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Ram Rajagopalan

Lean Six Sigma Black Belt
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About Ram Rajagopalan

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    Ramachandran Rajagopalan
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  1. CONWIP is a hybrid push-pull system. CONWIP controls the WIP in the system. It extends the Kanban approach but simplieifes the execution, providing more flexibility Simpler than Kanban in the number of cards used Have been shown to have lower WIP than Kanban The picture below explains the comparison of Kanban and ConWIP In certain cases Kanban has proven better than ConWIP. Kanban has an additional advantage in that it automatically manages the production sequence. Based on the product mix kanbans, the system can figure out the next o
  2. TRIZ - short form for Theory of the Resolution of Invention- related tasks, was developed by Soviet inventors, by analyzing patterns in invention using global patent literature. The primary insights were There were repetition of problems and solutions across industries and sciences. There were evolution of patterns across industries and sciences And there was cross pollination of innovations from outside the field in which they were developed. What this led to is a suite of methodologies, tool sets , models etc for problem solving. TRI
  3. Reporting bias, is basically introducing bias in the way a subject is reported. This could be under reporting or selectively revealing things. Reporting bias occurs when the dissemination of research findings is influenced by the nature and direction of the results, for instance in systematic reviews. In daily life, a classic example is in News reporting. The same news event can be projected in either ways (positive or negative is also depending on the bias of the viewer) by channels that are typically branded right or left. Depending
  4. Monte Carlo is a Decision Science approach that helps in improved decision making under uncertainty. It helps in seeing all possible scenarios, outcomes and helps in accessing the Risk. The technique was first used by scientists working on the atom bomb; it was named for Monte Carlo, the Monaco resort town renowned for its casinos. Since its introduction in World War II, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to model a variety of physical and conceptual systems. Risk is there in any and every part of our lives. There is always uncertainty, ambiguity and variability that makes it dif
  5. Elevator pitch is a short prepared speech that succinctly explains what you want to convey, when time is short. It is brief and persuasive to effectively generate interest in the target audience. It is often used to create interest on a project, idea, kind of foot into the door. It is most often associated with sales, with a salesman wanting to generate interest with a client - business or consumer. Often key executives are always short on time and inbetween meetings. Elevator pitches are key for making the best use of any opening you get with such executives. It is applicab
  6. The Ben Franklin effect is a proposed psychological phenomenon: a person who has already performed a favor for another is more likely to do another favor for the other than if they had received a favor from that person. The Benjamin Franklin effect is generally explained using cognitive dissonance theory, which suggests that holding two or more contradictory beliefs at the same time causes people to experience mental discomfort. Specifically, based on this framework, people experience the Ben Franklin effect because they try to reduce their cognitive dissonance, which in this conte
  7. What we know with data Exponential growth once it reaches stage 3 with community spread. Repeated patterns on spread vs when curfew is imposed across countries. The more delay/ less strict curfew the higher the infected population Mortality rate by age segment - higher for older people. Infection seems much less for those aged < 20 Increased testing identifies patients earlier. Atleast they are quarantined earlier to prevent them from being carriers Most people seem to have only mild symptoms Genetic sequence of the virus
  8. Visual control is broadly a practice of monitoring performance, predicting abnormality and alerting when required. Mistake proofing is in a way a subset of/ derives a lot from Visual management, with primary intention being to avoid any mistakes/ deviations. Visual management is widely used. In Operations this included cases incoming, completed, pending and potentially missing SLAs. A contact center dashboard has details on calls incoming, handled and metrics like abandoned, service level etc. Alerts are for managers to look into long calls. In Manufacturing, it provide
  9. I wasn’t able to get the survey report to analyze the details behind the survey. The optimistic way of looking at it is that 84% of Agile projects are successful in some forms, which is in many ways around twice the success rates of traditional waterfall approach. Reference (https://vitalitychicago.com/blog/agile-projects-are-more-successful-traditional-projects/) "Agile Software Development is a lightweight software engineering framework that promotes iterative development throughout the life-cycle of the project, close collaboration between the development team and business side,
  10. Pareto charts are used to identify the top causes for a particular effect (defects). Its often associated with 80-20 rule, 80% of variances are due to 20% of causes, though often not necessary to meet the guideline. Paynter Chart is a statistical graphical tool that drills down the Pareto chart. It enhances the Pareto Chart with a run chart, that indicate what items add up to the count for each reporting period. The chart displays a subset of key sub groups as a bar chart, with the total across subgroups on the top. Benefits - Helps to drill down the composi
  11. Customer is always King!. But all organizations need to determine what type of Kings they want to deal with, which will help them in achieving a sustainable and profitable growth. In IT services sector, ideally you want to work with Customers who treat you as Transformation partner, to work in join partnership on solving their business requirements. This is in contrast to vendor partnership resulting in staff augmentation. But to get there takes a lot of effort to build the Brand, capability and delivery excellence etc. for customers to treat you that way. Working with
  12. Drum Buffer Rope is a concept popularized by Eliyahu Goldratt in his book Goal. It was used in analogy to a Boy Scout team, to ensure that the team doesn’t get dispersed wide due to the variations in speed of the fast movers vs the slower ones. A synchronized approach ensured that the team is in step. Once the rope is stretched to the max, the fast movers have to slow down or stop. The same concept can be applied to manufacturing, where speed is controlled by the drum, buffer adjustments by a rope with a goal of increasing throughput. The drum relays the information o
  13. Bessel correction in statistics is used to correct the bias in the estimation of the population standard deviation. Variance calculated from sample is usually smaller, when used to estimate for population. Adjustment needs to be done to account for this. To give a context, we can calculate the mean and variance of all students in say class 10. Now if we randomly pick a small sample of 3-4 students and calculate their standard deviation, it may not capture extremes. It is more likely to get more of the same type of students. This standard deviation will likely be smaller than the
  14. Scope creep is change in the expected output post the finalization of contract. Though there are several reasons, it happens due to insufficient documentation and scoping, changes in customer expectations as the project progress, weak project management. Sometimes all stakeholders are not identified before the project starts. To manage scope creep, it is important to ensure a strong program manager, all project team members need to be aware of the project scope, strong governance in place. It is better to have the project broken to smaller sprints so that customer expectations are managed by i
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