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Johari Window is a tool developed jointly by psychologists Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham, that talks about an individual's relationship with oneself and mutual understanding between the group members.


Stages of Team Formation are the stages that all teams go through during the life of a project. It describes the typical behavior of teams during the 4 stages - Form, Storm, Norm and Perform - thereby allowing for better team management.


An application-oriented question on the topic along with responses can be seen below. The best answer was provided by Sudhir Gayakwad on 4th Sep 2020.


Applause for all the respondents - Aritra Das Gupta, Sudhir Gayakwad, Sourabh Nandi.


Q 293. What is Johari Window and how can it be used to help a team through the 4 stages of team formation?



Note for website visitors - Two questions are asked every week on this platform. One on Tuesday and the other on Friday.

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Few years back I was attending one of the assessments for pre qualification for promotion assessment. There were presentation of a case study and then a personal interview on presentation and finally feedback for result.


A) In feedback session I was been told that my communication was very poor; I was interrupting the panel so many times. I was starting to speak before panel finish.  And so many other things related to communication panel hammered me.

I was just speechless as I was knowing pane giving feedback with data points they had collected when I was talking. It was a new information I was not knowing which panel highlighted.

B.) I was bit late to the feedback session and panel was critical about delay. I explained the valid reason for the delay as I was busy with my departmental activities and arranging the spares for one of the machine which was down. Secondly panel was curious about my writings between the lines on presentation chart papers. I explained all those content and panel was impressed.

With my explanation (which panel was not knowing) about delay, my concepts and contents panel cleared me and I was qualified for the final assessment.

C) Now I had to prepare for the final assessment from behavior, competencies point of view for which I did not know much, I had to study with others experience.

Above A, B, and C what does it indicate?

A – indicates that I was not knowing about my communication style which I came to know from the panel as a feedback.

B – Panel was not clear about my thoughts written between the lines and reason for my delay. I make them know about it and I got the marks and I cleared the assessment.

C- Study for final assessment, I did not know, peoples around me also not knowing. I had to explore it by all means.

Actually above event was one of the most important events for me as it was related to all my hard work, performances, results I had achieved for last few months.

It was related to my Self Actualization – Achieving full potential including creative activities – Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.

 It was related to my Emotional Intelligence. Accepting feedback and work on it. To explain my situation so that others can understand and I can achieve my goal is very important aspect of this event.

Explore something that is completely unknown to me as well as for others is also a critical aspect of the life to Progress, to grow, to get matured, to understand others, make others to understand for overall wellbeing.

To help me fulfilling my needs, achieving my goals - Johari Window Comes to help scientifically and psychologically.

So let us discuss what is Johari Window Is?


The above figure shows the Johari Model which is developed by American Psychologist Joseph  Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955. Johari= Jo (from Joseph) + Hari (from Harry).

In today’s industry it is very important as more and more emphasize is given on developing soft skills along with hard skills. Managerial behavior, fundamental competencies required for effective personal growth, team development, integration of new employee; Johari Window model gives accurate information and plays a effective role.

                                      There are four quadrant in this model

1. Open / Free Area – This is the area of one’s behavior, competencies, attitude and emotions known to him as well as others and they can have mutual connection and co operation built on this area.

2. Blind Area – This part is very crucial as others know about oneself but he do not know about it. It creates a major challenge for ones acceptance by others. Others accept only when it is fine tuned with their views, requirements, fulfillments etc. So a person has to know what others think about him.

3. Hidden Area – This is the area world do not know about oneself which he may be expert, he may be facing a challenge; it may be his potential etc. Unless world do not understand you, your potential it is worthless for world as well as oneself.

4. Unknown Area – This is the area everyone want to acquire but do not know how to achieve. This needs real discovery of unknown potential, competencies of self as well as what others can do for oneself.


So it is clear from above, to progress, grow with complete understanding of one’s potential, attitude, capabilities, competencies, behavior, emotions, aptitude, goals etc. to the world and simultaneously what world can do, how world can accept is very essential. Basically there should not be a blind area, hidden area and unknown area in the life. Practically it is not possible so one can do his best to enlarge the quadrant 1 – Open or free area of his nature and accept others and make them accept for complete co operation and support.

Usage:- To enlarge the quadrant 1 – Open area –

ASK – for the feedback from others for things not known to self,

Discloser – Disclose about self to others to make them know yourself,

Discovery – Self introspection, study the behavior and counseling.

*** The Johari Window model is a simple and useful tool for illustrating and improving self-awareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group. This model can also be used to assess and improve a group's relationship with other groups. This model is particularly useful in team development.

Example:- We used this model extensively to develop a team in my last experience.

a. ASK - It gives me required insights what team expects from me by transparent feedback.

For this we use 360 degree feedback in a common team. I had allowed team members for their free and frank critics for my action. Company also had a system of survey to collect feedback from team members and peers.

b. Disclose - Team can explain their challenges to get helped.


Our weekly meeting used to focus on team development only. They were allowed to express their challenges, good work done to get know about their potential, attitude and aptitude.

c. Disclose - Team members also get chance to explain their challenges to other team members. Continuous improvement was one of the major missions. While doing why why analysis team members used to express their challenges, co operation and help getting and expected from other team members. It also used to get highlighted while doing common presentations and projects.

d. Team members had opportunity to give honest feedback to other team members about their potential, ability aptitude which we used to use in work and get benefits.

e. Discover - Most important area was reducing Unknown area of team leader, team and individual team members. This was the major area to be discovered.

i. Generally this was covering unutilized potential, fear someone has for some work or assignment, subconscious feeling or some typical behavior pattern.

ii. To reduce this area to enlarge open area – Counseling was the best tool used after careful observations while doing some task, project or routine pattern of doing some activities.


Conclusion: - with the help of 360 degree feedback, open feedback sessions in free and frank meeting one can get true feedback for self improvement. By expressing one’s challenges and potential he can be a good asset for the team. By discovering unutilized potential, hidden fear and effective counseling unknown nature of one’s own behavior can be discovered and utilized for the benefit of team. Johari Window gives an effective tool to get all above benefit. Softer skills are the foundation for everybody’s growth, every organization’s growth, Nation’s Growth.



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For a team to achieve its goal its Imperative that the team members know what each other’s strengths and weaknesses are. It becomes Extremely important that each team member is self-aware about himself.

Johari Model is one such tool which helps us to do the same. This tool was developed by American social scientist Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham in the year 1955.

This can be very effective when there is a team formation which follows the 4 stages Form, Storm,Norm & Perform.

Johari Window :-  


1.OPEN Area or Arena — Every individual has some characteristic behavior, attitude, emotions, feelings, skills which is known by him and everyone. This can be very effective In all the 4 stages of the team formation.
Form — In the form stage knowing each of the team member's behavior, attitude, emotions etc. will help the team lead to select the right team which can be crucial in achieving the project target.
Storm — In the storm stage this becomes important Because the team members know each other’s qualities & can provide constructive feedback to improve each other’s fallacies.
Norm — In the norm stage it can be very helpful as certain practices or qualities which can negatively impact a project can be addressed. The project lead can set the expectation which the team agrees to follow.
Perform — In this stage each team member is aware of each other’s qualities, behavior attitude, strength,weaknesses which will help in the team working in synergy in achieving the desired project target.

2. Blind SPOT — Blind spot is information about yourself which you are not aware but others are aware of the same. This is very crucial as this will help the team to let the individual know what are his good or bad qualities.
Form — In the form stage these findings can help in creating a connect between the team
Storm — In the storm phase this can help in constructive argument and allow the team member to introspect once they are made aware of their respective blind spot.
Norm — Once each other’s blind spots are known the team can understand what can be the collective strength of the team or what are the opportunities they need to work as a team. This can help in creating action plan to address the same and hence will achieving the project target
Perform — During the team formation since the team is aware of each other blind spot it becomes easier to achieve the desired target in the most harmonious way.

3. Hidden Area or Façade — This is information that is known to the individual but not known to the team. As the team goes through various phases individual builds connect with the team member and reveals this information. If it’s a good quality than the team can capitalize on the same and if it’s a weakness then the team can suggest ways by which the individual can improve on the same.

4. Unknown Area — This is information which is not known to the individual neither to the others in the team. This is a self-actualization which a person needs to find about himself during the course of time. As the team goes through phases like Storm, Norm or perform individual realizes about the same as they communicate in greater details with the team. Open communication will help in individual realising the same. This might be due to some past experience and might be an unconscious reaction. Once the person realizes and discusses with the team gets closer which will help them to work in synergy. This makes it easier for the team to achieve the project goals.

As the team develops the team members move from a state where they seek more feedback about themselves & improves themselves. The Individual also tries to understand their blind spot which helps to improve the team overall synergy. This collectively helps the team to achieve the desired project target. Below is the table which shows the same.




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Johari Window

The Johari Window is one of the best-designed communication model used to enhance understanding among individuals within a team or a group. It was coined by American psychologists Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham in the 1950s. The word "Johari" is a combination of Joseph and Harry's first names. Johari Window can further used to improve a group's relationship with other groups. Through disclosure, self-disclosure, and feedback, There are two critical ideas behind the tool:
•     Individuals can build confidence between themselves by disclosing knowledge about themselves; and
•     Individuals can uncover about themselves and come to terms with personal problems with the help of feedback from other members. 


Explanation of the Quadrants
The Johari Window has four quadrants or panes. The Johari Window is used as a training model for understanding and growing self-awareness, personal development, and enhancing communications, interpersonal relations, social psychology, team improvement, and inter-group relationships.



The Open quadrant is also known as the 'public self' or 'area of free activity.' This information about the person – behavior, attitude, feelings, emotion, knowledge, experience, skills, views, etc. - known by the participant ('self') and understood by the group ('others'). This quadrant comprises the things that a person is happy to bestow and show to others. It presents a standard view of the person and can be discussed openly. 


The Hidden area of the window attributes to the individual but kept hidden from and unknown to others. The remote range could also include sensitivities, anxieties, hidden agendas, manipulative plans, and secrets - anything that a person knows but does not exhibit, for whatever reason. It is natural for personal plus private information and feelings to remain hidden. Absolute knowledge, feelings, and experiences have no importance on work, and so can and should stay hidden.  


Blind Spot
The Blind Spot quadrant apprehends what is known about a person by others within the group, but is unknown by the person. This blind region could also be referred to as ignorance regarding oneself, or issues about which one is deluded. A blind spot could also include cases that others are deliberately withholding from a person.


The Unknown quadrant includes information that is unknown to anyone and everyone. Frequently referred to as the 'undiscovered' quadrant, this is a permanent source of personal creativity and additional resources that may never have been investigated or suspected. These new issues take a variety of forms: they can be feelings, behaviors, attitudes, capabilities, capacities, which can be entirely close to the surface, and which can be positive and helpful, or they can be more profound aspects of a person's temperament, influencing his/her behavior to various degrees.


The Johari Window with four stages of team formation

The established team members will have higher open areas than new team members. New team members start with smaller open spaces because of limited knowledge about the new team member has yet been shared. The Open Area size is extended horizontally into the blind place by seeking and actively adjusting to feedback from other group members. Group members should strive to assist a team member in expanding their Open Area by submitting constructive feedback. The Open Area's dimension can also be grown vertically downwards into the hidden or withdrawn space by the sender's acknowledgment of information, feelings, etc. about himself/herself to the group and group members. Additionally, group members can support a person to expand their Open Area into the hidden area by asking the sender about himself/herself. Leaders play a crucial role here, facilitating feedback and disclosure among group members, and providing constructive feedback to individuals about their blind areas.

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