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RaghavendraRao

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Everything posted by RaghavendraRao

  1. Yes zero defects is achievable for short span of time but may not be reality in a long run. It also depends on the criticality of operations and the need of the zero defect. If the criticality is high and zero defects is the need of operation from all stakeholder point of view, then zero defects can be made a reality.
  2. ARMI is a project management tool which is used to plan support required for project various stakeholders. This includes four level of support, Approver, Resource, Member, Interested party. Approver is one who signs of the project and help move it forward. Resources are those who contribute their skills to the project where as members are those who work for the project and interested party are those who need to know about the project. RACI is also a model that stands for Responsibility, Accountability, Consultation, and Informed from project stakeholder expectation. Approver is equi
  3. First possibility is to explore and see if the characteristics of this new product be benchmarked against any existing products. Also exploration can focus on arriving at optimal levels for these characteristics during design of the product itself. Design Of Experiments can be explored if applicable for the scenario to arrive at specification limits for optimal performance of the product. During customer voice gathering focus can be on finding out expected performance of the product, which during designing can be converted to quantified characteristics which can produce the expected experience
  4. Rolled Throughput Yield is the product of yield at every stage of the process. It provides the probability of producing defect free outcome in a process with multiple steps. 100 percent Rolled Throughput Yield does not indicate that process is efficient. Rolled Throughput Yield does not consider the rework associated in the process, it only accounts if the process steps have produced good outputs. So there would be hidden waste in the form of rework which makes system inefficient. First Time Right yield would be useful to analyze the efficiency of the system as it accounts for rework in the pr
  5. Taking process performances samples over different time zones will help to increase possibility of getting natural performance of the process. Educating the people involved on the impact of indulging with natural process performance of the process would also help. Subject Matter Experts assessment of the process performance for any flaws involved in natural flow of process can also help neutralize the process. Benchmarking the process performance against similar industry processes will help to understand the natural flow of process. Sampling process outcomes from area of experienced profession
  6. Coefficient of Variation (CV) is used to compare variability between different measures. Coefficient of variation is the ratio of standard deviation to mean values. CV helps to assess the variability between tests conducted. Is sample X has 10% CV against sample Y which has 15% CV, then sample Y is having higher variance completed to sample X in relation to their mean. CV comes in handy in cases where the samples under comparison have mean values of different range. In this case just going by standard deviation may not provide better insight, so CV values will give better perspective as they
  7. Primary limitation of FMEA as risk assessment method is subjectivity involved in assessing severity, occurrence and detectability. Though various industries have established the criteria to rate these parameters to arrive at Risk Priority Number, while the assessment is done for these parameter its largely dependent on the experience and perception of the assessor which would introduce subjectivity in to this assessment. Also while potential failure modes are assessed this methodology does not provide clear guidance to make sure that all possible failure modes are explored. It will again be de
  8. Customer Relation Management in the context of my organization which is in to providing Information Technology to Insurance business of our mother organization is as follows. From IT team we have our IT director who is the representative interacting with IT director from onshore, who will interface with the Business director. This business director is the Customer Relation Manager who interacts between business and IT team. Here Customer Relation Management is a connecting bridge between business and IT team to bridge any gaps in communication and to make sure that customer needs are worked up
  9. Cycle time is the time taken for execution of the process, point when work starts until the product is ready for delivery, whereas lead time is the end to end time from point where customer gives the order till customer gets the good or services. One of the confusing aspects is to choose the point of customer request initiation as that is the point where cycle time starts, in cases of multiple stakeholders involved, choosing this key point would be confusing point. Cycle time also is looked at as the time taken for completion of every key step in the process, this also adds to confusion. Inclu
  10. Improvement is a mindset not just for work force but for management included. Quality focus and productivity focus should be inculcated in to habit of everyone. Inclusion of everyone in this culture building process is the key. Goal setting should be cautiously handled only until it's a motivator for everyone. Management can take its vision, mission, objectives and goal little seriously in terms of what it takes for them to be part of this journey and drive it. Management should lookout for ways to lead with examples so that workforce follows them with will. Management should design the syste
  11. Fishbone diagram is misused in the scenarios where process experts are not involved to bring out true causes of the effect. In case is all the required stakeholders from affected area are not involved then there is possibility of misrepresentation of facts in fishbone diagram. Selection of main bones of the fishbone analysis, key categories to analyze the problem if not done effectively then it leads to misuse. While the root cause is arrived at when a category of cause is analyzed if a detailed 5 why analysis is not done to arrive at core root cause then that leads to misuse as well. Another
  12. Data segmentation is about breaking up larger data sets in to smaller ones of logical groups, based on specific parameter to help in focused analysis. Since data segmentation helps in categorizing similar data sets, It helps to focus down root causes of the problem to specific category of data, avoiding the possibility of inter influence of root causes. If different segment of data are involved in the target set, there is possibility of bias on the root causes of the problem, leading to improper diagnosis of the problem. Data segmentation also focusses on the accuracy of the data, which makes
  13. Prevention costs are related to training and proactive initiatives taken up to avoid any issues, Appraisal costs are those associated with the reviews, inspection and audits, internal failure costs are those related to failure happening at supplier end and external failure costs are those that are realized at customer end. Achieving proper equilibrium among these goes hand in hand with the maturity of the system. There is a need to strike an equilibrium among between these costs. For a system starting its maturity journey key focus would be on prevention and appraisal costs to in turn hav
  14. Type 1 error is when Null is true but gets rejected, type 2 error is when null is false but gets accepted. When a producer becomes a consumer then type 1 and 2 error contexts will change. In case if competent candidate is rejected then type 1 error occur, where as if the incompetent candidate is hired then type 2 error.
  15. 8 disciplines of problem solving is a systematic approach of problem solving. Which encompasses establishing team, describing the problem, containment action identification, root cause identification, corrective action identification, and validation of corrective action, prevention of recurrence, verifying the solution and congratulating the team. 8D will be handy in situations that needs immediate attention, like critical customer complaints. 8D also can come in handy in situation where a six sigma project solution need to be validated or piloted, as validating interim containment action is k
  16. In cases where LCL is below zero and in negative range it has to be taken as zero for practical purpose, but it indicates the asymmetrical and non-normal data, which indicates that tests run may have some problem or the pattern of data is difficult to analyze. This implies need of analyzing the outliers and study the process stability, and that’s the relevance of lower control limits. If focus is about reduction of defects to lowest level then LCL may not be relevant, focus would only be to operate below UCL and optimize it further down. If goal achievement is the only focus then LCL will not
  17. Before getting in to crux of this question, little exploration on sigma long term and short term. Long term sigma (Zlt) is (USL-Xbar)/Standard Deviation or (Xbar-LSL)/Standard Deviation. Standard Deviation considered here is from long term data. Long term data comes from a population of data where special cause of variation is primarily dominant. In case of Zst (Sigma level short term) standard deviation comes from short term data. Short term data comes from a sample data, which primarily will have common cause of variations. Now to distinguish what is short term and long term data, reference
  18. Outliers are the uncharacteristic aspect of the process, these will mask the original character of the process and mislead one who is studying the process. First step of process improvement is to act upon these outliers and subject them to analysis to segregate common cause and special causes of variation. So that it becomes very clear on what needs attention and how. Once the special causes of variations are confirmed, that they can be handled, then analysis excluding the outliers will help us to understand true capability of the process. Statistical Process Control and Monitoring using
  19. Process starts its journey from ground zero where everything is reactive. First good step process journey takes if standardization at the local level focusing on specific area of work. Later the learnings from this area has to be shared to larger audience, that way standardization will stretch to more work area and standardized ways of working across larger audience to make sure that we do not reinvent the wheel. Later process takes its next step establishing quantifiable measures to remove subjectivity of the improvement and refine the improvement. Later the measurements are strengthened and
  20. Voice of Customer is the spoken and unspoken voice of internal or external business customers. Whereas Voice of Business is spoken and unspoken voice of people who constitute the business like shareholders, corporate governance etc. Key conflict of interest arise as business focus on profit on long term basis whereas customer look for best products at lower costs. Reason of this gap also will point to lack in focus on customer and business perspective as part of company’s strategic planning. In case of well-established business there is more chance of this disconnect happening as there is more
  21. Simple way to start off putting seven wastes of lean in to good use in the organization are as follows. Engage key leaders / business owners in educating about these seven wastes. Engage key folks from practitioner’s team and socialize about these seven wastes. Most importantly brain storm on what are the equivalent wastes that are prevalent in the organization. Taking example from my own company of IT, Defects, Over production, waiting, neglected talent, transportation, inventory, motion, excess processing would be the equivalent wastes of lean but there is eight one in the form of neglected
  22. When the process is too much unpredictable, then variation would be a key measure than central tendency. In case of special causes having major influence on the system variation then in that case as well variation would be more relevant compared to central tendency. More skewed the data is then more relevant would variation become compared to central tendency.
  23. Categorical data class of discrete data will be more useful to understand overall characteristic of the target under study like eg: underweight, normal, obese. This is usually just another kind of binning. In case of performing qualitative study like customer satisfaction discrete data will be more useful to analyze and come to conclusion rather than a discrete data. In scenarios where ranking has to be done based on relative performance ordinal class of discrete data will be handy compared to continuous data. Population census data analysis and clinical trial analysis of drugs are the other a
  24. Tribal knowledge in unwritten information about a company, which is commonly known by company. Tribal knowledge can also be related to innate skill that the work force hold. There should be conscious effort to enhance the company working model with these tribal knowledge aspects, by which this undocumented gap is kept to minimal. Strong training programs will help bridge the knowledge gap between older workforce that hold tribal knowledge and the fresh work force that is building future of the company. It’s important to identify the key personnel from experienced work force and also identify t
  25. Rational subgrouping first of all helps Excellence Practitioner to make analysis a cost efficient one, unlike targeting big set of data for analysis, this help to gather reasonable amount of data that represent a population. In case if rational subgrouping is not considered then in pursuit of process improvement, we will not be able to distinguish between what is the key influencing factor for the behavior of the process samples. Ideally it’s expected that the sub grouped sample have a consistent behavior and are produced under similar condition. This helps to make meaning out of the behavior
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