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Vastupal Vashisth

Excellence Ambassador
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Everything posted by Vastupal Vashisth

  1. Excellence Scoreboard represents the total number of points accumulated by all members of this Forum by giving answers of Weekly Questions. Thanks a lot to Mr. Vishwadeep Khatri and his entire Team for making their efforts to create this useful platform to all members where an individual member can earn points and can use these points to nominate someone who wants to upgrade himself/herself in this competitive field. Nominating someone results a lot of benefits in various forms for yourself and them-self both. I have nominated a participant for Green Belt Course by utilizing my points an
  2. BALANCED SCORECARD: balanced scorecard known as BSC was given by Kaplan & Nortan in 1992. According to Kaplan & Nortan , BSC translates mission of an organization into a set of performance measures which provides the outline for a strategic management and measurement system. there is no guidelines given by Kaplan & Nortan for combining dissimilar measures. According to Lawrie and Cobbold(2004), BSC evolution may be represented by three generations of BSC's. Focus has been changed continuously in all three like in early 1990s teh main focus was on development of financial
  3. Problem Solving: in today's world, there is very highly complex environment for businesses and a huge competition between each other to sustain in the market and companies are searching various ways to gain the market by improving their products or services quality, increasing their speed of work, improving efficiency. while achieving these goals companies are facing various problems which can be in-house or in supply chain or problems in searching for a new business/opportunities or any decision making. There are basic four principles for solving any problem which are give
  4. Supply Chain Management: For any organization, supply chain management is the heart of it to run the organization smoothly because it handles the entire flow of goods/service starting from raw material to the final products delivery to the end user. To manage this task, companies create a network of suppliers, distributor, retailers in which all will be linked to each other to move the product from starting of its process all the way to final output to end user. There are six major components of Supply Chain Management which are given below: Planning of resources to fulfill c
  5. Design for Excellence ( DFX): Before starting this let us discuss some basic concepts that any design in this world will have variability and randomness and you can question whether it is deterministic or not . example of washer, it has its own ID of 10 mm , suppose a OEM needs it and they are going for it to manufacture from a supplier and it snot necessary that every time its ID will come 10 mm , may be possible that its ID can come 9.9 mm, 10.1 mm so this variation will always be there and in engineering we used to call it as tolerance. now if OEM is asking to manufacturer it t
  6. Six Sigma: A approach to process improvement which is defect oriented is very popular in many industries like: general Electric, Texas Instrument, Kodak and much more. The main objective to reduce output variability to increase customer satisfaction or we can say that this approach tries to keep specification limit more than six standard deviation in both direction. it means it wants lower defect level or below than 3.4 defects per million opportunities or 3.4 DPMO. Now the question comes when Six Sigma is not called Six Sigma and answer for this is that, when it is used as the S
  7. Secondary Metric : During six sigma projects, there is need to consider primary as well as secondary metrics. Primary metric is main the indicator to achieve our project goal but there is different role of secondary metric. It works as a " Protection Measure" and it ensures that we achieve our Project goal but not on the sacrifice of something else in the process. It ensures that team work honestly and deliver as per defined target. Any management will never agree to bypass some factors or broken them on behalf of improvement which will be delivered by considering primary metric or on b
  8. Kano Model: Dr Noriaki Kano created Kano Model in 1984 for product development and customer satisfaction and to explain different categories of customer requirements and how these requirements influence the customer satisfaction. Any product or service given by any organisation will only be considered by customers if it solves important customer problems effectively. its not necessary that all customer requirements will deliver more satisfaction. you can have two different customer needs of equally important and you will be more satisfied if one goes well and you can be neutral i
  9. In Analyse phase of DMAIC, Box Plot comes into picture to compare data and analyse properly to display statistics summary at one place for a set of distribution. Box Plot which is also knows as Box and Wishker Plot is another graphical representation of data which can be drawn horizontally and vertically and summarize the following at one place which can be referred in attached picture also: 1. Median 2. Inter - Quartile Range ( Q3-Q1) 3. Quartile range or 25th, 50th, 75th percentile 4. Minimum & Maximum Range of data set 5. Outlier Interpreti
  10. FMEA stands for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis and is related with Lean Six Sigma DMAIC project in various phases. We can say that it is a risk assessment tool which helps us to prioritizes the failure modes of any product or any process on the basis of RPN score which stands for Risk Priority Number and can be calculated by giving scoring based on Severity, Occurrence and Detection. Severity can not be reduces once decided and the project team has two option to reduce occurrence or increase detection. After action taken we can again calculate RPN number and can determine new risk on the ba
  11. Six Sigma methodology can be implemented in every industry. The structure followed five important phases - DMAIC, in which output of one phase is the input of next phase. It is a top driven approach and it needs commitment from top management for the successful implementation and desired results. Six Sigma professional insist on Z Score during measure phase even though there is well established process performances. Z Score tell us about errors within the system or in other words we can say that it tells us about the number of standard deviation present between the mean and s
  12. Central Limit Theorem states that distribution of sample averages will tend towards a normal distribution as the sample size increases or in other words we can say that irrespective of shape of distribution of population , the distribution of average values of sample drawn from that population will tend toward a normal distribution as the sample size grows. Because of the CLT we can use average of small samples to evaluate any population using the normal distribution. We can see practical application during election . Any time when we see polling results on the news a
  13. Before Analyzing The NPV calculator, let us first understand what NPV is all about: NPV stands for Net Present Value which is one of Discounted Cash Flow Techniques which were developed to take account the time value of money and to improve the accuracy of cash project evaluations. in simple words we can say that NPV is the difference of present value of cash ouflow and future value of cash inflow over a period of time. NPV consists of: finding the present value (PV) of each cash flow, discounted at an appropriate percentage rate. finding the NPV by adding the discoun
  14. Before analyzing the Takt Time calculator let us understand first what Takt Time is all about. Takt Time: This is the rate in time per unit at which the process must complete units in order to achieve the customer demandime . It may computes as take Time = Time available/Number of units to be produced Takt time is basically a time based measure which is sometimes confused with cycle time. Cycle time is total time taken to complete the work. for any work task at a station cycle time must be less than or equal to takt time. Available time does not include
  15. Cost of poor quality includes any cost that would not be expended if quality were perfect. Total quality cost includes below all four cost: 1. Prevention Cost: cost incurred to prevent the occurrence of Non conformance in the future. for example: marketing, purchasing, operations 2. Appraisal Cost: cost incurred in measuring and controlling current production to ensure conformance to requirement, for example purchasing appraisal cost, operation appraisal cost 3. Internal failure cost: cost generated before a product is delivered to as a result of NC to requirements. for example
  16. A Toll Gate review, as the name suggests itself that its a check point in a DMAIC/DMADV or any six sigma project at which various team members organise a meeting and determine whether the work has been completed or as per plan and whether we have achieved our objective or not. Toll gate reviews are generally carried out at the end of each phase in DMAIC /DMADV project to check all defined objectives for the project to succeed. Toll gate review is a well.planned and standardized series of reviews at the end of each phase in which we have a set of questions and check points to procee
  17. Regression Analysis is a technique that typically uses continuous predictor variable to predict the variation in a continuous response variable. R - Square or co-efficient of determination is used to find out how well our model fits the data points or in other words it is used to explain how good our model when compared to base model. Range of R - square varies form 0 to 1 where values closer to 0 means poor fit and values closer to 1 means perfect fit. Adjusted R - Square is used to find out how important is a particular feature to our model and to overcome the lim
  18. Nowadays artificial intelligence is on boom in every industry from automotive to service. It can affect business outcomes and can do more work in short time with accuracy than that work done manually with the help of workforce. For example in trading, share market calculations are calculated and forecasted within fraction of seconds, it will take some time if all goes manually. Similarly it can impact in automotive sector, manufacturing sector, food processing. Machine can handle more workload than humans and can deliver fast than humans if they starts to behave like humans then lot of w
  19. Lean is basically eliminating waste from your organisation. There are various tools which encourage very good scope of almost unending customization and improvements. Some of them are give below 1. Improve 5 S 2. Reduce 7 waste or reduce DOWNTIME which is a short form of 7 waste or Muda in the organisation. 3. Value Stream Mapping. 4. Work standardization 5. Heijunka 6. Kanban Pull system 7. SMED 8.Problem Solving /PDCA/PDSA 9. FMEA
  20. Control plan is a quality document which is part of PPAP and its a method for documenting all the functional elements in the process to assure quality standards are met for the desired product or output of that process. The best way to create a control plan is its development by the cross functional team, that has the understanding of the process which we are going to execute or controll. With the help of CFT, we can identify opportunities for improvement. Control plan is more than just a document, it is that plan which is created by or developed by the CFT team to control the pr
  21. FMEA is a very effective risk analysis method and stands for Failure Modes Effects and Analysis and is a live document. FMEA is of following types: Design FMEA Process FMEA System FMEA Service Delivery FMEA This methodology is designed to identify the potential failure modes of a product or process before the problems occur or to assess the risk. FMEA can be conducted in design phase as well as existing products or services and can be updated at any point of time of analysis and that is why it is live document. The FMEA team determines the potential failure mod
  22. Point of Use inventory, as the name itself suggests that it is the storage of raw materials/consumables at the work stations where they are used and it is one of most useful Lean Concept.With this system, we used to deliver the quantity of products you need, where you need it and when you need it. All materials and information are stored near workstation so they can be accessed more quickly by the workforce. It is one of the most efficient and economical system giving us a clarity about our raw materials/consumable which we are using is matching to our inventory or not. POUS help u
  23. As the question says Y = F(x), that we need to improve inputs and improve the process to get better outputs than what got earlier. It is not possible to to let one of the two remain at a below industry average level( input or process) and focus heavily on the other one to generate excellent results. in previous question we have already seen that there can more than one x which is impacting outcome. Lets see some examples to understand that why is it not possible to let one of the two remain at below industry or standard level and focus heavily on other to get better output.
  24. DMAIC approach six sigma methodology provides a systematic approach to solve problems. This approach consist of proven tools and methods which applied correctly helps us to determine a desired outcome. during this approach the concept of Y= F(x) plays a very important role and it has different role phase by phase. The term Y= F(x) , means Y is function of x illustrates that output Y is result of drivers x in process. let us see phase by phase importance and role of this concept Y = F(x) Define Phase: in define phase we focus on Y, the outcome or our project Y and how to measure it .
  25. SWAG is a part of terminology. its a consensus driven guess which is based on small amount of factual evidence.In any organization at some point of time we rely on SWAG's in decision making process which is actually a gut feeling and based on past experience but not all evidence. Its a risk taking decision but not avoidable because now a days hard deadlines are their to finish any project or any work. Normally during planning phase people have sufficient time for problem solving as they have proper time for data collection and its analysis and based on analysis they give decision regarding any
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