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Vishwadeep Khatri
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Heatmap is a visualization tool that summarizes multivariate data. Two variables become the axes of the heatmap and the corresponding values are shown in color. The variations in the color depicts the variation in the values.

 

An application-oriented question on the topic along with responses can be seen below. The best answer was provided by Dimple Tiwari on 3rd Nov 2022.

 

Applause for all the respondents - Dimple Tiwari, Saurabh Dhaked, Gulshan Kumar, Godwin Thomas.

Question

Q 518. What is the purpose of a Heatmap? Elaborate with examples the situations in which it can be used.

 

Note for website visitors - Two questions are asked every week on this platform. One on Tuesday and the other on Friday.

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What is the purpose of a Heatmap?

 

A heat chart (or heatmap) is a data visualization fashion that shows magnitude of a miracle as color in two confines. The variation in color may be by tinge or intensity, giving egregious visual cues to the anthology about how the miracle is clustered or varies over space. There are two unnaturally different orders of heat maps the cluster heat chart and the spatial heat chart. In a cluster heat chart, bulks are laid out into a matrix of fixed cell size whose rows and columns are separate marvels and orders, and the sorting of rows and columns is purposeful and kindly arbitrary, with the thing of suggesting clusters or portraying them as discovered via statistical analysis. The size of the cell is arbitrary but large enough to be easily visible. By discrepancy, the position of a magnitude in a spatial heat chart is forced by the position of the magnitude in that space, and there's no notion of cells; the miracle is considered to vary continuously.

There are two main type of heat maps spatial, and grid.

A spatial heat chart displays the magnitude of a spatial marvels as color, generally cast over a chart. In the image labeled “Spatial Heat Chart illustration,” temperature is displayed by color range across a chart of the world. Color ranges from blue (cold) to red (hot).

A grid heat chart displays magnitude as color in a two- dimensional matrix, with each dimension representing a order of particularity and the color representing the magnitude of some dimension on the combined traits from each of the two orders. For illustration, one dimension might represent time, and the other dimension might represent month, and the value measured might be temperature. This heat chart would show how temperature changed over the times in each month. Grid heat Maps are farther distributed into two different types of matrices clustered, and correlogram.

·        Clustered heat Chart The illustration of the yearly temperature by time is a clustered heat chart.

·        Correlogram A correlogram is a clustered heat chart that has the same particularity for each axis to display how the traits in the set of traits interact with each other. The correlogram is a triangle rather of a square because the combination of A-B is the same as the combination of B- A and so doesn't need to be expressed doubly.

Uses

Heat Maps have a wide range of possibilities amongst operations due to their capability to simplify data and make for visually appealing to read data analysis. Numerous operations using different types of heat Maps are listed below.

Business Analysis Heat Maps are used in business analytics to give a visual representation about a company’s current functioning, performance, and the need for advancements. Heat Maps are a way to dissect a company’s being data and modernize it to reflect growth and other specific sweats. Heat maps visually appeal to platoon members and guests of the business or company.

Websites There are numerous different ways toast Maps are used within websites to determine a visiting druggie’s conduct. Generally, there are multiple heat Maps used together to determine sapience to a website on what are the stylish and worst performing rudiments on the runner. Some specific heat Maps used for website analysis are listed below.

·        Mouse Tracking Mouse tracking heat Maps or hang Maps, are used to fantasize where the stoner of the point hovers their cursor.

·        Eye tracking Eye tracking heat Maps measure the eye position of the website's druggies and gathers measures similar as eye obsession volume, eye obsession duration, and areas of interest.

·        Click Tracking Click tracking heat Maps or touch Maps, are analogous to mouse shadowing heat Maps, but rather of hang conduct, these types of heat maps help fantasize the druggies click conduct. Click tracking heat Maps not only allow for visual cues on clickable factors on a webpage, similar as buttons or dropdown menus, but these heat maps also allow for tracking on non-clickable objects anywhere on the runner.

·        AI- Generation Attention AI- generated attention heat maps help fantasize where the visiting stoner’s attention will go on a certain section of a webpage. These types of heat Maps are enforced using a created software algorithm to determine and prognosticate the attention conduct of the stoner.

·        Scroll Tracking Scroll tracking heat Maps are used to represent the scrolling behavior of the website’s druggies. This helps produce visual cues to what section on the website the stoner spends the utmost time at.

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Netflix is maybe one of the stylish exemplifications of a digital business that uses heatmaps to gain perceptivity on user behavior and improve user experiences. 

The folks at Netflix took it upon themselves to identify their target followership’s streaming interests, the kind of shows and pictures they watched, the colorful stripes they identify with, and so on, and also used the gathered data to deliver substantiated gests to each bystander. elow are two of the foremost website heatmaps colluded by Netflix during UX exploration conducted to optimize their television experience

Exploratory Data Analysis Working with small and large data sets, data scientists and data judges look at and determine essential connections and characteristics amongst different points in a data set as well as features of those data points. Data scientists and judges work with a platoon of others in different professions. The use of heat Maps make for a visually easy way to epitomize findings and main factors. There are other ways to represent data, still toast Maps can fantasize these data points and their connections in a high dimensional space without getting too compact and visually unpleasing. Heat maps in data analysis, allow for specific variables of rows and/ or columns on the axes and indeed on the slant.

Biology In the natural field, heat Maps are used to visually represent large and small sets of data. The focus is towards patterns and parallels in DNA, RNA, gene expression, etc. Working with these sets of data, data scientists in bioinformatics, concentrate on different generalities, some of which being community discovery, association and correlation, and the conception of centrality, where heat Maps are a compelling way to visually epitomize results and to partake amongst other professions not in the field of biology or bioinformatics. The two heat maps to the right, labeled “Data Analysis Heat Map Example,” show different ways in which one may present genomic data over a specific region( Hist1 region) to someone outside the field of biology so they've a better understanding of the general conception a biologist or data scientist are trying to present.
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Fiscal Analysis The values of different product and means change both fleetly and/ or gradationally over time. The need to log changes to the diurnal requests is imperative. It allows for the capability to draw prognostications from patterns while being suitable to readdress once numerical data. Heat Maps are suitable to remove the tedious process and enable the stoner to fantasize data points and compare amongst the different players.
image.png
Geographical Visualization Heat Maps are used to fantasize and display a geographic distribution of data. Heat maps represent different consistence of data points on a geographical chart to help druggies see the intensities of certain marvels and to show particulars of utmost or least significance. Generally, heat Maps used in geographical visualization are incorrect for Choropleth maps, but the difference comes with how certain data is presented which separate the two.
image.png
Sports Heat maps can be used in numerous sports and can impact directors and/ or trainers opinions grounded on high and low consistence of data displayed. Druggies can identify patterns within the game, the strategies of opponents and one’s own platoon, make further informed opinions serving the player, platoon, and business, and can enhance performance in different areas by relating improvement is demanded. Heat Maps also fantasize comparisons and connections amongst different brigades in the same sport or between different sports each together.
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This heatmap depicts the on- field movement pattern of a player in terms of where he spent the most quantum of time. Similar data visualization can help brigades make game- changing strategies that are data- backed and further effective.

Heatmaps in the stock request

A stock indicator heatmap helps identify prevailing trends in the request at a regard. It uses a cold- to-hot color scheme to indicate which stock options are bullish and which are bearish. The former is represented using the color green, whilst the ultimate is stressed in red.
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Benefits of heatmaps

Analytics tools like Google Analytics or Site Catalyst are great at furnishing criteria to show which runners druggies visit, but they can warrant detail when it comes to understanding how druggies engage with those runners. Heatmaps can give a further comprehensive overview of how druggies are really carrying.

Heatmaps are also a lot further visual than standard analytics reports, which can make them easier to dissect at a regard. This makes them more accessible, particularly to people who aren't oriented to assaying large quantities of data.

Good heatmapping tools enable judges to member and filter the data. This means that it can be easy to see how different types of druggies are engaging with a particular runner.

Conclusion

Statisticians and judges employ a plethora of tools and styles to sort the collected data and present them in a further stoner-friendly manner. To this end, heatmaps help professionals from every assiduity. To add up, the reason why heatmaps have gained the motivation they've in the once many decades as a statistical and logical tool is that

1.      It's a visual and accessible system of data representation

2.      It's readily and fluently consumable as it simplifies numeric data and depicts it using a color scale

3.      One can fluently compare colorful data points colluded on different heatmaps

4.      It's protean and adaptable as it can record and present both absolute and deduced values

5.      It removes multiple way from the traditional data analysis and interpretation process by laying down all the values in one single heatmap

6.      These are only some of the exemplifications of where heatmaps have helped businesses across diligence fantasize data more and make data- backed opinions. The possibilities are endless

 

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Heatmaps are used for the visualization purpose by using colours to represent various parameters and also demonstrate data in 02 dimensions. A heatmap is widely used in statistical analysis and make ease to draw inferences. Hence, it is one of the best data visualization tools while using Tableau, Power BI, ML etc.

 

It shows the relationship between 02 factors on different axis (01 on X and other on Y axis) by using colors and gradient and also give us compressive picture of the data set.

Nowadays, Heatmaps are used in various situations, applications or can say in every industry as it doesn’t take a long time to understand.

 

Example of Heatmap:

Suppose, we are working in the organization where they are in Poultry business. They want to analysis low profit reasons especially high mortality rate in chicks and want to initiate operational improvement project.

First step to collect the data and freeze the target say in our case it is from 5% to1%.

Now before deep dive into analysis phase, I would like to visualize the problem by using visualization tools like Heatmap, graphs etc. to check any seasonality effects.

 

Here, we plotted data into heatmap (Mortality rate Year and Month). It shows the problem propagates Year 2009 onwards and found high mortality rate in the month July, August, and September. These are the months of rainy season where mortality rate go up. Hence, team will do brainstorming further to counter such problems. In the simplest way, we can say that heatmap gives us visual ad to draw meaningful information by seeing colors gradients.

                                             Heatmap - Mortality Rate Years and Months

image.png.f4c3e1d159a03372fbaa01f412e5e564.png

 

Another example: Heatmap is used to show population density, web designing, no of clicks, medical reports, risk management, weather condition, traffic congestion etc.

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HEATMAPS

Heatmaps are a method of representing data graphically wherein values are represented through color scheme, making it easy to visualize complex data. Heatmaps can be created by hand as well as using specialized heat mapping software. Heatmaps were first used by,Toussaint Loua using a shading map to visualize social demographic changes across Paris. Computer heatmapping technology was first trademarked in early 1990s by software designer Cormac Kinney, who devised a tool to graphically display real-time financial market information. When creating heatmaps a variety of color schemes can be used, including grayscale and rainbow. Rainbow-schemed maps are often preferred, since human beings can perceive more shades of color than gray. Heatmaps are visual representations of user reactions on pages of the website, providing visual context for easy analysis. They help gather visitor behavior insights, which can be used to customize website to better meet visitor expectations. Among other goals are improving conversion funnels, increasing conversion rates, reducing bounce rates, boosting sales. Pictorial Example of Heatmap:-

image.png
 

Creation of a heatmap depends upon the type. There are multiple types, but they can generally be classified into two categories: interaction and attention heatmaps. 

Interaction heatmaps measure different types of engagements and use tracking methodology to record interactions between a user and a website like clicks, scrolls, mouse movements, and more.  

Attention heatmaps are more complex, and monitor how users look at website content by monitoring or predicting their eye movements. 

 

Depending upon attributes, Heatmaps may be classified into the following types:-

Confetti Report :-

Confetti is typically a specific version of a traditional heat map. It is a high-resolution view that lets visualize individual clicks, each represented by a colored dot on the report.
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Overlay & List Reports:-
An Overlay report breaks down the clicks on website into percentages per element. The Heat Maps overlay indicates the relative frequency of clicks by a gradient color, from gray, indicating a low number of clicks, to red indicating a high. List Report displays similar information, but in a graph format to make spotting of variations easier.

Click Maps:-
Click maps are one of the most popular types of heatmaps, and show where users clicked on a page, offering deep insights into how people use website. With click maps, elements of site that are most or least clicked can be gauged easily, which reveals navigational issues. 
image.png
Scroll Maps :-
In a similar manner as click maps, scroll maps are a visual representation of visitor’s scrolling behavior on a web page. 
image.png
Mouse-Tracking Heatmaps :-
Mouse-tracking maps track general mouse movement over a particular website. They help spot frustrated users. It is well researched that an association between where users are looking and where their mouse cursor is, which makes mouse-tracking heat maps informative. Mouse-tracking also shows areas of visitor friction or frustration, optimizing complex web pages.
 Eye-Tracking Heatmaps :-
Eye Tracking uses a sensor technology that tracks the movements of eyes of users while using a web page. This type of technology can monitor eye movement, blinking, and pupil dilation to analyze on which part of a page a user’s attention is focused. However, eye-tracking tools are expensive, also some users are aware and wary of eye tracking and hence, use camera covers to avoid being surveyed. 
image.png
Error Click Heatmaps :-
Error clicks occur when a user clicks on an element of a web page that initiates some error, like a client-side JavaScript error or a console error. Though the user may or may not realize the initiation/triggering of an error, error clicks can be used to specifically investigate console errors. Through use of Digital Experience Intelligence tool to view all sessions that contain the same error it can be determined how to resolve the issue.  Error-click maps quickly uncovers and fixes bugs, enhancing user experience. 

image.png
Rage Click Heatmaps :-
Rage Clicks are used to identify areas of friction or frustration shown by users by depicting areas where users rapidly click an element on website. Rage Clicks might occur when users mistake a static element for a button or a hyperlink and expect something to happen, or when a button is not functioning properly and triggers an error. Rage click maps show all the areas that users click in frustration. With Rage Click maps, unexpected bugs can be fixed to enhance user experience on the website. 
Dead Click Heatmaps :-
Sometimes, users click on un-clickable elements on a website or app as a button, expecting something to happen—resulting in a dead click. Dead clicks reveal which non-functioning elements on website or app are being mistaken for buttons, so that it can be figured out how to reduce user confusion and frustration. These can also help understand behavioral trends over time to identify new opportunities and optimize website designs.
AI-Generated Heatmaps :-
This type of heatmap uses Artificial Intelligence (AI) to generate visual representations of user attention data .Typically, AI-generated heatmaps predict future user behavior by copying the first three to five seconds of users’ attention on a website to identify which elements are looked at most and least. 
Uses of Heat maps

1.    Website redesign
2.    A/B testing
3.    Content marketing
4.    UX and Usability Testing
5.    Conversion Funnel.
 

 

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What is a heatmap?

Heatmap is a graphical representation of data using color codes to represent different values. The intensity of the color is governed by the magnitude of the underlying data, thus enabling the users to quickly analyze areas of interest and how it varies in the space under analysis.

Heatmap are widely used in various fields of engineering as illustrated below.

 

Applications of heatmap in various fields:

A spatial heatmap is used in weather forecasting to figure out the spread of environmental temperature across the planet earth as in below image. The red colors indicate the regions with higher temperature, followed by yellow, green, blue and white.

 

image.thumb.png.befaa075a4f06762f68040c957550e0a.png

 

Another category of heatmap is a clustered heatmap as in below image. In this image, each cell in one line indicates the average temperature of a region in one particular week. By looking at the heat map, it is easy to understand how temperature changes weekly for a particular region and also understand how it correlates to similar places/other regions at the vicinity. Such information is a crucial input in weather forecasting, engineering planning, etc.

 

image.thumb.png.0d2f9a3e3562df1685eba06ca4e2ed86.png

 

Another popular usage is in webpage design. Depending on where the users click on a webpage, the design can continuously be improved to increase user retention and also gain valuable insights on which is the area that the users are paying attention. The below image clearly illustrates to an ecommerce website, which is the area / phone that most customers are interested using the number of clicks made and accordingly sort the offerings based on popularity. The heat map can also help to identify issues such as dead links on the webpage that might lead to no-where but is represented as a link that can lead to user frustration.

 

image.thumb.png.8890bf93c525c88e099738307112b18d.png

 

Below image is a heatmap generated using scrolls of a webpage to understand how long customers like to scroll. This helps companies to understand where to place the products of most interest, how many products or search results can be displayed in one page.

 

image.png.a8152d999297f3c08314fa21c4ff8524.png

 

In finance, heatmaps are used in wide applications such as understanding the movement of real estate prices, credit card spend, etc. The below heatmap is the stock position of some top companies. The red color indicates that the stock lost its value and green indicates a gain. The intensity of the color indicates the magnitude of loss / gain and the size of the tile represents the market capitalization of the company.

 

 

image.thumb.png.003d17e424baa6904ac2c45d8f2bc892.png

 

How to create heatmaps?

Heatmaps can be created using excel. First select the data that needs to be analyzed for heatmap, then Home -> Conditional formatting -> Color scales will produce the heat map. The colors are customizable and for doing that, go to, Home -> Conditional formatting -> Manage rules.

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