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Jayaram T

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Jayaram T last won the day on November 17 2019

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About Jayaram T

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    Tata Commmunications Transformation services Limited
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    Senior Manager

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  1. One of the most interesting Number Patterns is Pascal's Triangle (named after Blaise Pascal, a famous French Mathematician and Philosopher). To build the triangle, start with "1" at the top, then continue the number series below 1 in a triangular pattern. Each number placed in the triangle, is the sum of the numbers above it. Pattern of the Triangle The first diagonal is, of course, just "1"s The next diagonal has the counting numbers (sum of numbers above) (1,2,3, etc). The third diagonal has the triangular numbers The fourth diagonal has the tetrahedral numbers ODDS & EVENS If the odds and evens are separated using different colours then the pattern ends up in Sierpinski triangle.(ever repeating pattern of triangles) Pascal’s Triangle & Probability Pascal’s triangle can be used to find the probability of any combinations The number of combinations of Head’s & Tails when a coin is tossed can be identified using Pascal’s Triangle. Thus helps us in identifying the probability. For example, if we toss a coin 2 times, there is only one combination that will give you 2 heads or 2 tails (HH), but there are two combinations that will give 1head and one tail (HT,TH), This is the pattern "1,2,1" in Pascal's Triangle. Pascal's triangle is made up of the coefficients of the Binomial Theorem which is the sum of a row n is equal to 2n. any probability problem that has two equally possible outcomes can be solved using Pascal's Triangle.
  2. The two tyes of techniques used in schedule compressio are 1. Fast tracking 2. Crashing Both of these techniques has their own pro's and Con which is detailes below. S.No Fast Tracking Crashing 1 Activity or set of activities are performed in parallel which was originally scheduled as sequential Additional resources deployed than planned 2 Increase in risk due to rework and corrections Increases cost due to additional resources 3 Works only when the activities are independent of each other can be used only if adding resources reduces the time 4 Applied before using a crashing technique Some examples are: Overtime, Adding resources, Incentives 5 No change in cost but increased risk Best used when there are activities which require low-cost resources 6 Applied to critical path activities to reduce timelines Applied to critical path activities to reduce timelines
  3. Bench is wrong, We can never consider a process to be perfect in a fast changing environment. Six sigma projects not only improve process but also provide an opportunity for innovative / creative solutions.If Kodak had would have done a six sigma project they would have been the leaders in digicam world today.Six sigma projects shall help a organization to create products & services for future.Six sigma helps the process to be active/live and if not done then the process becomes obselete.
  4. Agreeing to the bench statement that more lean six sigma leads to standardization but standardization leads to simplification and integration of multiple similar process. When activities are standardised organization can leverage on eliminating the duplicate efforts and automation. Employees has the option to upskill themselves and help organization's growth.
  5. Check 1 : Tickets & ID cards are checked: The Identity of the passenger and the travel details are checked before any traveller entering the airport also passengers are allowed only 3 hrs before the departure since boarding starts only 3 hrs before from departure. This check ensures that only a passenger who is having a flight in next 3 hrs is allowed inside the airport. Check 2: Issuance of Boarding pass: This can be eliminated through web-check in and Check in Kiosks if the passenger is not having check-in luggage. But this cannot be eliminated for a passenger with check in luggage, But time can be reduced by eliminating boarding pass issuance at the counter. Check 3 : Entry to Security Gates: This physical check can be automated with electronic sensors & gates which can sense the details in the boarding pass and open the entry for passenger to security gates Check 4: Manual frisking & Cabin luggage check: The manual frisking and cabin luggage scanning is very important as this is not done in any of the above steps, Tagging the baggage and boarding pass verification can be eliminated as the entry into security area is based on boarding pass. Entry to common entrance to all gates from security area can be automated again using boarding pass and mechanized doors this will eliminate check 5 Check 6, 7, 8 : Final Checks Ground staff can tear the boarding pass while scanning and allow the passenger into waiting room or to board the aircraft this will eliminate rest of the checks check 7 & 8 The 8 step process can be made lean by removing repetitive checks and eliminating few checks also automation certain checks will help to improve passenger experience without compromising safety & accuracy.
  6. Genchi Genbutsu : Going to the source to find the facts to make correct decisions, build consensus and achieve goals. This is applicable for all workplace be it a production floor, Manufacturing unit, BPO, KPO or hospitality services, until the leader understand the facts first hand he/she may not be able to make the right decision. Genchi Genbutsu emphasizes the knowledge and learning to be gained from being where the work is performed and reveals the true picture, helps leaders to make better decision ‘Toyota Production System creator Taiichi Ohno applied this principle by taking new engineering graduates to the shop floor, drawing a chalk circle, and asking each to stand in the circle and observe. Ohno’s key message to these engineers was that the best way — and really the only way — to understand what happens in the factory is to spend time there’ As companies grow larger and more complex, decision-making tend to happen in meeting rooms and boardrooms – rather than in the trenches. This creates a distance between the problem at hand and its proposed solution. When knowledge passes through various levels of the organisation, the translation loss can be immense. Genchi Genbutsu is a plan of action, leaders get the whole story instead of just a part of it, gaining valuable pieces that may be lost when information is passed through multiple hands and travels up the corporate ladder. Witnessing an operational problem first hand sticks with you. (applicable for any service industry we need to get the first hand details about the problem) It enables you to get to the root cause, rather than addressing superficial symptoms. Performing root cause with the first hand information helps the leaders to nail the actual root cause rather than performing an analysis on the provided information It helps leaders engage with employees, deepening connections across the organisation. leaders go and see the work area will be able to communicate with employees and understand the real issues, This will provide an opportunity for the leaders to share their knowledge and also aid them to take some strategic decisions Observation becomes a daily reality – not a special event. Along with learning, leaders can also teach and empower employees on the work area. It allows to consistently identify and address “hidden” inefficiencies. The above artifacts suits for any type of industry whether it is service or production, Moreover in hospitality, food industry and hospitals Genchi Genbutsu could make a big difference as small problems/issues raised by customers/patients if not addressed properly could have big brand damage to the organization.
  7. Absolutely true... If organization starts passing cost benefit to customer by cutting down their profits, without innovating new ideas to perform their operation at reduced costs, then in couple of years they will lose the race and will be out of industry.
  8. To automate or not to automate is no longer a question anymore. Enterprises will have to integrate IA and automation for their own benefit and survival, RPA Will be better aided by AI and grow faster…. It is important to understand that RPA and AI are nothing, but different ends of a continuum known as Intelligent automation AI that augment and mimic human judgment and behaviour complement RPA that replicate rules-based human actions “The two technologies work hand in glove, just like traditional ‘white-collar’ knowledge-based workers and ‘blue-collar’ service-based workers collaborate to drive productivity for an organization” In a sense, it doesn’t matter whether we think or know that RPA is a specific branch of AI or not, but we should be aware that the two technologies are increasingly going to work together. Intelligent Process automation: Reshaping the future of work with automation IPA “takes the robot out of the human.” At its core, IPA is an emerging set of new technology that combines fundamental process redesign with robotic process automation and machine learning. RPA tools assist the human workers by removing simple, routine, repetitive, rule based tasks. IPA encompasses five core technologies: 1. Robotic Process automation 2. Smart workflow 3. Machine learning 4. Natural-language generation (NLG) 5. Cognitive agents With Intelligent process automation, bots can replace manual clicks (RPA), interpret heavy text (NLG), make rule-based decisions (machine learning), offer customers suggestions (cognitive agents), and provide real-time tracking of handoffs between systems and people (smart workflows). Analysts predict automation technologies will have an economic impact of between $5.2 and $6.7 trillion by 2025. Technologies such as machine learning, big-data, RPA work in tandem to support this trend. Combining RPA with intelligent technologies means that the “learning” process can take place at faster pace, while these two technologies are only starting to be used together, the enhanced automation they produce can help organizations to foster both increased productivity and creativity going forward.
  9. Null hypothesis assumes that the population mean is the same as a target value or another population mean. In equivalence testing, the null hypothesis assumes the population mean differs from a target value or other population mean. For example, difference between a 2-sample t-test (Hypothesis) and a 2-sample equivalence test can be best illustrated as, 2-sample t-test to test whether the means of two populations are different. The hypotheses for the test are as follows: Null hypothesis (H0): The means of the two given populations are the same. Alternative hypothesis (H1): The means of the two given populations are different. If the p-value for the test is less than alpha (α), then the null hypothesis is rejected and concluded as the means are different. In contrast, 2-sample equivalence test is used to test whether the means of two populations are equivalent. Equivalence for the test is defined by a range of values that you specify (also called the equivalence interval). The hypotheses for the test are as follows: · Null hypothesis (H0): The difference between the means is outside equivalence interval. The means are not equivalent. · Alternative hypothesis (H1): The difference between the means is inside the equivalence interval. The means are equivalent. If the p-value for the test is less than α, then you reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the means are equivalent. Small differences between products are not always functionally or practically important. For example, a difference of 1 mg in a 200 mg dose of a drug is unlikely to have any practical effect. When an equivalence test is done we must enter equivalence limits that indicate how large the difference must be to be considered important. Smaller differences, which are within the equivalence limits, are considered unimportant. In this way, an equivalence test evaluates both the practical significance and statistical significance of a difference from the population mean. To choose between an equivalence test and a standard t-test, consider what needs to be proven or demonstrated. The objective of hypothesis test is to conclude the samples are different but when we want to prove that the samples are equivalent we use equivalence test. Equivalence testing is a better approach as compared to usual hypothesis testing when New food item meant to be a substitute New generic drug compared to old standard (bioequivalence) This process makes more sense logically because more samples gives us more power for detecting ‘equivalence’. An alternative to the two-sample t-test is TOST, designed specifically for bioequivalence testing of pharmaceutical products. It has recently been expanded into broader applications in pharmaceutical science, process engineering, psychology , medicine , chemistry and environmental science. An equivalence test forces us to identify from a practical perspective how big of a difference is important and puts the burden on the data to reach a conclusion of equivalence.
  10. A Tollgate Review, as the name indicates, is like a checkpoint in a Six Sigma project at which the various team members meet and determine whether the work has been performed as indicated in the project plan and whether the objectives mentioned have been achieved. Here are some of the key factors to be considered while planning a tollgate review to ensure the review is effective and the project moves forward as planned. 1. Tollgate reviews to be planned in advanced and timelines to be adhered as planned, Review cancellation or rescheduling should be avoided 2. Attendance must be made compulsory for the reviews and scheduling should take care of availability of all stake holders 3. Top management should be part of the program right from project selection till closure and they should be part of all reviews 4. The reviews should have a clear agenda and discussion should be confined only to the agenda points 5. Chairperson of the meeting should ensure all participants are given chances to voice their opinion 6. Chairperson should steer the meeting in such a way that the opinions are taken in positive manner by the functional representative. 7. The points need to put forward as support required rather than a complaining mode 8. Every action discussed in the meeting should be aligned to a single owner and time lines (as agreed with the action owner) 9. All actions need to be governed and closed 10. Support required from Senior management should be explicitly discussed and required actions to be taken 11. Meeting has to be minuted and circulated with clear mention of actions / action owner and dead line. 12. The status of previews review meeting has to be discussed first in the next meeting.
  11. The goal / objective of any business is Customer satisfaction, Employee Satisfaction & Shareholders returns In the above 3 goals Shareholders return is a financial goal & other 2 are gaols related to perception caused by the behaviour of organization. Positive behaviour & culture in the organization leads to positive perceptions Some of the most common efficient metrics are 1. Operating Expense – All the money spent by organization to turn raw materials (Inventory) into throughput. Any expense which does not convert inventory to through put is called a waste. OE = Fixed expenses 2. Throughput (T)– Rate at which money generated (revenue)by the organization through sales and not through production. Any produced good / service until sold is not called as throughput until sold. T= Net sales – Total Variable Cost 3. Inventory (I) – Money invested by organization invested in purchasing with the intention of selling. With the above 3 metrics any organization can calculate their a. Profit = Throughput – Operating Expense b. Return on Investment = (T-OE)/I c. Cashflow = PAT- Change in I The other metrics which are commonly used to measure department level performance are 1. Revenue / Employee 2. Cost / Employee 3. Customer acquisition cost 4. Employee Learning & Development 5. Improvement initiatives Every metrics used in business is one way are other related to its performance, Metrics are defined for short team & long term goals. For any business the key efficiency metrics are the ones which indicates the performance of below goals. 1. Financial performance 2. Customer Loyalty (NPS) 3. Employee Satisfaction
  12. Every consumer is different and wants a unique experience when shopping and that ’experience’ has become the critical differentiating factor for many successful business models. However, businesses are finding it increasingly difficult to predict & understand what consumers want as their expectations continue to change. Consumers have become increasingly comfortable interacting with brands in a seamless way, switching between channels and allowing their data to be used to provide a personalised experience.Customer satisfaction is paramount for any firm's marketing strategy. “Customers are the purpose of what we do and rather than they depending on us, we very much depend on them. The customer satisfaction scores can be categorized in to themes based on various attributes of consumers such as 1. Age 2. Male / Female 3. Location 4. Purchasing ability The scores for the themes can be analysed and the low scored theme can be compared with competitors to have a benchmark. The low scored themes to be worked upon for improvement. Another method is to identify the industry benchmark score for each of the questions and compare it with actual CSAT score this will help in identifying the area which need to be improved to be the leader in the sector The CSAT scores can be made meaningful only if the expectations of customers are fully understood and fed back into the strategic planning process. Its is also important to have a periodic survey to monitor the effectiveness of actions taken from the previous survey.CSAT scores would be meaningful if the organization is able to go back to the consumer and explain the changes they have made considering the survey. The customer satisfaction scores can be categorised as below and worked upon o Worst Problem Areas o Areas to Improve o Areas to Prioritise This will help the organisation to have a systematic approach in addressing the categories based on their impact to consumers.
  13. Net Promoter Score is an index of customer loyalty & not customer satisfaction. True loyalty affects the profitability of an organization by reducing customer acquisition cost.no company can grow if their customer bucket is leaky, Loyal customers will arrest the leak and add more customers to the bucket. Loyal customers act as references and will risk their reputation by recommending a product or service from a company. Truly loyal customers bring in new customers at no cost to the company. The path for profitable growth for any organization lies on their ability to get its loyal customer to become its brand ambassadors. Right Measure of loyalty Because loyalty is so important to profitable growth, measuring and managing it make good sense. Frederick F. Reichheld, Bain & Company & Satmetrix after a research of 6-12 months came up with one question which will gauge the customer loyalty after framing the question it is important to arrive at a method to analyse the response which is easy and simple to understand without statistical knowledge. After finalizing the right question “How likely is it that you would recommend [company X] to a friend or colleague?” Fred & team worked upon a scale which is easily understandable by investors, regulators, employees and grasp the basic message without needing a handbook or session. Initially the scale was framed from 0-10 where 10 means extremely likely to recommend, 5 means neutral and zero means not likely to recommend. The customer responses and repurchase behaviours were examined along the scale and the three clusters were defined. Promoter - the customers with the highest rates of repurchase and referral, who gives a rating of nine or ten to the question. Passively satisfied who gives a seven or an eight classified as Passives Detractors- scored from zero to six. Upon more surveys and analysis it was concluded that a strong correlation existed between net-promoter figures and a company’s average growth rate. To have a common measure of customer loyalty which can be understood easily Fred and team Came up with a methodology which converts the ordinal scale (1-10) to a Categorical data and provides the customer loyalty index which is measured as NPS.
  14. Life is full of choices. One has to rationally balance alternatives, assess uncertain outcomes, gather additional information and - when ready - pick the best action. Optimal stopping problem can be best described as the number of samples to be looked / verified before taking a judgement on the best. optimal stopping or early stopping is concerned with the time taken to perform a action or take a decision in order to maximise an expected reward or minimise an expected cost. Optimal stopping problems are solved using dynamic programming many times and written as Bellman equation. Optimal stopping problem can be best described as the number of samples to be looked / verified before taking a judgement on the best. For example – If we have N number of candidates to be interviewed for a position the optimal stopping theory will help us to identify the best candidate without interviewing all the candidates. Optimal stopping can be best explained by the 37% rule According to 37% rule when we need to take a decision based on screening the available choices in limited time, the best time to take the decision is after screening 37% of the choices. Rule 37% is best explained by Brian Christian “Be prepared to immediately commit to the first thing you see that’s better than what you saw in the first 37. Optimal stopping theory will also help us in taking business decision during uncertainty with multiple constraints. Optimal Stopping problems are also known as "Look and Leap" problems as it helps us in understanding the point till which we should keep looking for options and then be ready to leap the best option
  15. My view on Customer handling aspects Simple Means - Keeping the process simple to allow customer share his complaint/feedback and keeping the resolution process simple without multiple authorizations (empowering). Acknowledge Means not only just acknowledging the request but getting back to customer or repeating the issue to customer to make sure that the problem is clearly understood Quick Response is not to respond quickly but keeping customer informed about each and every stage of the solution provided. A well-Written response will help in gaining customer trust & confidence back, It is utmost important to implement the solution as per the response. No Quibbles - Quibbles to be always avoided in any customer communication because a simple misunderstanding could create a big loss to the organization.
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