Marvin Paynter at Ford Motors to analyze product failure and to verify the effectiveness of the corrective actions. A Paynter chart combines a Trend or a Run chart with a Pareto chart. The total count of a bar in a Pareto chart is subdivided across the time period to analyze the underlying trends or problem areas (the counts across the time periods could either be represented by a stacked bar chart or a normal bar chart). Once the corrective action(s) is/are implemented, the size of the bars start decreasing verifying that the corrective action is effective

An application-oriented question on the topic along with responses can be seen below. The best answer was provided by Ram Rajagopalan and Pavan Chinta.

Applause for all the respondents - Ram Rajagopalan, Ashok Ghodke, Deepak Pardasani, Pavan Chinta.

Also review the answer provided by Mr Venugopal R, Benchmark Six Sigma's in-house expert.

## Question

Q 215. Explain Paynter Chart and compare it with Pareto Chart.

Note for website visitors - Two questions are asked every week on this platform. One on Tuesday and the other on Friday.

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• Solution

Pareto charts are used to identify the top causes for a particular effect (defects). Its often associated with 80-20 rule, 80% of variances are due to 20% of causes, though often not necessary to meet the guideline.

Paynter Chart is a statistical graphical tool that drills down the Pareto chart. It enhances the Pareto Chart with a run chart, that indicate what items add up to the count for each reporting period.

The chart displays a subset of key sub groups as a bar chart, with the total across subgroups on the top.

Benefits - Helps to drill down the composition of each bar of the Pareto to spot trends and patterns.

Paynter Chart was developed by Ford Motor Company

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Paynter Chart: Paynter charts are the statistical tools used in the quality improvement projects. Paynter chart is a combination chart which uses the principles of Run charts and Pareto charts to refine the outcomes of the Pareto analysis. In other words, these can also be described as the extension of the Pareto charts.

Pareto Principle, which is popularly called as 80-20 rule, provides us with the major causes i.e., the top 20% causes/reasons for a particular problem. Paynter charts further probe these causes over time to give us a specific list or count of these causes that are responsible for the issues. This means that a Paynter chart splits the Pareto graph (the groups) into further smaller sub-groups. This highlights the actual sub-group(s) that is adding up to form the major group. This will also show the manner or the trend in which these subgroups are added and indicate the specific elements responsible for the Pareto bar.

Another significant role of a Paynter chart is to measure the variation between these sub-groups within a Pareto Bar which help us understand the overall process variations.

To perform a Paynter analysis, first we should have the data sufficient enough for a Pareto Chart i.e., samples to be analyzed, the categories (defects) to be identified in the sample after analysis. Once a Pareto chart is plotted, we will come to know the most frequently occurring categories of the defects. Once this analysis is complete, Paynter analysis could be performed to drill down into these categories (identified in the Pareto) to identify the subgroups of the same which are resulting in the respective category of the defect.

For example, if we identify that width of the bolts as a major category of defects from the Pareto analysis, by performing the Paynter analysis, we will be able to further segregate to identify the actual subgroup of errors or defects. In this example, Paynter analysis will give us the proportion of bolts rejected due to the variations in the bolt width (broad, narrow etc.,). This analysis will help us where to act in our process to effectively control the sub group of the defects which is impacting the overall category of the defects thereby causing substantial benefits.

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Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R

While Pareto chart depicts a set of factors in the descending order of their frequencies of occurrences, Paynther chart divides each bar of the Pareto into further sub-groups. The sub-groups thus split-up should be comparable across the bars of the Pareto. Paynther charts are popularly known for combining run charts along with a Pareto for tracking the trend of each sub-group item across a period of time.

However, we may find the Paynther chart useful to depict comparisons of sub-groups other than time as well. For instance if we have a Pareto for the number of units of a product sold across various metros, we may construct a Paynther chart by sub-grouping each bar for the product-types.

The Paynther chart represents the split-up details of each bar of the Pareto in the same order. From the charts above, it may be seen from the Pareto chart that overall sales for Metro4 is lower than Metro1, but the sale of Product B is more in Metro4 compared to Metro1. Similarly, other inferences may be derived.

It helps to prepare the overall Pareto chart first and then create the Paynther chart for the chosen subgroups. The Paynther chart helps to drill down to next level of detail from a Pareto chart and would be very useful for root cause analysis.

Other examples where we can apply the combination of Pareto and Paynther charts would be:

1.      Defect types across months

2.      Productivity of set of services across multiple sites

3.      Purchase volumes of a product across by different age groups

The Paynther chart may also be adapted to track the impact of actions on specific issues – for example, to track the improvement of specific product failures based on corrective actions implemented. For this, Paynther chart will be constructed with the sub groups following a chronological sequence.

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Paynter Chart:

Paynter chart is combination of Pareto Chart and Run chart. Ford developed this chart and other companies started adopting the concept gradually.

Benefit of Paynter chart:

It gives insight of variation with various other dimensions

We can simple create a pareto chart, group the data points into subgroups and then add required additional variable (viz time) to it.

Pareto and Paynter Comparison:

 Similarities: Pareto Chart Paynter Chart Both used as a part of Corrective Action Process We will be able to identify Vital Few in both the charts Based on Pareto principle, 80/20 rule Both are used when there are many problems and when we wanted to focus on few/most significant metrics Differences: Pareto Chart Paynter Chart Results: Vital Few and Trivial Many parameters Results: Vital Few, Trivial Many parameters, variations, subgroup data points Displays individual pareto bars Displays sub grouped pareto bars Will be able to visualize Vital and Trivial defect contributors Will be able to visualize long term corrective actions Variations: Weighted pareto chart, Comparative pareto charts Variations: Sub grouped parameters based on the selected variable

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The Paynter Chart may be a tool that goes on the far side a Pareto.

A Pareto Chart focuses on issues that supply the best potential for improvement by showing their ratio or size or number of occurrence.

A Paynter Chart goes on the far side the Pareto Chart by sub-grouping the Pareto bars.

The subgroups may well be days, hours, etc.

The Paynter Chart is predicated on the Pareto Chart principle, that focuses on the areas of priority and quickly puts them during a easy graphical type by subgroups.

It helps your team focus their efforts wherever they'll have greatest impact.

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Ram Rajagopalan and Pavan Chinta, both are winners for their accurate descriptions of Paynter Chart.

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