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Sourabh Nandi

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About Sourabh Nandi

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  • Birthday January 16

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  • Name
    Sourabh Nandi
  • Company
    Riya Holidays Pvt Ltd
  • Designation
    Operations Manager

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  1. Queueing Theory Many of us have encountered the frustration of having to await in line. Unfortunately, this experience remains to be popular in crowded, urbanized, “high-tech” environment. We remain in line in our automobiles in traffic jams; we await on-hold for an executive to pick up our phone calls; we wait in line at fast-food joints and we wait in line at outlets to check out. We, as consumers, hardly like these delays, and the organizers of the establishments at which we await also condemn us to wait, since it may yield them business. Why is there awaiting? The claim is straightforward: There is higher need for service than there is a resource for service possible. Why is this so? There may be many reasons; for example, there may be a deficit of servers, it may be infeasible economically for a business to furnish the level of service necessary to limit awaiting, or there may be a space limit to the amount of service that can be provided. We can take these limitations out with the amount of finance, and to know how much service it should then make available, one would need to know claims to such challenges as “How long must a consumer wait? and “How many of us will form within the line?” Queueing theory seeks to clarify these queries through comprehensive analytical analysis. Characteristics of Queueing Systems A quantitative interpretation of a queueing system involves an analytical model of the elemental processes. Most times, six primary characteristics give an acceptable description of the process: Arrival pattern of customers Service pattern of servers Number of servers and service channels System capacity Queue discipline Number of service stages Problems in a Queueing System The ultimate aim of the analysis of queueing systems is to understand the behavior of their underlying processes so we can make informed and intelligent decisions in their management. We can identify three types of problems in this process. Behavioral Problems Statistical Problems Decision Problems Queue discipline / Service disciplines Queue discipline refers to the manner in which it selects customers for service when a queue has formed. (1) First-come, first-served (FCFS) or First in first out (FIFO) Most popular is the first-come, first-served FCFS rule; which is static because no information other than position in line is used to identify the next customer for service. So it serves the customers in the order they arrive. (2) Last come, first served (LCFS) or Last in first out (FIFO) Last come, first served (LCFS), applies too in many inventory systems, because it is less complicated to achieve the closest items which are the last in. The last customers are going to be served first. Goods inside a van usually arranged specified the primary item enter the truck are going to be delivered last. Stacks of pancakes are eaten from the last item on the highest. (3) Processor Sharing (PS) Processor Sharing (PS) within which the server processes all customers (or jobs) simultaneously but works at a slower rate on each job supported the quantity within the system (this is typical in computer systems). Processor sharing discipline is incredibly popular in computers, communication systems and networks. Queueing systems with processor sharing system represent the acceptable models for sharing the resources, e.g., peripherals of a computer or a bandwidth of delivery systems. (4) Priority They will serve particular types of selected consumers early. Business class passengers will join the aircraft early before the economy class. Patients with extreme cases will be served first in the emergency room ahead of ordinary sickness. (5) Shortest job first (SJF) The scheme implements a shortest job first (SJF) in the queue. Shortest Job First (SJF) is also a datum in which we prefer the refining of carrying the smallest execution time for the next execution. This scheduling method can be preemptive or non-preemptive. It significantly reduces the average awaiting time for diverse processes awaiting execution. (6) Preemptive shortest job first (PSJF) In Preemptive SJF Setting, they put activities into the ready queue as they come. A process with shortest burst time begins execution. If a process with a shorter burst time arrives, the current process is taken out or preempted from execution, and it allots the shorter activity to the CPU cycle. (7) Shortest remaining processing time (SRPT) The Shortest remaining time interval discipline (SRPT) is perfect with relevancy minimizing steady-state mean flow time. Under this rule, when employment is to be selected from among those waiting, we choose the one with the bottom remaining interval. An arriving job will preempt the task in process id and providing the interval of the new arrival is a smaller amount than the remaining time interval of the task than in commission. Queue dicipline flow chart:
  2. What is a Venn diagram? John Venn who coined the Venn diagram in 1880 was an English mathematician, logician and philosopher. He also called them Euler diagrams after Leonhard Euler, who checked them out a century before. This is an extraordinarily flexible technique of combining circles useful for identify the contrast between overlapping areas of uniqueness. This representation of how groups relate to one another are generally called “sets”. There must be minimum two number of circles, and also the probability of maximum for many uses is 3. However, there can be more shapes in a diagram based on the number of sets and such a diagram can use unique shapes as per the below figures. Once the circles are interlocked, they reveal discrete areas (in which there’s no overlap). These again compared with the qualities of the overlap areas. Where there are three circles, the central area will show multiple overlapping characteristics. The volume of areas revealed should ideally be kept approximately proportional to their percentage of overlap, in order that the extent of the basic is visually representative. When to use a Venn diagram We often see Venn diagrams in mathematical contexts, but businesses and professionals also use these forms. In each case, the person creating the illustration wants to resolve a controversy, make a crucial decision, predict probabilities or visualize or understand how multiple sets or objects relate to at least one another. Instances when a Venn diagram might be useful in Business Market analysis: A Business Analysis Practitioner might use a Venn’s diagram for basic market research. While using two or more sets of data members within the meeting observe overlapping areas, as those areas contain the business’ target market. Competitor Analysis: A firm might use Venn diagrams to match themselves for their products to their competition. Most times, the business of using the Venn’s diagram may only use two sets of data to work out how they differ from the competition and find any similarities. This helps the business discover what advantages they have already got and specialize in areas where they will make improvements. Product Comparison: Alternatively, a business analyst may create an example with overlapping shapes to weigh the advantages of two or more work ideas. Within the same way that the business analyzes the market, a business analyst will weigh any differences and similarities two or more ideas share to work out which features of a product are the foremost desirable, as shown within the overlapping areas. Decision-Making: The same principles for analyzing two or more product ideas apply to a business’ general decision-making process. Advantages of a Venn diagram A Venn diagram provides the following advantages: It allows an analyst to visualize concepts and relationships between two or more data. It defines complex information into terms that an analyst can understand and represent easily. It helps an analyst to better keep information. Venn diagram symbols “∪ ” Union of two sets. An entire Venn diagram represents the union of two sets. “ ∩ “ Intersection of two sets. This type of intersection shows what items it shares between categories. “ Ac “ Complement of a Set. The compliment is that they don’t represent whatever in an exceedingly set. An classic example of Venn Diagrams; In a survey of the fast-food preferences of three people. We assign these three people as A, B, and C, showing which restaurants they enjoy. A three-circle diagram mostly covers every possibility that they’ll choose a restaurant by one, two, three or no respondents. Scores for Restaurant Survey Results: Restaurant A B C McDonald's 1 0 1 Wendy's 1 1 0 Burger King 0 0 0 In-N-Out 0 1 1 Taco Bell 1 0 1 KFC 0 0 0 A&W 0 0 0 Chick-fil-A 1 1 1 While creating the Venn diagram representing the results, we observed that in A∩B, we’ve Wendy’s because respondent A and respondent B both chose it. Few fast-food restaurants like Burger King, KFC & A&W remain outside the diagram but exist within the universe. Since all the three people have chosen Chick-fil-A, the intersection of all three represents A∩B∩C. So the final Venn diagram will represent in the below figure.
  3. Heijunka is one of the underlying concepts of the Toyota Production System (TPS), shown in below Figure. Levelling any work isn’t easy, but it's the inspiration of Toyota’s celebrated production system. The Japanese coined this idea as Heijunka, extending the concept to include the requirement for ‘standard work’ – the processing of work consistently. The TPS consists of two columns – Jidoka and Just- in-Time both are supported by Heijunka. Heijunka involves production and smoothing processing on using levelling, sequencing and standardising . For a process to run smoothly and consistently with many forms of output, it's to average, not just in volume, but also in kinds. So, we'd like to process the unique customer order, as an example, supporting the date they’re received instead of handling the more straightforward cases first and allowing the harder ones to create up and be delayed. Heijunka provides the foundation and involves the subsequent elements; Levelling involves smoothing the amount of production to cut back variation, the trials and troughs that may make planning difficult. Levelling pursues forestall ‘end-of-period’ peaks, where production is initially slow at the start of the month, then again quickens within the last days of an acquisition or accounting period, as an example. Sequencing involves mixing the styles of work processed. So, as an example, when putting in new loans, the loan being processed is mixed to raise match customer demand and help ensure applications are actioned in date order. Managing this method could also be easier in manufacturing, where a producer may hold a little amount of finished goods to reply to the fluctuation in weekly orders. Keeping a tiny low stock of finished goods at the very end of the worth stream, near shipping, this producer can level demand to its plant, and to its suppliers, making for more efficient utilisation of assets along the complete value stream while still meeting customer requirements. Stability and Standardisation is the third strand of Heijunka. It strives to scale back variation within the way we do our work, which highlights the importance of ‘standard work’, of following a typical process and procedure. This method links well to the concept of process management and also the control plan, where the method owner continuously seeks to search out and consistently deploy best practice. In the spirit of continuous improvement the ‘best way’ of ending this method will keep changing, because the people within the process identify better ways of doing the work. Concepts like Heijunka can’t be implemented overnight – as an example, Toyota has taken a few years to attain the successful application of levelling and spreading the load, but is now a paradigm for the growing awareness of lean-thinking principles within the contemporary world.
  4. Kubler-Ross model, involving the following stages: shock, denial, awareness, acceptance, experimentation, search and integration. The below figures illustrate how people typically react to change. Lean Six Sigma projects are about changing things for the better. We’re trying to improve processes–so change is inevitable. Blindly hoping that doing the same things in the same way will magically improve your product or service is head-in-the-sand (HITS) thinking. This is what all the organisations learn from the current pandemic situation.
  5. Hi! VK Sir, I am Sourabh currently working in Tourism industry. I had done my green belt certification. Now I am about to start my black belt soon. I am also aspire to become a Lean Practitioner/Lean Guide. How Lean program will help in Tourism Industry. Warm Regards, Sourabh Nandi
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