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Likith B

Excellence Ambassador
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About Likith B

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  • Name
    Likith B
  • Company
    Aegis Ltd
  • Designation
    Team Leader

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  1. Common cause are the ones which usually occurs, they are natural causes. Example for common cause: You estimate 20 minutes to get ready and ten minutes to get to work. Instead, you take five minutes extra getting ready because you had to pack lunch and 15 additional minutes to get to work because of traffic. These would be Common Causes of Variance. Special cause are unusual and were not observed previously. Example for Special Cause: You are driving to work, and you estimate arrival in 10 minutes every day, but, on a particular day you reach 20 minutes later, since you encountered an accident zone and were held up.
  2. SIPOC - suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, customers. It is the diagrammatic tool used to outline the elements involved in the process before the process starts.
  3. The concept of Jidoka is “Automatic detection of problems or defects at an early stage and proceed with the production only after resolving the problem at its root cause”. This means, the machines and operation will stop automatically without any human intervention or supervision, once a problem is detected or a defect is found. The problems and defects are identified and resolved then and there rather than accumulating the errors till the end of production line. This saves a huge amount of rework, inspection time, time and effort of the labor and helps in early delivery of goods, in turn the adherence to the cycle time. Example: A bolt manufacturing unit produces a large amount of products in minutes, if the any defect in the CNC cutting machine, the units products will be defective and this is a huge cost if the issue is not rectified at the early stage. The use of Autonomation will help in the detection of the issue then and there and the cost of rework or reprocessing the products will be reduced.
  4. A production schedule planned according to takt time is called as Peacemaker process. The steps of a process that are dedicated to a particular family of products or services that responds directly to orders from external customers. A well run pacemaker sends smooth demand signals upstream to the remaining processes in the process cycle, which respond to requirements from external customers.
  5. Poka-yoke is a Japanese term that means "mistake-proofing" or “inadvertent error prevention”. poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator avoid mistakes. Poka-yoke can be implemented at any step of a manufacturing process where something can go wrong or an error can be made. Errors are inevitable in any manufacturing process, but that if appropriate poka-yokes are implemented, then mistakes can be caught quickly and prevented from resulting in defects. By eliminating defects at the source, the cost of mistakes within a company is reduced.
  6. False alarm is ok as it make us to stay alert. But, Repeated false alarm will lead to loss in business, as this will require lot identification or rectification of the problem which is not true and this rectification is cost to the business. False alarm will only lead to high rechecks. Example: False alarms in an automated company will have to check from the scratch to identify the mistake which is of high cost to the company. A missed alarm will lead to a negative outcome in most cases. In most of the cases negligence or a lazy attitude did not trigger the awareness about the same. Example: Missed alert in a financial company about the system issue can lead to data loss which is unacceptable. However, both has its own importance with regards to the situation. A false alarm taken seriously will lead to creating an effective system(Natural causes like tsunami or hurricane). But a missed alert can cause fatalities(alerts about tsunami or hurricane) Hence, can not select over the other.
  7. In Lean, takt time is the rate at which a finished product needs to be completed in order to meet customer demand. If a company has a takt time of five minutes, that means every five minutes a complete product, assembly or machine is produced off the line because on average a customer is buying a finished product every five minutes. Described mathematically, takt time is: Available time for production / required units of production Required units of production is a measure of customer demand – how many products a company expects its customer to buy in a given period of time. That period of time should be consistent between the two variables in the takt time equation. For example, a factory operates 1,000 minutes per day. Customer demand is 500 widgets units per day. The takt time, then is : 1,000 / 500 = 2 minutes Takt time derives the standards for production output through analyzing the customer demand for the product. Takt time is tactical by nature. but when the run on a long term it acts as a strategic plan.
  8. The Central limit Theorem states that when sample size tends to infinity, the sample mean will be normally distributed. The Law of Large Number states that when sample size tends to infinity, the sample mean equals to population mean. The LLN gives conditions under which sample moments converge to population moments as sample size increases The CLT provides information about the rate at which sample moments converge to population moments as sample size increases The law of large numbers says that the mean of a sample of a random variable's values equals the true mean μ as N goes to infinity, then it seems even stronger to say that (as the central limit says) that the value becomes N(μ,σ)N(μ,σ) where σ is the standard deviation.
  9. A value adding activity is one that customer is willing to pay for. A value adding activity is transformational by nature. A value adding activity is done first time right. All the above statements are acceptable but there will be times where they have to be modified depending on the process/ situation/ industry. Any work that takes place on the manufacturing or service floor constitutes a series of processes.These processes are either value add or non-value add. An operator could be performing a simple assembly of an engine or car part. The walk time which he takes to fetch the part to assemble is non-value add. Similarly, in service process the waiting time to download information from the system is non-value add. On the airport, the time we spend in the queue before a query gets answered is non-value add time. The purpose of an organization is to: Satisfy the existing customers Grow by adding new customers Improve profitability A gap exists between customer expectations and organization delivery against those expectations. Operational Excellence aims to translate the Voice of the customer (VOC) into measurable metrics across the value chain with a view to addressing these gaps. An introspection into these gaps reveals their existence because of non-value add (NVA) steps or activities across value chain. Organizations should aim to Eliminate and Reduce the NVA’s across value chain. Non-value add(NVA) is classified into two types. Type I waste (ENVA) ENVA is an abbreviation of Essential Non-Value Add. It signifies the activities carried out in the process that do not add any value to the customer but required for process completion Typical examples of ENVA Backing up of computers for data storage purposes does not add value to the service, but mitigates risk of data loss. Downloading information before processing data, observed in service environment is an ENVA. Processing tool of a CNC machine searches for axis position between processing steps. Searching is absolutely non-value add, but is required in the context of starting next processing step. Type II Waste (NVA) It signifies the activities carried out in the process that do not add value to the customer and not required by the process Example: Any defect that occurs during the manufacturing or transactional process causes rework leading to delay in product or service reaching the customer.
  10. 5S is an approach for workplace organizations; it drives workplace efficiency and productivity improvement. Based on a simple set of principles, it not only helps to identify wastes in the workplace but also creates an environment wherein teams get involved in improvements. It is a movement to make sure that all the elements of a "workplace system" function in harmony in order to allow teams to deliver an optimum level of performance. Implementing 5S within a service business delivers the following benefits: Reduces process lead times Facilitates workplace organization Standardizes operating procedures Improves customer response times Installs policies / guidelines that drive workplace Contributes to cost efficiency Helps to identify wastes Builds a culture of continual improvement Reduces waste in the workplace When the above elements are achieved, 5S actually will save money when implemented outside manufacturing industry.
  11. Lean six sigma is used to eliminate waste. So, when there is a product and the sales to the product is decreasing gradually, the process & cost involved in making the product is waste. In order to increase the revenue/ or sales, analysis need to be done and LSS is one of the the best methods to use to identify the problem. And if there is a defect in the product or the product need to be redesigned LSS helps is identifying the exact drawback. This helps in innovation of new product designs/ product.
  12. Kaizen(Change for better)means continuous improvement involving everyone, managers and workers alike, every day and everywhere, providing structure to process improvement. Kaizen is about continuously improving: everyday, everyone and everywhere. Many small improvements implemented with Kaizen produce faster results with less risk. Kaikaku(Radical change) involves were there are moments that more radical, step change is necessary. In simple it means a modification in the current system or process to match the desired outputs. This refers to a revolutionary change to the existing situation. Kakushin(Innovation) means a complete change in/from the existing method or process. The idea here is that some change will form a complete departure from the current situation. It is about innovation, transformation, reform and renewal. When we perform projects to reduce the production time, implement 5S, or redesign the assembly line, here we are implementing Kaizen. On the other hand, when we introduce a new lighter material to be used for the vehicle’s body or install robots to weld, press, or paint the vehicle, we are applying Kaikaku. When we design more flexible production lines to manufacture many different car models rapidly/quickly, then we had made a new revolutionary reform in our production system and that is Kakushin.
  13. Of course if we cannot measure, we won't be able to manage. However, measurement alone isn’t enough to manage because there will be other known/unknown factors which cannot be measured which could be an impact on the management i.e., emotional state of an individual within the process, the ideas that will be used for the betterment of the process/system. However, measurement is essential for a good management because to have a good management on any perspective (Professional/Personal), one should or should be able to measure the position of an individual or a system/process and the destination to be reached by an individual or a system. Edward W Deming meant in his statement that the things that cannot be measured can also be managed. Ex one cannot measure the dedication/determination of an individual but, still a positive influence/motivation on it can give a desired output.
  14. Personal Excellence: The first step toward relative personal excellence starts with self-examination. We need to understand our own strengths and weaknesses. Because our personal version of reality is an accurate reflection of who we are, we know that change begins internally. Process Excellence: Process excellence is about process effectiveness and efficiency. It requires processes to be designed and improved for consistent delivery with minimum variation and minimum waste to get the desired output. Operational Excellence: Operational Excellence is an element of organizational leadership which uses a variety of principles, systems, and tools toward the sustainable improvement of key performance metrics of an individual and team for a better process outcome. Business Excellence: Business Excellence is described as outstanding practices in managing the organization and achieving results, through a set of fundamental concepts or values. All the terms are related to one another as personal excellence can’t be achieved when the process is not set accordingly in place, and also vice versa, Process excellence can’t be met when the contribution of individuals is not up to the standards set for the process. To achieve Business excellence, certain models are uses, that when applied within an organization can help to focus thought and action in a more systematic and structured way that should lead to increased performance in the organization. These models are holistic in that they focus upon all areas and dimensions of an organization, and in particular, factors that drive performance. To apply these models we will need the help of the Individuals contribution within the processes/departments that are in the system. Operational Excellence for me is a lot more hands on and practical application. Heavy/Manufacturing industry (i.e.: operations in heavy industries) is where I’d expect to find such a term being prevalent. While Process Excellence sounds more analytical, it conjures images of process maps, SOP (Standard Operating Process) and spreadsheets, so at least, I’d consider it more of a service-industry term. Again though, it seems that both industries are using both terms it depends on how the management takes it into place. An organization should actually pursue to achieve Process Excellence through helping individuals achieve Personal Excellence because when these are met automatically Operational and Business excellence will be achieved.
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