# Sourabh Nandi

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Sourabh Nandi
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Oracle University
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Senior Sales Operations Analyst

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1. ## Discrete Event Simulation

DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION (DES) Business processes are commonly modeled as computer-based, dynamic, stochastic, and discrete simulation models. The most popular way to represent these models within the computer is using Discrete-Event Simulation (DES). In simplistic terms, DES defines how a system with discrete flow units or jobs evolves. Technically, this implies that the computer tracks how and when state variables such as queue lengths and resource availabilities improve over time—the state-variables change due to an event (or discrete event) occurring in the system. A characteristic is that discrete-event models focus only on the time cases when these discrete events occur. This feature allows for vital time compression because it makes it possible to skip through all time segments within events when the system's state remains unchanged. Therefore, the computer can simulate many situations epistolizing to a long real-time span in a short period. To demonstrate the mechanics of a DES model, consider an information desk within an individual server. Suppose that the objective of the simulation is to evaluate the typical delay of a customer. This simulation then must have the following state variables. The status of the server (active or idle). The number of shoppers in the queue. Time of arrival of each shopper in the queue. While the simulation runs, two events can change these state variables' value: the arrival of a customer or service completion. A customer's approach either changes the server's status from idle to busy or increases the number of customers in the queue. On the other hand, the completion of service either changes the server's status from active to idle or minimizes the number of customers in the line. However, the state variables evolve when an event occurs. A discrete-event simulation model analyzes the system's dynamics from one event to the next. The simulation prompts the "simulation clock" from one event to the next and considers that the system does not improve in any way between two consecutive events. For example, suppose a single customer is waiting in line at a grocery store. The subsequent event is the completion of service of the consumer who is currently paying for his groceries. In that case, the discrete-event simulation does not keep track of how the consumer in the line spends the waiting time. Hence, the simulation keeps track of when each event occurs but assumes that nothing occurs during the elapsed time between two consecutive events. The below figure reviews the steps associated with a discrete-event simulation. The simulation begins with initializing the current state of the system and an event list. The primary state of the system, for example, might include some jobs in multiple queues as specified by the analyst. It also could determine the availability of some resources in the process. The most apparent initial state is to consider that no jobs are in the process and that all supplies are currently available. The event list shows the time when the next event will occur. For instance, the event list initially might incorporate the time of the first arrival to the process. Other events might be scheduled originally, as defined by the analyst. Once the initialization move is completed, the clock is advanced to the next phase in the event list. The next event is then performed. The execution of an event triggers three activities. First, the current state of the system is changed. For instance, the executed event might be a job landing in the process. If all the servers are occupied, then the state change consists of adding the arriving job to a queue. Other state changes might expect deleting a job from a queue or making a server occupied. FIGURE: Discrete-Event Simulation [Source: Business Process Modeling, Simulation, and Design by Manuel Laguna] The execution of an event might induce the cancellation of other events. For instance, if the completed event consists of a machine breakdown, this event forces removing the processing of jobs waiting for the machine. Ultimately, the execution of an event may prompt the scheduling of future events. For instance, if a job arrives and is added to a queue, a future event is also added to the event list, indicating that the job will commence processing. During an event is executed, the event is eliminated from the event list. Then the termination rule is checked. If the rule indicates that the end of the simulation has been reached, then raw data & summary statistics are available to the analyst. However, if the termination rule indicates that the simulation has not finished (for instance, because more events remain in the event list), the clock is moved ahead to the next event.
2. ## Fault Injection Testing

Fault Injection: Overview In Fault Injection experiments, various faults are injected into a simulation model of the target system or a hardware-and-software prototype of the system. The behavior of the system in the proximity of each fault is then observed and classified. Parameters that can be considered based on such experiments include the probability that a fault will create an error and the probability that the system will successfully perform the actions required to recover from that error. These actions consist of recognizing the fault, identifying the system component influenced by the fault, and taking appropriate recovery action, involving system reconfiguration. Each of these actions necessitates time that is not continuous but may change from one fault to another and depend on the overall workload. Thus, fault injection experiments and presenting estimates for the coverage factor can also estimate the individual delay's distribution associated with each of the above actions. Also, fault injection experiments can be used to evaluate and validate the system dependability. For instance, errors in the implementation of fault tolerance mechanisms can be identified. System components whose negligence is further likely to result in a total system crash can be identified. Also, the effect of the system's workload on the dependability can be witnessed. Fault Injection: Application Fault injection must be applied to measure the coverage and latency parameters, study error propagation, and analyze the relationship between the system's workload and its fault handling capabilities. Another exciting utilization of fault injection systems is to evaluate the effect of transient faults on the availability of highly reliable systems. These systems were capable of improving from the transient faults but still had misused time doing that, thus diminishing the availability. Various fault injectors have been acquired and are currently in use. Studies comparing several fault injectors have been administered, concluding that two fault injectors may either endorse or complement each other. The latter occurs if they satisfy different faults. The different strategies to fault injection result in quite other characteristics of the corresponding tools. Some of these differences are reviewed in the below table which compares the properties of four approaches to fault injection. [Image Source: Fault-Tolerant Systems By Israel Koren and C. Mani Krishna] All fault injection schemes expect a well-defined fault prototype, which should describe as closely as possible the faults that one requires to see during the endurance of the target system. A fault model must describe the types of defects, their location & duration, and, possibly, the statistical correlations of these properties. The fault models used in currently available fault injection tools deviate considerably, from very detailed device-level faults (for example, a delay fault on a distinct wire) to simplified functional level faults (such as an erroneous adder output).
3. ## Mind Mapping

Mind Mapping: The Swiss Army Knife for the Brain Mind Mapping is a technique used to capture and articulate ideas and thoughts in a fashion that resembles how our minds process information. It is a handy collaboration tool that summarizes ideas and thoughts generated on complex concepts or problems in a simplified and consolidated structure, thereby facilitating creative problem solving and decision making. It helps explore relationships between the various aspects of a problem and inspires creative and critical thinking. Mind mapping involves capturing thoughts and ideas in a non-linear diagram that has no standardized format. It uses images, words, colors, and relationships to give a structure to thoughts and ideas. A mind map comprises a central idea (main topic), secondary ideas (subjects), multiple layers of ideas (sub-topics), connection between ideas (branches) with an associated keyword that explains the relationship. Together, these elements capture and articulate the concept. Figure: The Taxonomy of a Mind Map [Image Source: BABOK v3] Strengths Summarizes and provides structure to complex thoughts, ideas, and information. Facilitates decision-making and creative problem-solving. Assists in translating a large amount of information and hence helps in preparing and delivering presentations. Limitations It may be misused as a brainstorming tool and constrain idea generation. It may not be easy to communicate a shared understanding. Examples: Frequent applications of Mind Mapping are: Manuscripts and ‘cribs’ for lectures and presentations Notes from texts and books Notes from talks, presentations, and discussions Project management Knowledge management Exam preparation Arranging a shopping list Taking notes on a longish magazine article Taking notes on a TV documentary or while watching the news Creating a Mind Map of your ‘to do’ list (of course in the form of a Mind Map and not a list!) Minuting your next meeting with a colleague Setting up a packing list for your next holiday or business trip. You can see the personal packing list for business trips below figure; [Image Source: Mind Mapping For Dummies]
4. ## Smart Little People

Smart Little People ( SLP ) Smart Little People is a simple TRIZ Creativity tool developed from the observation of innovative and creative people at work. This powerful tool is often mastered in a short period. Smart Little People are tiny imaginary beings who represent the various elements of the matter we try to understand and solve. It works as a mental trick because it’s supported empathy or creating some personal analogy with the case. Compassion means becoming the object/problem and looking out to determine what will be done from its position and viewpoint. If we imagine ourselves becoming so tiny that we are within the problem area and seeing the matter in great detail, this may be useful and harmful. This is often useful for problem understanding but harmful because may we resist solving a controversy if the answer means ourself, as a little being, goes to be destroyed, dissolved, mashed up, dissected, etc. this is often overcome by employing a crowd/multitude of disposable Smart Little People, for which we feel no responsibility. Smart Little People works by modeling the various aspects of the matter (causes and solutions) with different rival or complementary Smart Little People groups. They’re Smart because they need the flexibility and insight to create/solve problems and be anywhere, doing anything. Little means they’re as tiny as necessary – molecular level if required. Rival teams of smart little people are often created, and a few can cause the matter and solve it; they are doing whatever is necessary whether or not this implies they get destroyed. The below figure uses SLP to illustrate a composite element. Altshuller’ s Famous Use of Smart Little People; In much of the TRIZ literature is the original famous Altshuller example of how he designed an ideal marine cable to forestall tethered mines within the sea from being detected and removed. Figure 1.2 shows that minesweepers are accustomed to destroying mines stumped by dragging a cable loop, which traps the mine retaining cable. The mine then detonates or floats to the surface. Altshuller’s challenge was to style a cable that might tether the mine to the seabed and allow the minesweeper cable to tolerate it. Altshuller drew the zone of conflict as if with populated the smart little people, and by imagining a little person holding the feet of the small person above, he saw the solution. (Figure 1.3 ). The device which was developed is widely used works sort of a rotating door. It’s supported the smart little person’s principle of letting associate with one hand to allow the cable to withstand while still hanging on with the opposite hand. Then rejoining the primary hand and letting go with the use. Therefore, the line passes through, but the vertical link is always maintained. Conclusion; Smart Little People is an excellent tool for modeling any real-world problem. When we use Smart Little People, we zoom and enter the problem zone. As we model our situation, we identify exactly what’s going on the location. We become responsive to the fine details so we can specialize in the place where our problem is going on – but in a very conceptual way. Our Smart Little People then facilitate us to find solutions.

7. ## JIT

What is Just in Time? Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing, also known as the Toyota Production System (TPS) or Just-in-time production, is a management philosophy that primarily reduces times within the production system and response times from suppliers' customers. The advantages of a Just-in-time (JIT) system The following are some of the advantages that gain through the implementation of Just-in-Time: Reduction in order to payment timeline Reduction in Inventory costs Reduction in space required. Reduction in handling equipment and other costs Lead time reductions Reduced planning complexity Improved Quality Productivity increases Problems are highlighted quicker. Employee empowerment The Pre-Requisites for implementing Just-in-Time Just in Time is simply one of all the pillars of a lean manufacturing system, and in and of itself, it can not be implemented in isolation and without a firm foundation on which to make. Trying to scale back batch sizes without tackling setup times as an example cannot be done. The subsequent are a number of the items that have to be implemented for JIT to be ready to work: Reliable Equipment and Machines; if the machinery is usually breaking down or giving quality problems, it will frequently manifest minor issues with any Just-in-Time flow. The implementation of TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) is required to ensure that that can depend on the equipment and attenuate any failure processes' impact. Well designed work cells; A poor layout, some unclear process flow, and various other issues can all be cleared up by implementing 5S within a production unit. This straightforward and easy to implement lean tool will make a significant improvement in the efficiencies-all by itself. Quality Improvements; an empowered workforce tasked with tackling their quality problems with all of the support they have is another vital part of any lean and JIT implementation. Fitting kaizen or quality improvement teams and using quality tools to spot and solve problems is significant. Standardized Operations; only if someone recognizes how each operation goes to be performed can make sure what the reliable outcome will be. The standard ways of working for all operations will help ensure that the processes are reliable and predictable. Pull Production; Just-in-time does not push raw materials in at the forepart to form inventory (push production); it seeks to tug production through the method in step with customer demand. It achieves this by fixing “supermarkets” between different processes from which products are taken or by the employment of Kanbans, which are signals (flags) to inform the previous process of what must be made. Single-piece Flow; the perfect situation is when we produce one product as ordered by the customer. It is not immediately possible but should always be the end goal. To appreciate this, we will significantly reduce batch sizes by using the Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED), which seeks to reduce the time taken for any setup significantly. It will also often need smaller dedicated machines and processes rather than complex machines. The flow of the customer; the demand of the customer he usually mentioned as the Takt time. We wish to confirm that the cells and processes are organized, balanced, and planned to realize the customer's pull. This is often achieved through Heijunker and Yamazumi charts.
8. ## Water Spider

What is a Water spider (or Mizusumashi) The Water Spider (“Mizusumashi”) System is one of the improvement specialties in internal logistics flow. This Japanese word indicates “water beetle,” and this internal logistics worker is often called a “water spider” in English. This term probably was chosen for this concept because of the water beetle’s agility as it swims across the water. Here a mizusumashi is a logistics worker who does the internal transportation of goods using a standard fixed cycle route. The Water Spider is a critical element of the creation of internal logistics flow. A worker moves all the information related to production orders (kanban) along with all containers. However, a water spider moves the flow containers between supermarkets and the border of lines by repeating the same movements in a fixed cycle (which usually runs for 20 or 60 minutes). During this cycle, the water spider will stop in a certain number of stations along the route and check whether they need materials. The water spider uses a small train with a suitable load capacity to serve all the stations on its fixed route, delivering information to several points along the way. The mizusumashi fixed cycle time is also called the pitch time. This pitch time is a multiple of the takt time. If the mizusumashi is moving one piece at a time, the pitch time would equal the cycle time. Because the mizusumashi is moving small containers, the pitch time is designed to carry several small boxes to many points of use at the border of several lines. The customers are the production operators on the lines. They have a reliable logistics provider who comes every 20 or 60 minutes, looks to see if more material is needed, and removes the empty containers and any garbage generated during the process (also known as reverse logistics). Production is assured of a reliable and frequent supply. How Waterspider help in building successful lean factories? The mizusumashi system is one of the most important means of creating internal logistics flow to build successful lean factories. The water spider operates like a shuttle service at an airport. The shuttle service has a fixed route (e.g., Arrivals 1, Arrivals 2, Hotel 1, Hotel 2, and Hotel 3) that it keeps on the following cycle after cycle. The cycle timing can be calculated—if we allow 4 minutes for each shuttle stop and 20 minutes for the driving time between visits, we have a cycle of 40 minutes. There will be a schedule at every shuttle stop that shows the estimated time of arrival. The users know that every 40 minutes, the shuttle will arrive. Once they are on board, they know what time they will arrive at their destination. The mizusumashi system operates the same way. It has the following characteristics: The mizusumashi “shuttle” stops are at supermarkets (i.e., picking supermarkets, border-of-line supermarkets, kitting supermarkets, or finished- goods delivery supermarkets). The cycle is calculated in the same way, by measuring the work to be done at several stops and adding the travel time. At this level of organization, the containers to be moved onboard the shuttle service are the equivalent of customers or passengers. The water spider’s definitive work means a fixed route (i.e., a plan that shows the travel route and the stopping points) and a constant cycle time determined by the sum of the times involved. Because we are using supermarkets and flow containers, we can improve the productivity of the mizusumashi by enhancing the operator’s standard work, just as we improved routine work to achieve production flow. As well as moving materials and empty containers and doing other driving tasks, the mizusumashi also moves the information associated with replenishment and different synchronization needs. Figure: The advantages of using Mizusumashi over Forklifts

13. ## Golden Ratio

The Golden Ratio is a mathematical ratio found almost anywhere, like nature, architecture, painting, photography, and music. When applied to design specifically, it creates an organic, balanced, and aesthetically-pleasing composition. The Golden Ratio is derived when we divide a line into two parts and the longer part (a) separated by, the smaller section (b) is equal to the sum of (a) + (b) divided by (a), which both equal to 1.618. This formula helps us to create shapes, logos, layouts, and more. Using the same idea, we can create a golden rectangle. The below diagram shows a rectangle with harmonious proportions using a square and multiple sides by 1.618 to get a new shape of a rectangle with balanced proportions. While applying the Golden Ratio formula to the new rectangle, we end up with an image made up of increasingly smaller squares. Therefore, spiral over each square, starting in one corner and ending in the opposite one, we get the Fibonacci sequence (also known as the Golden Spiral). Example1: Used for a Logo Design Example2: Cropping and resizing images Example3: Typography and defining hierarchy The Golden Ratio helps us find font size used for headers and body copy on a website, landing page, blog post, or even print drive.

15. ## Block Diagrams

What is a Block Diagram? A block diagram is a specific, high-level flowchart utilized in engineering, hardware design, electronic design, software design, and process flow diagrams. It is used to design innovative systems or to describe and enhance existing ones. The block diagram represents, at a sketch level, how a process flows from function to function or from unit to unit within an establishment. The diagram uses blocks to reflect the essential activities and links them together by connecting lines representing elements or communication flows. Essential Components of a Block Diagram Block: it describes the logical and physical elements of the system. Part: it includes all aspects modeled using association and aggregation. Reference: it has all the components which were developed utilizing association and aggregation. Standard Port: is the point of interaction between a system block and the identical environment. Flow Port: is the point of interaction wherever a block can emerge from or to. The Ideal Applications of Block Diagram To provide a high-level representation of a process flow. To promote harmony of process function and sequence. To distinguish cross-functional unit interfacing. Problem-solving phase Select & define problem or opportunity Recognize and analyze causes or potential change Develop and propose possible solutions or change Execute and evaluate solution or change Measure and report solution or change results Acknowledge and reward team efforts Block Diagram is typically used by Statistician / Quality Analyst Creativity & Innovation practitioner Engineers Project Managers Manufacturing Sales and Marketing professionals Administration/documentation Servicing/support Customer/quality metrics Change management Benefits of the Block Diagram Block Diagram improves understanding of the process by showing all involved parts and how they are interconnected in a straightforward format. A block diagram is a beneficial tool both in designing unique processes and in improving existing processes. In both cases, the diagram provides a fast, visually clear view of the work and should rapidly result in process points of interest. Block Diagrams used "before" Process Analysis Problem Analysis Workflow Analysis (WFA) Systems Analysis Diagram Work breakdown structure (WBS) Block Diagrams used after Process Mapping Activity analysis Potential Problem Analysis (PPA) Organization Chart Functional Map Symbols Used in Block Diagram Block diagrams use fundamental geometric shapes: Boxes, Triangles, and Circles. The essential parts and functions are represented by blocks attached by straight lines representing relationships. Step-by-step procedure STEP 1 - The team distinguishes all functions or activities inside a process and checks where the start and stop functions are defined by team agreement. STEP 2 - The functions are then sequenced and dramatize on a whiteboard or flip charts in a block diagram arrangement. STEP 3 - The team verifies that all functions (blocks) are considered for and represented in the proper sequence to correctly reflect the current process. STEP 4 - Subsequently, additional supporting information is added, and the diagram is recorded. Example of Block Diagram application The most beneficial way to understand block diagrams is to look at the below example.
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