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kiran Kumar R

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    Kiran Kumar
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    EY
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    Assistant manager

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  1. All LSS projects focus on finding new ,innovative solution for process improvement and the same can’t exist without implementing a change effectively. Integrating lean six sigma methodologies with effective change management strategies are required for a smooth transition of change.” John Kotter”, a Harvard business school professor ,has introduced the 8 process steps theory for change management in his book , “Leading change”. According to him the change management needs to follow the 8 steps mentioned below, for it to be effective and sustainable. Step 1: Create Urgency To develop an urgency around the need for change and to spark the initial motivation is critical. Initiate discussion on the potential threats ,opportunities and communicate effectively to convince the people on the need and importance of change. Step 2: Form a Powerful Coalition You need to bring together a coalition or a team of influential people ,who are powerful across their job title, expertise and status. Once such a coalition is formed, you need to lead the change as a team. Step 3: Create a Vision for Change A clear vison can help people understand the need for change. Creating a vision which determine the values that are central to the change. Creating s strategy to execute the vison would the next steps to follow. Step 4: Communicate the Vision Frequent and powerful communication in everything you do regarding the change is an inevitable step. It is important to lead by example, as what you do is more important than what you say. Step 5: Remove Obstacles Check for barriers in the change constantly. Removing obstacles will empower the people executing their vison. Rewarding people for making change happen and hiring leaders to drive change are suggested at this stage. Step 6: Creating Short-term Wins Nothing motivates like a success, short wins are extremely important to keep the team motivated. Short wins could be created by keeping the target small or achievable. Step 7: Build on the change Effort to improve continuously on what is done right ,is critical to ensure the effectiveness of change management. Step 8: Anchor the changes in corporate culture Make continuous effort to ensure that the change is seen in every aspect of your organization. Communicate the success stories and utilize every chance to talk about the progress.
  2. Tableau: Tableau is a data visualization tool used in business intelligence, to simplify the raw data to an user understandable format, involving visualizations in the form of dashboards. Power BI: Power Bi is also a data visualization tool used in business intelligence to convert data form various sources into interactive dashboards and reports . Let us compare the advantage and disadvantages of each against the parameters listed below : Power BI Vs Tableau Comparison parameter Power Bi Tableau Performance Performs better with limited data and performance drops when bulk data is supplied. Able to handle large volume of data quickly and doesn’t limit data points User interface Provides report view ,model view and data view in the user interface ,which very intuitive. Provides cards and shelves, data source page, status bar, toolbar, sideband sheet tabs in the user interface and allows customizable dashboards according to the requirements. User experience Easy to understand and user friendly to operate Customizable dashboards which encourages the user to experiment with data for desired results. Ease of use User interface connects with Microsoft applications provides an edge in ease of use. Misses out on the easiness to interlink between Microsoft applications Suability for organization Suitable for small ,medium and large scale organizations Suitable only for medium and large scale organizations Data source support Limited access to other data sources and servers compared to tableau. Access to various data sources better than power BI in comparison Supported data source examples Microsoft Excel, Text/CSV, Folders, MS SQL Server, Access DB, Oracle Database, IBM DB2, MySQL database, PostgreSQL database, etc Excel, Text File, PDF, JSON, statistical file, Amazon Redshift, Cloudera Hadoop, Google Analytics, drop box, google sheets, google drive and others. Programming support Supports Data analysis expression , M language , R programming R Language ,- C, C++, Java, and Python. Data Visualization Attractive and visually appealing dashboards Customizable dashboards, translating quires to visualizations. Embedding of reports Realtime embedding of report is easy Realtime embedding of report is challenging Machine learning Enables the machine learning solutions using Azure Machine learning, SQL Server based Analysis Services, data streaming in real-time, Supports python machine learning Products available Power BI Desktop Tableau Desktop Power BI Service Tableau Desktop Personal Power BI Data Gateway Tableau Desktop Professional Power BI Report Server Tableau Public Power BI Mobile Apps Tableau Server Tableau Online Tableau Reader Customer support Smaller community to support, considering the application is relatively new. Extensive user base and high online user community groups to support.
  3. Code Refactoring : Code refactoring is about improving the quality of the code by simplifying the code and improving its agility. Refactoring can be done at a code, database or an user interface level. The simplified code increases the ability to add more features, making it adaptable to change quickly as per the customer needs. A well factored code allows to solve problems faster. In simple terms refactoring is the process of cleaning the code by removing the unnecessary codes and replacing complicated, incomplete ones with simpler and reusable codes, making it less prone to errors and easy to maintain. Why refactoring needs to be considered :- It helps to improve the overall design of a software/application. Making the software less heavy on codes, increasing the speed of execution. Refactoring will improve the consistency in code ,design, structure, database and user interface of an application . It makes the future changes on the application easy and simple. Refactoring brings in convenience of maintenance. The removal of redundant codes, reduce technical debt and improves the performance. It Improves reusability of the software codes. It improves the ability of bug identification and reduces the chances of bug occurrence. When to do refactoring :- Throughout development stage :- In accordance with the rule of thumb “ Rule of three “ in computer programming , which states that when a similar code is used thrice ,the same requires refactoring on the third time and it should be extracted as a new procedure. The refactoring to be done here to avoid duplication, as it makes the code harder to maintain. Choosing an appropriate design would help here to avoid duplication During regular intervals of development :- A dedicated timeslot could be defined in the development cycle to identify the ways to refactor. We will be able to address many bugs during the development itself as most of them are result of unstructured and inconsistent codes. During code review:-The code review is the last stage/chance to perform refactoring in a development lifecycle. Here the easy or quick fix in the code could be performed. The advantages of refactoring performed at this stage is that it provides a view of the overall area of impact ,when the refactoring is applied. When to avoid refactoring:- The refactoring needs to be avoided in the below mentioned scenarios When the program’s general behavior will be altered by refactoring :- The refactoring is about changes in the internal codes while maintaining the overall behavior of the program. The refactors which will alter the program behavior ,needs to be avoided. When there is a chance of making a mistake :- As time and effort is involved in refactoring, avoiding the same is recommended on scenarios, where there is a possibility of making an error. When the code is already clean : - if the code has no redundancy, bugs, no new features to be added and it meets all the required programming standards, refactoring initiatives could be avoided to save the effort.
  4. Visual controls are control mechanisms used in work place ,which communicates using visuals signs on how work is done and also on how to avoid mistakes. It is a business management technique used to effectively communicate using visual symbols instead of any other means. Use of visual controls in workplace:- Kanban :- A control mechanism to restrict the excess inventory at any point of production. Kanban cards are used to signal the depletion of a product part/inventory. Obeya :- A meeting room with chart, graphs, progress data, depiction of issues and milestones, which would act as tool to improve the teaming and focus on the work. Heijunka box:- A box with horizontal row and vertical columns each representing a time period and each having cards representing the job to be performed within that time slot. Daily life examples of visual controls :- Traffic lights controlling the traffic. Veg and non veg items in menu, color coded with green and red respectively. Sign boards on the road, alerting the driver ,what’s ahead on the road. How effective are visual controls ? “Picture speaks louder than words “ – Studies have found out that, a human brain can process an image faster than 60,000 words, that means representation through pictures are effective than communicating though text instructions. “Breaking the language barrier” – As visual clues and pictures could be understood without words, language is not a barrier anymore in effective communication. Mistake proofing – The visual clues make it always easy to do the right thing ,thereby ensuring no mistakes. Efficiency in management – As the visual controls are understood easily and executed correctly, taking a lesser decision time and less errors thereby contributing to overall efficiency of the process.
  5. The INVEST is an acronym which stands as a criteria to evaluate the quality of a user story in Agile product development. Independent :- Characteristic which helps to prioritize the PBIs or club it with one another. Negotiable :- Ability to negotiate on the feature and functionality. Valuable :- Availability of specific user value which are readily recognizable. Estimable :- Ability to size the PBI so that the same could be planned effectively. Small :-Keeping the PBI size to manageably small, ensuring the thumb rule not to exceed 50% of an iteration in a single PBI. Testable :- Ability to test and verify the completion of a user story Out of the six guidelines , I believe the “Estimable” is the most challenging guideline to follow. The story point are very much relative in nature and are mostly without connection to any measurement unit. The primary challenging part is to decipher the volume of the work, complexities involved, Known and unknown elements in story points. The next stage would involve in predicting the team’s velocity, capacity and baseline for estimation. The agile team uses story point or estimation poker to estimate the value of work. The story point uses volume, complexity , knowledge and uncertainty as the combination of qualities represented as singular number. The estimation poker mostly uses an expert opinion combined with analogy and disaggregation.
  6. Human centered approach in problem solving is keeping the customer or user in focus while providing solution. The basis of human centered approach is to have empathy towards the customer while designing and generating ideas for the problems faced by the user. The human centric approach in problem solving will have the below stages. Define the problem -empathizing with the user • Understand the problem and analyses its impact on the decision maker • Identify the potential beneficiaries of the solution • Identify the stakeholders and their motivations and behavior Solving the right problem • Prioritizing the solution for the intended beneficiary ,who is mostly impacted. • Identify the barriers in moving from present to ideal state Ideation • Providing possible solutions • Selection of ideas based on long term gain for the user. Implementation • Implementation of the feasible solution • Feedback collected and the changes incorporated before product release. Every innovative and successful product in the market has a human centric element, which would have let it to succeed. Some common examples of the human centered design in problem solving: • The health improvement applications and fitness trackers is an example of human centric approach in resolution of the problem on lack of motivation in maintaining fitness. • Automatic cars resolving the difficulty of the user in changing gears while driving.
  7. We all go through different experience and culture during our lifetime. Do we derive any dominant behavior within us from these experiences, which is regardless of our age ,gender and culture? The American phycologist “ David McClelland” ,studied the ways in which people satisfy their needs and the drivers which motivates them. According to him these drivers are directly linked to their needs and classified them into the below 3 categories in his “Need Theory “ Need for achievement Need for Affiliation Need for Power The theory is a research based approach, identifying the factors that motivates an employee at work. Let us understand in detail, the general behavior and the mode of motivation for the people group. Use of “McClelland Theory of Needs” in team management :- As the research proves that, any of the above 3 factor is dominant in around 86% of population, the theory could be applied in team management as mode of right motivation for the right person /group. We can be selective in assigning tasks and responsibility to keep the employee motivated and extract the best out of everyone. To apply this theory on team management ,we need to identify the motivation drivers in each employee to ensure the best fit. Initiating open conversations individually with each employee will be a crucial step in identifying the factors motivating them. A team manager can assign a group activity and identify these behavioral patterns. The leadership style towards each employee/ group need to be structured based on your findings.
  8. Earned value : Earned value denotes the actual completed work in a project ,representing the value generated in same. The calculation of earned value will give a quantified measure of success for the project. Earned value in project management Calculation of earned value will be a key indicator to measure the project completion against plan. To calculate earned value on a project and use it to gauge the project progress ,the below listed needs to be considered. Earned value (EV) = % of task completed * Budget of the task Planned value (PV) = % of task planned to complete * Budget of the task Actual cost (AC)= Actual amount spend on a completed work Schedule variance Schedule variance is the difference between Earned value and Planned value ,which clearly indicates the project manager whether the project is behind or ahead of the schedule. “Schedule variance(SV)” is calculated as “Earned value(EV)” – “Planned value(PV)” For example the planned value of a project at a particular milestone is 20 days and the earned value there is 10days then Schedule variance =10-20 ,that is “-10”, which indicates that the project is behind schedule. Similarly ,we can calculate the cost variance as well, comparing the difference in earned and planned value in terms of cost. Limitations of this approach in project management The calculation of Earned value requires a quantification of the project plan and activities ,which would be challenging for projects of discovery driven nature or research projects. The earned value method will have its limitation when the project contains a significant portion of LOE ( Level of Effort), where it would be difficult to quantify the repeated periodic effort from these activities.
  9. 3 Point estimate :- “3 point estimate” is a method used to estimate the time required for an activity in a project. To understand the method in detail let us consider the below factors “O“ stands for the most “Optimistic” estimate ( when all the positive factors act on the execution of the activity) “P” stands for most “Pessimistic” estimate (when all the negative factors act on the execution of the activity) “M” stands for the “Most likely” estimate (The best guessed average value for the activity) the formula for the estimate value “E” would be E= (O+M+P)/3 PERT PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) is a statistically method used in analysing the tasks involved in completing a project. The calculation of estimate using the PERT approach gives more weightage to the most likely estimate, and the formula for estimate is: E= (O+4M+P)/6 ( where the Standard deviation SD= (P-O)/6 ) Key differences in these approach are:- 3 Point estimate PERT Gives equal weightage for all the 3 values Emphasis on the Most likely estimate Triangular distribution data is involved Beta distribution data is involved Formula for estimate E=(O+M+P)/3 Formula for estimate E=(O+4M+P)/6 SD is not a required input SD is a required input/indicator Let’s consider an example to calculate the final estimate with the below values : Optimistic estimate “O” = 10 Pessimistic Estimate “P” = 20 Most likely estimate “M” = 14 3 point triangular distribution of Final estimate “E” = 14.67 PERT Beta distribution result of final estimate “E” = 14.33 The SD for the PERT final estimate SD= (P-O)/6 = 1.67
  10. Hick’s law talks about the logical sequencing of choices, making it more efficient for an user to reach a decision. An example of Hick’s law application will be the alphabetical arrangement of menu items and keeping mostly the menu items which are known to the user, thereby enabling them to navigate to the desired choice efficiently. The Hick’s law therefore concludes that the time and effort required to make a decision increases by the number of options available. The Hick’s law or the Hicks- Hyman law will have its extensive application and use in UI/UX design of an user interface. The user interface to be made simple with only required fields, reducing the unnecessary time spent by the user navigating though the available options. We can see wide use of this law in most of the Ecommerce websites, where the grouping & subgrouping of product is done based on its category, helping the user to navigate with ease. To fully understand the law, lets understand some basic terms like “Reaction time “and “Movement time”. The “Reaction time” denotes the time spent between the onset of a stimulus and the actual start of the response. The “Reaction time” could be based on a single or a multiple stimulus, here the multiple stimulus will make it difficult for the user, as there are more choices to consider. There are many factors like age, gender, intensity of the stimulus and the degree of alertness will have an impact on the reaction time. “Movement time” is the time taken to complete the onset of a movement. Drawing a correlation between Reaction time and the processing speed to make a choice, we get the below equation, where “N” represents the number of choices. Reaction time = Movement time + log2 (N)/Processing speed
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