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Shuvro Chakraborty

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About Shuvro Chakraborty

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    Shuvro Chakraborty
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    Senior Associate Consultant

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  1. Shuvro Chakraborty

    Continuous Data, Attribute Data

    Data is Continuous if there are infinite number of values possible during measurement. If the data is Continuous – We need to ask ourselves if it is possible for the data to take on values that are fractions or decimals. If your answer is Yes, It is a Continuous Data. E.g. Height, Weight, Login Hours TAT etc. Attribute/Discrete Data usually occurs in a case where there is only a certain number of values, or when we are counting something (Using Whole Numbers). A Data type is attribute, if there are only a finite number of values possible. E.g. True, False, On, Off etc. Attached are some examples: More examples where a Metric can be considered both Discreet and Continuous are below: Accuracy % : Continuous Met/Not met : Attribute or Discreet Data Success % : Continuous Pass/Fail : This defines count of passes and failures.
  2. Correction, Corrective and preventive action Correction - This is an action which is taken to eliminate a error or non conformance. It is kind of a first-aid kit and an instant action to reduce the impact of the error or the non conformance. Corrective and Preventive Action are improvements to an organization's processes taken to eliminate causes of non-conformance or other undesirable situations. CAPA is a concept within Manufacturing Practice, service, and numerous ISO business standards. It focuses on the systematic investigation of the root causes of identified problems or identified risks in an attempt to prevent their recurrence or to prevent occurrence. Corrective actions are implemented in response to customer complaints, unacceptable levels of product non-conformance, issues identified during an internal audit, and process monitoring such as would be identified by Statistical Process Control. Preventive actions are implemented in response to the identification of potential sources of non-conformity. To ensure that corrective and preventive actions are effective, the systematic investigation of the root causes of failure is essential. CAPA is a part of the overall Quality Management System to ensure correction of faulty transactions (corrective action) and making arrangements for the same to get prevented in occurrence for the future. Example : Situation : Car Break Down in the middle of a Long Drive Correction : Clean the spark Plug and once put back the engine starts. Corrective Action : Keeping an extra spark plug from the next long drive onwards. Preventive Action : Before the next long drive, owner must anticipate all kinds of risks associated with car breaking down, and shall have a preventive action for each of these.
  3. Shuvro Chakraborty

    Takt Time

    TAKT TIME • Takt is a German word for a musical beat or rhythm • Just as a metronome keeps the beat for music, Takt time keeps the beat for customer demand • Takt time is the time required between completion of successive units of end product • Takt determines how fast a process needs to run to meet customer demand Takt Image • The entire organization must truly believe that at some point in the future it will be able to reach the ideal state • To maintain the true spirit of Lean, each compromise (made for particular reasons) MUST continuously be challenged • To do this you MUST maintain the vision of eliminating waste and designing a process that will achieve one-piece flow
  4. Shuvro Chakraborty

    Fault Tree Analysis / FTA

    Fault Tree Analysis Fault Tree concept was introduced by Bell Telephone Labs and later adopted and extensively used by the Boeing Company. A fault tree diagram follows a top-down structure and represents a graphical model of the pathways within a system that can lead to a foreseeable, undesirable loss event (or a failure). Fault tree diagrams consist of gates and events connected with lines. The AND and OR gates are the two most commonly used gates in a fault tree. To illustrate the use of these gates, consider two events (called "input events") that can lead to another event (called the "output event"). If the occurrence of either input event causes the output event to occur, then these input events are connected using an OR gate. If the output event is system failure and the two input events are component failures, then this fault tree indicates that the failure of A or B causes the system to fail. The RBD equivalent for this configuration is a simple series system with two blocks, A and B, as shown next. Fault tree diagram can be used to model and analyze similar types of logical configurations required for system reliability and related analyses.
  5. Shuvro Chakraborty


    5S 5S is an approach for workplace organizations to make it more efficient and productive improvement. Based on a simple set of principles, it not only helps to identify wastes in the workplace but also creates an environment wherein teams get involved in improvements. It is a movement to make sure that all the elements of a "workplace system" function in harmony in order to allow teams to deliver an optimum level of performance. Except the traditional 5 S which we follow for Manufacturing (Sort, Shine, Set in Order, Standardize & Sustain). We have added 1 more S as “Safety” to the 5S to make it 6S. Implementing 5S/6S within a service business can deliver the following benefits: Reduces process lead times Facilitate workplace organization Standardizes operating procedures/process Improves customer query times Installs policies / guidelines that drive workplace Contributes to cost efficiency Helps to identify wastes Builds a culture of continual improvement Removes workplace clutter Reduces waste in the workplace Improves look-and-feel
  6. Shuvro Chakraborty

    Creativity & Innovation

    Innovation and Lean Six Sigma Current world, companies and organizations in nearly every industry all over the world have used Lean Six Sigma to increase customer satisfaction and to deliver impressive results to the clients. An outstanding example is General Electric, the company who has made Six Sigma as popular as it is today. Lot more exist in the market, practicing Six Sigma. Innovation is another area that has drawn tremendous attention in this business world. Innovation means - Changes that gives or create a New Dimension of existing performance. On one hand, Lean Six Sigma works towards very low variation in processes with high efficiency. Innovation, on the other hand, seeks to find undiscovered, uncertain scope. Innovation requires risk-taking, making mistakes and learning from failures. So Innovation and Six Sigma should go parallel to each other so as to ensure continuous improvement and innovation. Innovation should start at the boardroom, when the senior management level decides about the focus for the next couple of years or this financial year. An important requirement for successful innovation is the capability of every organization to understand and analyze the business environment. Innovations are a result of weeks of hard-work combined with moments of insightful creativity. Innovation and Lean Six Sigma can definitely complement and leverage on each other rather than being competing initiatives. Eventually they both can be synergized to optimize business performance.
  7. Shuvro Chakraborty

    Kaizen Kaikaku Kakushin

    Kaizen Kaizen is the Japanese word for continuous improvement using small incremental changes. It means as change for the better. Kai means change, Zen means for the better. Lean Kaizen is an approach for solving problems and is the basis of incremental continual improvement in organizations. When applied to the workplace, Kaizen means continuous improvement involving everyone, managers and workers alike, every day and everywhere, providing structure to process improvement. Kaizen is about continuously improving: everyday, everyone and everywhere. Many small improvements implemented with Kaizen produce faster results with less risk. In IT terms, we can equate this to a minor update to a piece of software. Kaikaku Lean also includes scopes that there are moments that more radical, step change is necessary. This type of change is known as Kaikaku. This refers to a revolutionary change to the existing situation. Kaikaku would be the upgrade of an application currently in use from a release level to a new release level. Software providers will often substantially change both the technical basis of the software and its functionality. For both IT and the user community, this means a large step change. Also for service any change or radical change to an existing process would mean a Kaikaku. Kakushin The third type of improvement known within Lean is Kakushin. The idea here is that some change will form a complete departure from the current situation. It is about innovation, transformation, reform and renewal. This may mean replacing a complete application with a different application that supports the process in a completely different way, for example a web-based application that fully automates the registration of orders, the submission of invoices and the generation of a picking order at order fulfilment. This kind of change will ensure the disappearance of many roles and functions within a business. Both from technological and business process perspectives, this example represents a complete departure from the current way of working. Another example of Kakushin is where the organization standardizes a process and supporting a process across the entire organization where previously various groups had different processes and applications to achieve similar goals. If the above 3 lean techniques are not used in an organization - it would mean no Continual improvement prevalent in the system along with no change in way of production. This might be monotonous to the employees and might yield in defects when Employee satisfaction is at stake. Also from the org standpoint, it would refrain from seeing growth in production figures along with revenue regeneration. I am sure these simple techniques are a must o be adopted by all organization understanding the client and business requirement where the clients are always after continual improvement, radical change or minor changes resulting in business impact for the organization.
  8. Shuvro Chakraborty

    CTQ / Metric

    Measurement is definitely essential for any well-managed business. Along with it measurement is also essential in our daily life too. · Keep Track of Time – watch our favorite television shows on specific times of the day. · Keep track of each day – that’s how we remember birthdays of our near ones. · We run to school and office to ensure we are not late. · Gauging our health on basis of measurements. Eg, Height, weight, pulse, BP etc. · We measure our ingredients for cooking any dish. · For any long trips, we always keep a tab on the Kms ahead. · We measure the amount of oil and petrol our car would need when we are using it on a daily basis. Mileage is a definitely something which everyone calculates. So definitely, if we use measurement so often in our daily life, we can kind of imagine how much the same is used in corporate offices for catering to a good management. There are various reasons why we should be measuring things like performance in Corporate world for ensuring its management is good. · If we measure we know where we are and in case of getting improved, we know what would be our target. · Communicate effectively and improve visibility · It helps to the benchmark of process performance against outside organizations. · Measuring process efficiency provides a rational basis for selecting what business process improvements to make first or ensures priority. · Measurement helps us in Identifying and correcting problems early. · Without measurement we would have encountered problems in deriving at numbers when we have Attrition, Penalty, SLA reporting, Improvement metrics etc in simple corporate world. · Measurement also helps us to manage risks in the process. Edward Deming in his statement meant that, there are still things which are unknown and still not measured.