Urgent task is one which require immediate attention and has to be completed now. Anything which is urgent puts us in a reactive mode. Urgent tasks can be both important or unimportant.
Important task is one which has a significant contribution in achieving a long-term goal, vision or a mission. Anything which is important puts us in a responsive mode. Important tasks can be both urgent and not urgent.
Important vs Urgent matrix or Eisenhower Matrix is a four quadrant tool that helps us prioritize our tasks in the right order. Objective is to spend most of the time on the Important but Not Urgent tasks so that these do not become urgent.
An application oriented question on the topic along with responses can be seen below. The best answer was provided by R Rajesh on 31st October 2018.
Applause for all the respondents- Vishweshwari Joshi, Vastupal Vashisth, Sneha Kantharaj