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Sudhir G

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About Sudhir G

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    Sudhir Gayakwad

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  1. IPO-FAT - Tool Hotelling is one of the favorite occasions for every individual. He likes to visit Hotel, have a delicious food – Lunch or Dinner. Everyone has a comment about the taste of the meal, time taken for the meal, neatness while preparing the meal, ingredients used, quantity consumed and left over etc. There are few aspects associated to that meal. Every meal is graded on all above factors and it is termed as overall Tasty, delicious or not so good meal. Meal received in time. Meal received in presentable way etc, etc. Most of the quality conscious hotels conduct survey and always keep improving themselves for all above aspects to have customer delight. This delight is going to keep them running and serving more and more customer. There is the Growth for them. Surveys give them overall picture. Where exactly to improve is the Big Question. The answer to this question is not so easy and Hotel management and staff have to really work hard to find the area for improvement. This is just one example, this is the case everywhere, and there are processes involved. Process is the basic part of every manufacturing; it may be food or machinery. So to find the step, stage where to focus for improvement for better quality, we need to divide the complete set of steps or stages of whole manufacturing and look at all steps with specific observations, analysis and then actions and improvements. These are the big activities involving compilation of the data from the survey, analysis of the data with the help of statistical tools, making inference from the tools, deciding different line of action for the improvement and achieve the results. In this case tools used for improvement may be Six Sigma DMAIC project, PDCA, Lean tools etc, depending upon the data, improvements required, importance, timelines available, feasibility and available resource. Again after some time same cycle keeps repeating as taste of customer, situations in market, advancements in technology keeps changing rather improving better and better. Every business has to keep evolving to sustain in the competitive market. Generally speaking there are following major aspects for every manufacturing – I – Input – the starting ingredient for every manufacturing P – Process – The value addition activity performed to get final (or semi finished) product. O – Output – Is the final finished (or semi finished for other process) product. Likewise every aspect is having three perspectives associated with it. These perspectives are very important to look at these aspects, observe them, analyses them and check for improvement. F – Flow – The way these aspects are moving. A – Accuracy – Check for the correct specifications and quality at each stage. T – Timeline – Most crucial from engagement of resources point of view. So every manufacturing is viewed through glasses of above three aspects and three perspectives – making a 3 x 3 matrix as below. The important steps are numbered 1 to 6 as shown in the table. Each one is analyzed as per sequence of 1 to 6. As per significance the sequence may be changed or some steps may be escaped. Once the steps are analyzed improvement may be done with the help of following methodology. - Six Sigma (Effectiveness) - Lean (efficiency) - Lean & / or Six Sigma - IPO-FAT Tool Aspect Perspective Input Process Output Flow 1. Incoming Volume 2. Work flow Rhythm Production Rate / RTY Accuracy 4. Readiness 3. Quality / Value Add Defect – DPMO Timeliness 5. Arrival / Set up time 6. Handle time Turn Around time (TAT) Practical use of the Tool. Recently we had conducted a study to reduce the Turnaround time of one of the activity as follow. The initial duration of the activity was 300 minutes and task was to reduce the duration of the activity to reduce downtime to improve Productivity. This was the activity done every month on 5 to 6 machines and hence was having most impact on productivity. 1. Incoming Volume – What opportunities are there to reduce the incoming volume from the prior output? - - After brain storming with team there were no much scope for incoming volume for the activity. 2. Work flow Rhythm - How can throughput (takt time) be optimized by evaluating FIFO, batch Processing or schedule balancing? In this case flow of work is analyzed - Yes there were scope and with the help of effective sequencing and balancing of activities nearly 50 minutes were reduced. 3. Quality / Value Add - What process steps don't add value, aren't required or don't meet policy/specs? All the activities are analyzed for the value addition as customer pays for only value addition. - Yes, there were scope and all non value adding activities were eliminated and 20 minutes were reduced. 4. Readiness - How complete or accurate are the inputs before the process? This is very essential. Simple steps of 5S helps a lot to arrange all the input spares and bought out required in easy accessible manner. The team was trained for doing first time right to reduce rework. - The readiness of spares and tools in a systematic and easy manner helped to reduce search time which further reduced 15 minutes. 5. Arrival / Set up time - How much delay between prior output and current input? How much setup or lead time is required before process? Offline and online activities were also bifurcated and most of the activities taken offline. - This was the major contributor and after systematic study it saved another 40 minutes. 6. Handle time - How much time to perform value-added steps in process? - Setting of the machine was one of the crucial activities. With the help of PDCA the activity was re defined and few one point lessons were given and displayed. This activity needed lots of accuracy. The effectiveness achieved by further 20 minutes saving. ( Due to confidentiality no much details are revealed) Conclusion:- In IPO-FAT tool - Distributing all the activities in simple easy to analyze manner. Brainstorming with team and deciding the tools to be used depending upon the criticalness and suitability the required improvement is brought in. This tool is most effective and easy to decide the project. Ref- StatStuff.com
  2. Andon! Everyone knows his child hood stories of Alarms given by elders about not doing something by some typical facial actions, sounds or even by showing something. It was to warn a child for not doing something else he may get hurt, he may get injured or there could be an accident. And it used to work; the child will remember all those actions, alarms and will not go near those things, will not touch and this way his life was saved. He continued the same thing when he was matured enough to teach other children’s. Really a very powerful technique of teaching, alarming and warning someone not to do something or in better way – To Do – “Not go near, Not to Touch etc.” In actual practice happening something wrong, variation in the process, small or major accidents are the part of a regular smooth, nonstop, productive process. We are in manufacturing sector so let us discuss about Manufacturing. § In manufacturing set up there are so many different processes running continuously and at a very high speed. These high speed processes are producing million tons of products or units in million. The pace is such a high; the variation in process will lead to heavy losses. § If there could be a small addition of Friction in heating of moving parts – it can lead to a bigger accident in near future. § If it is not monitored for its output, there could be wastage of resources. Today we are in most competitive, cost conscious, quality conscious, delivery conscious world and will never afford all above wrong things from happening. Fortunately we are in the most advancing era of technology, manufacturing techniques are evolving day by day and we have got a powerful tool at our help to save manufacturing process is – ‘Andon’ Andon – Is the Alarming, Notifying systems developed for managers, Supervisors, workers etc to highlight the health of the manufacturing (or any system) system. Lean production system is the boon to the modern age manufacturing, Andon is also one of the principle developed by lean only. An Andon system is the one of the principle elements of the Jidoka quality control method pioneered by Toyota Production system and therefore now part of the Lean Production approach. Jidoka – Is the automation with human touch or simply Intelligent Automation – It is the combination of Automation and human interference. As fully automatic systems are not cost effective to make it more cost effective and also to produce effective quality products human interference is essential. So – Andon – it gives the workers the empowerment to stop the production line, production machine if any abnormality is detected. There are so many techniques available by which a worker can detect rather come to know about the abnormal operation is the system. A. Audio Visual – With the help of different types of sensors system can detect any sort of abnormality happening in the system. It could be small displacement in the components, it could be more load (stress) coming on the components, it could be temperature variation. There are lots of digital gauges available and they keeps monitoring the system round the clock and keeps alarming the workers, supervisors or even managers about health of the system. With the advancement in automaton there are visual displays (HMI - Human Machine Interface) which gives the exact location where there is malfunction happening. With this alarm ( there is whistle with notification) the operator stops the machine and attend the challenge and avoids major losses. If the challenge on the machine or in the system is sever, even in that case machine stops with alarm and notification display. The operator, maintenance team can act immediately to save the major losses. All these notifications are coded and in SCADA system all those notifications are recorded systematically and gives the frequency of each notification along with the duration it took to rectify. This analysis gives way for Kaizen which leads in reduction in such uncertainty and eventually uniform uninterrupted production. Recently machine learning is also coming to our help by giving or poping notifications before taking any action which may lead to loss of data or any uncerytainty. B. Manual – In so many assembly lines there are provisions to stop the line if there is any abnormality found in any spares, shortages of spares etc. With this complete system gets alarm and work in down the line is adjusted accordingly. Simultaneously the concern department heads get the alarm to replenish the stocks. Manual systems though tedious, troublesome, still essential in some cases. Everyone knows the great Titanic disaster. There are few sensory alarms human eyes, nose and ears detect very rapidly and need immediate action. This is most effective activity only humans can do with inbuilt system. Advantages- The alarms, the moment malfunction or variation in system starts stops the system and major losses are saved. It helps to keep the wastages in control, saves cost and keeps profitability in control. The systematic records of abnormality gives ways for Kaizen Burst and scope for Continual Improvement which the only way to keep progressing towards growth. Once there is continual improvement, there is uniform production at specified productivity which is very essential to maintain oneself in today’s competitive market. It improves moral of the employees with safe working atmosphere. Less defects – less stops, less stops – happy employees, Happy employees – less accidents. Let’s continue to explore!
  3. Six Hats Thinking. In day to day life every individual comes across different types of problem and few are having very logical solutions. Few need some judgment and others need information and knowledge to solve. There are some problems can’t be solved by straightforward thinking or simply traditional way of problem solving. To ease this problem solving generally we call a group of peoples with different mind sets (different departments) and collect their opinions, suggestions, ideas (creative thoughts), and each idea is discussed in length and finally group arrives to a conclusion which is most suitable and agreed to the group. This final conclusion is accepted to all as it is most Beneficial solution. This is nothing but the Brainstorming between different individuals who are allowed to put forward their thoughts, opinions or ideas what ever comes to their mind. This whatever is nothing but the output of their lateral thinking. Lateral thinking – is the creative way of reasoning the facts and figures. Creative is not an obvious thinking approach of step by step reasoning, it applies some thing very different, some thing commonly known as Out of the box thinking. There is no restriction on applying ones mind in any direction using any concept may or may not look relevant in first step. Lateral thinking was extensively emphasized by Edward De Bono in his book- The Use of Lateral Thinking (1967). Further Dr. Edward De Bono written the book – Six Thinking Hats. The Book Six Thinking Hats makes use of lateral thinking of group of people to arrive a beneficial solution to a common problem. Each hat is having particular scope of thinking for a particular time. There is also a sequence to be followed for wearing the hats (may be virtual ) right from start to end to come to a beneficial solution. Let us see each hat in details and scope of the activities to be followed. 1. BLUE – “The Thinking about Thinking” – As name suggest to start any thinking there has to be planning how thinking to proceed. Blue Hat controls the brain storming process by asking team members their thoughts and ask to summaries. Hence generally it is starting hat and also at the End. 2. WHITE – Fact and information – While in White Hat – all participants just think about Data and information available. No judgment and opinions are given the thoughts. 3. Red – Feelings and Emotions – This the free flowing of thoughts without any judgment or explanation. This is the Time to vent out any air, feeling or conflicts in the air. This is very useful to bring all thoughts and feeling out, it helps to settle the dust very quickly. 4. Black Hat – Caution and Critical Judgment – This hat is critical as it funnels the thinking and ask for only realistic solution. It also do not allow Group thinking as some times it is influential. 5. Yellow – Optimistic and Positive View about things – While in this Hat every one think about Logical Benefits of the Proposal. It funnels all unrealistic solutions and team can come to a conclusion. 6. Green – Creative Thinking – In this Hat every one is encouraged to explore divergent thinking, Lateral thinking to generate alternate ideas and options. Advantages of Six Thinking Hat – 1. Brain storming is very essential step to arrive at a solution which is beneficial in real sense. In traditional way it happens in a very haphazard and unstructured way. 2. Six Thinking Hats – Gives a structure and sequence of thinking. 3. Each Hat is having very specific purpose right from – very technical to emotional. White hats deals with only Data and information. Red hats deals with emotions to clear fumes within and a clear mind for creative thinking. Green hats allows creative thinking and Yellow funnels them to only realistic and beneficial solutions. 4. Every hat is having very specific purpose and it focuses to specific goal and gives exact way of thinking to arrive a beneficial solution. 5. Thus Six Thinking Hat give a very structured way to bring all divergent minds together and encourage them for lateral thinking to bring a realistic and beneficial solution agreed by all team members. To Solve the Problem following sequence of Hats is used - Blue - White - Green - Red - Yellow - Black - Green - Blue
  4. OEE – Overall Equipment Effectiveness is the net effective production on (or net Utility of) equipment. There are 24 hours or 1440 minutes in a day available for production. Ideally this complete time is to be used for production of the components or any commodity for which equipment is meant for. Practically it is not possible as equipment also need some rest in the form of servicing, it also need to be dressed up for new type of setup or sometimes it falls sick by breakdown. It may also not work accurately due to minor misalignments and need small adjustments or may want to work at slower speed. Its health to be maintained at optimum level. Millions of Rupees investment is done in every organization and every entrepreneur want it back as early as possible and start earning profits for future investment in all resources. This is the cycle every industry runs. So to have maximum return on investment every organization need to extract 100% utility of the equipment. In simple words every organization need to use the equipment 100% and not a single percentage of wastage or loss. This is the ideal scenario. So we need to consider all losses on the equipment, reducing its effective use. The net effective use of the equipment is the Overall Equipment Effectiveness or OEE. For every organization OEE is very important so it is essential – What is OEE? Overall equipment effectiveness is the measure of the production of right specification in available running time of the day. OEE = Availability x Equipment Performance x Quality Numerically A) Availability = Run Time / Planned Production time. Run time = Planned production time – Stop losses ( like breakdown, Planned Maintenance, Change over etc) Equipment Performance = Net Run Time / Run time Net Run time = the exact time available for production after reduction of small stops for adjustment, reduction of machine speed etc. = Ideal cycle time x Total number of product. C) Quality = Number of Good Products / Total number of products produced. Number of Good Products = Total number of products produced – Rejected/reworked products After Simplification OEE = (Ideal Cycle time x Number of Good Products)/ Planned Production Time 100% OEE = 100% quality in 100% available time with 100% performance. It is possible when there are no losses or minimum losses to have OEE close to 100%. Different Losses and their elimination or reduction. 1. Equipment Breakdown or Failure:- It is the most significant loss on equipment and major contributor in OEE. It has to be kept in control and practically no uncertain breakdown. It affects parameters Availability and Quality also. To reduce or eliminate it – a. All different type of breakdowns to be categorized and to be given a code. All instances to be neatly recorded. b. There has to be a Root cause analysis, 5 Why analysis for all reasons and effective actions after brainstorming to be initiated to arrest the repeat occurrence. c. Focused improvement projects, kaizen, OPL to be initiated and all solutions to be implemented for long term results. d. Effective Preventive, Scheduled and Autonomous maintenance gives big advantage in minimizing uncertain breakdown. 2. Set up or Change over time:- It is another major challenge affecting Availability of the equipment. It is essential before starting new product on the equipment. It may be from few minutes to many hours and hence one of the critical loss. To reduce it – a. SMED approach – Single minute exchange of Dies. b. There are number of activities done while setting the machine for new product after last good product of old batch and up to first good product of new batch. c. All Activities are neatly separated so that maximum activities are done offline while previous batch is running and it saves lots of productive time. d. The on job activities are done with the help of Jigs and Fixtures to reduce the time. e. While in running also components are unloaded and loaded in quick change manner in few seconds. 3. Small Stops or Reduced Speed:- There are few adjustments on equipment to be done to run the equipment smoothly to produce accurate product. Sometimes machine speed may have to be reduced due to worn out spares, bearings, changing essentials like film, blades etc. a. To reduce small stops there has to be a perfect preventive maintenance plan and also timely lubrication and monitoring critical performance parameters. b. Generally there is a pattern for small stops and one has to monitor them and apply 5 why analysis and find Kaizen Blitz and implement. Effective OPL helps reduce small stops by proactive practices. c. Standardization of machine operating practices by effective training and coaching of operator helps reduce machine small stops. d. Effective Cycle Time – Machine has to be run on its maximum speed by maintaining its health to optimum level. 4. Defects and Yield reduction:- In some cases there is wastage of product at the start due to initial adjustments and settings. It directly affects the yield. Some times in stable process there may be defective parts (either complete reject or rework) due to variation in dimensions. It is the major contributor to affect the quality. a. Start up rejection is majorly reduced by standard machine setting before start up and standardization of material. b. Defects are the variation in the specifications of product. It mainly happens due deterioration in the machine setting over the time. To avoid this, monitoring the machine parameter is very essential. In modern age automation is there to monitor the settings and alarms to indicate the variation in setting. Auto corrections are also available to reduce the defect generation. c. Process Control:- There are statistical process control of the product and machine operators monitor critical parameters and keep doing fine tuning of the machine to keep the output as per specification. This improve quality and reduce the rejection to large scale. 5. Total Productive Maintenance:- Planned maintenance affects total available time. With systematic implementation of TPM philosophy it can be streamlined and frequency of planned maintenance can be reduced. a. Autonomous maintenance by operator using the machine, increases the effectiveness of the machine to great extent as he always knows the critical points and always observing the machine very closely. The feeling of ownership makes him accountable. b. Preventive maintenance:- The frequency of the preventive maintenance need to match the life cycle of the spares and critical assembly. High frequency unnecessarily increase the stop time. c. 5S:-The most simple tool but equally effective to identify the challenges on the machine for preventive maintenance. Control inventory of spares and loss of time to search spares for maintenance. Cleanliness and standardization boost moral of employees to motivate them to improve machine performance. d. Mistake Proofing helps in reducing defective production as well as facilitate in improving availability of equipment. As highlighted earlier all above challenges are the integral part of every system of production lines and hence losses are there. Hence we can’t get 100% OEE in any situation. With implementation of above controls in place OEE can be increased and maintained for longer period. Visual management always keeps highlighting the Process parameters, performance indicators to catch the attraction of concerned employees. It allows timely actions taken on equipment which in turn save major losses to be happened.
  5. SMART Every morning comes with a small goal of the life, it may be some to do task for that day, completion of the pending or incomplete activity started yesterday or few days back. Basically all big goals are divided in small goals and as these small goals are completed everyone completes a big Goal. Before forming any Goal it has to be achievable and hence achieved. If not achieved, there could be less inputs put in, inputs may be not in right and specified direction or not in specific way. One more factor is, if Goal is not achievable???? In this case it is all waste, wastage of all activities done, time spent, money spent, morals invested, expectations etc. For that all Goals are always SMART – Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant and Time bound. So it is very essential, Goal has to be ACHIEVABLE! Before we come to know if any Goal – may be improvement in the system for example – reduction in production time of a product, or cost reduction etc, is achievable or not, it is essential to have complete knowledge of the activity. Where from this Knowledge Comes??? Balanced Score Card- It gives us a big picture of the performance of the organization with respect to different metrics decided by the organization. These are the performance indicators which indicate the area organization doing well and the area where need urgent attention as the performance of the organization is always a combined performance of all areas or metrics. Lean- What is Lean Philosophy? Reduction of all sort of wastage, yes in simple language. Where are the waste is most important question everybody ask himself or other. For this there are few tools derived, applied and proven. Value stream mapping – As denoted by the word ‘mapping’ it maps, observes, analyze the complete flow of the activities, processes carried out to produce a product or any required service. SIPOC is the High level map of the processes carried out which gives the connections between the process with respect to Supplier, Input, Process, Output and Customer. In this each and every element is important as it is having its own importance on the performance of the processes and collectively on the manufacturing process as a whole. Typical steps involved are- 1. Document the specific customer requirements. 2. Follow, map each and every process contributing to the complete manufacturing. 3. Collect the data of the processes with respect to – a. Cycle time, b. Available time, c. Set up time, d. Batch Size, e. Quality ( Rejection, defect etc), f. Rework if any g. Number of people working at a station, h. Equipment performance level. i. Number of shifts. 4. Note down all above information along with inventory at each station, 5. The above information will give the relationship between every element. *** Here there comes analysis of each step whether it is Value Adding – for which Customer is willing to pay. Non Value Adding – for which Customer is not going to pay. Goal is to elimination of Non Value adding processes or steps, if not possible complete, reduction in the steps is essential. 1. Brainstorming within the team and elimination of the unwanted steps will give the achievable solution to the problem of waste reduction. 2. 5S is the most encouraging visual tool to give achievable control on inventory of spares. 3. Line balancing will highlight the bottleneck at the process and also how to remove that bottleneck may be by adding more machines or manpower. This also leads to reduction in the excess manpower in the system. 4. SMED approach with eliminating on the job non value activities and converting maximum possible on the job activities to the odd the job will reduce the set up time. 5. Process Performance measure – Is the mathematical tool which gives throughput rate, lead time, Cycle time. These parameter suggest achievable actions to improve them to achieve goal of process efficiency improvement. 6. Simulation is another aspect in which with scientific calculated assumptions and with crystal ball we can fix achievable Goal to improve the process. 7. Hypothesis testing a part of Inferential statistics, is a systematic tool which allows us whether to accept or reject the claim (the goal in question). This is another approach to find achievable goals. 8. Correlation and regression analysis which gives the relationship between two variables. This relationship also can lead to achievable goals by controlling one variable. 9. Pareto Analysis – It also gives relationship between many different inputs and gives major contributors to be controlled. The results of all above activities help us to decide achievable results for the activities in the goal statement. This will help to decide achievable Goal!
  6. The covid 19 pandemic highlighted 3 waste Muda, Muri, Mura in Health care sector. Muda – This is the waste comprising of other few waste on shop floor, In this case let us consider Health care system. It is denoted as - WORMPIT. W = Waiting time for the patients to get admitted – Taking lessons from other countries suffering from this pandemic, State Governments has to be prepared well in advance regarding facilities for patient like, beds, dedicated Hospitals or wards in the Hospitals. O = Over production – It was been observed the excessive documentation in processing every individual traveling to other places and it had created lots of burdon on the system. They had to apply few specific and effective testing system to keep it simple and specific. Less than 1% people travelling were detected positive. R = Rework – There were complaints about quality of PPE kits and it may have resulted in infection to the doctors and nurses wearing them. This point had to be taken care well in January and February 2020. There had have to be strict standards for the quality of PPE lits with SOP for their quality check, and it had to be followed very seriously. It was like Sharpening the saw, few deaths must have been saved. Few health care workers might have been infected due to low quality kits. M = Motion – The patients had struggled a lot to find vacant space, beds and ventilators in suitable hospitals and there were no common place or control room to guide them in such painful situation. This led to few deaths as no facility were available and patients kept searching for facility. There has to be a central control room in every district particularly giving information on essential facilities with transportation facility. P = Over Processing – Though Quarantine was a essential thing, it was applied all across without giving due consideration on the place person coming from, the situation there the possibility of might be having infected, all were sent to 14 days quarantine and it increased a heavy load on the system with respect to manpower, expenditure and delays in results after testing. At so many places they could not manage basic facilities to the peoples. Local administration had already devided the localities, town and cities in Green, orange and Red zones, instead of focusing on complete districtor state health care staff had to consider the individual area from where person is coming, its own health and the way he had kept himself in isolation before traveling. I – Inventory – It was the biggest issue. In this case it was shortage of inventory of PPE kits for doctors and it also led to infections to the doctors, nurses and other staffs, police etc. It was really a serious challenge. Also beds for patients were not available and they are forced to take care at homes increasing chances of spread to other family member. Also due to non availability of beds in time there were few deaths. Health ministry had to plan the sufficient number of PPE kits and beds well within the time taking lesson from other countries. T – Transport – Transportation of dead bodies was a major issue and they remained on the beds around the patients creating threat and tension to the common patients. Hospitals had to keep dedicated staff for the transportation of dead bodies to their destination. Even a common team handling this operation would had given effective results with less manpower. Muri – This is the overburden, excess workload and things which are not directly visible. Yes in this case it was been repeatedly heard that few doctors, nurses, Police staff were working excessively round the clock with very less rest. They were forced to take rest on work place. They could not visit their families due to fear of infection. This all were adding lots of Psychological and metal tension. It was also heard few deaths of health workers due to heart attack, it must be due to panic conditions they were handling. This all could had been saved if right from the beginning Private Hospitals would Had been given SOP to operate with respect to Bed charges, general hygiene conditions and social distancing and most importantly they had to be instructed to keep operating as most of the Private Hospitals were closed. Mura – Interruptions, Unevenness, Instability and Inconsistency in the system. Repeated changes in the controlling power, inconsistency of the controlling power were few cases to worsen the system and adding cases of Covid 19. No doubt increase in the covid cases were not linear and it didn’t allowed system to plan the infrastructure in sufficient numbers. This led to scarcity of valuable resources.
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