# Meenakshi Balaji Iyer

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1. ## Issue Tree

Issue tree, also called as logic tree or hypothesis tree is used for systematic problem solving. It is a visual representation of breaking down the larger problems into several questions. Issue tree indicates the relationship between the larger question and the derivation questions hence it becomes clear and structured way to resolve a problem. While constructing issue tree there is an opportunity to explore all possible area which require focus during solving a problem Reference: https://www.myconsultingoffer.org/case-study-interview-prep/issue-tree/ Following steps to be followed in issue tree: Benefits of issue tree a) All possible area & scenarios can be explored b) Structured approach and thought process initiated c) Surfacing various components of the issue, view the entire picture d) Understand how various components are inter-related e) Reach to the probable root cause questions to be answered f) Move from larger and complex questions to the small and simple question through breakdown approach g) Issue tree provides roadmap to solve key questions Different types of issue tree: A) Diagnostic (Breakdown “Why” question)- It is also called Hypothesis tree which identifies all potential root causes of the problem Solution (Breakdown “How” question)- It is also called as Fact tree or Data tree which identifies all potential solutions to the problem How Issue tree is used in problem solving? Ø Through breakdown of questions the Issue tree helps in identifying the root cause of the problem. It also helps in identifying the key potential solutions of the problem Ø Visually it jots down the anatomy of cause and effect for the issue to be resolved Ø It is the most powerful tool to be used in consulting, interview cases to reach to the real issue of the problem Ø It is data driven hence useful in analyzing the facts in detail Ø It follows the approach as follows: define, analyze, describe problem, identify root cause, identify solution, implement solution and measure result hence it is an effective way to problem solving Example: Steps for Issue tree 1. Problem-Cockroaches in house 2. Objective- Drive cockroaches away 3. Issue tree approach- Break down the problem into branches and further subbranches to reach the isolated root cause 4. A principle of “Mutually exclusive and collectively Exhaustive”(MECE) can be used to avoid overlapping questions between 2 branches 5. Testing through hypothesis with data 6. Identify solution Resource: https://mconsultingprep.com/issue-tree/ Some more examples of issue tree https://www.myconsultingoffer.org/case-study-interview-prep/issue-tree/
2. ## One Touch Exchange of Dies (OTED)

What is Single-Minute Exchange of Dies? SMED is used to address MURI, Change Over Time Reduction’ (COTR) and ‘Single Minute Exchange of Die’ (SMED) are the concepts used to reduce downtime caused by changeover between jobs, machines or personnel It reduce setup (changeover) time to less than 10 minutes Techniques include: • External setup • Simplify internal setup • Eliminate non-essential operations • Create Standardized Work instructions The set up time is expected to be counted in single digit of minutes and hence the name, SMED SMED aims at speeding up the transition Example a) Transition of an experienced personnel to an incoming person can be termed as a Change Over b) Production Support Shift Changes How does Single-Minute Exchange of Dies help? Iterative development in smaller lots Potential Implementation: Software/Hardware update Periodic replacement of parts Handover / Takeover between the team Migration (Data) One touch Exchange of Dies(OTED): Less than 100 second for change over OTED requires the following actions: – No adjustments – No fastenings – More precision – LCM Single motion change Examples of usage of OTED a) Complete automation of the process in any industry(manufacturing) b) Telecom industry Resource: https://www.leansixsigmadefinition.com/glossary/oted/ Reference: https://elssc.eu/dictionary/oted
3. ## Iceberg Theory

Q 407. Iceberg Theory is a literary theory that focuses more on surface elements rather than underlying themes. What are some of the business excellence applications of this theory? Provide examples. Answer: American writer Ernest Hemingway conceptualized the theory of omission which is also called as Iceberg Theory. In Iceberg only the tip of the iceberg is visible above the surface of water, the huge part of iceberg remains underneath the water, this resembles that at the surface only symptoms, actions or events are seen on the tip of iceberg, the real issue, task, or vision will be seen once we penetrate deep inside and understand the situation better. It is the key tool for system thinking Generally, the events seen at the tip of the iceberg is analyzed and solution is provided for the issues observed, but the issue gets repeated, when deep dive, the main problem/cause is identified. While deep dive we reach 5 phases of analysis a) Events- (What has happened): Events are the actions which occur, and we analyze and resolve the event at its face-value but that doesn’t indicate resolution, the event could occur again b) Patterns- (How frequently the event occurs): We see different patterns, trends, sequences over the period leading to the event/symptoms occurring multiple times c) Structures- (What influences the pattern): We see difference influencing factors which occur the patterns. We can establish a clear connection between the structure and pattern such that the structure would influence the pattern to occur multiple times d) Mental Models- (Any transformational model impacted the structure): This is the culture of the organization highly influenced by values, beliefs, morals, attitude which impacts the structure Hence, the reaction of the events is largely depending upon the anticipated patterns or trends appeared due to the design of the structure influenced by the mentor model which is transformed. Which means it starts with evaluating the behavior of the event, moving towards understanding the psychology why the event occurred and lead towards changing the philosophy of how things are managed. Resource: https://untools.co/iceberg-model Iceberg theory is applied widely and are proven effective. Some of the examples are Hence, the deeper meaning of any event should not be at the surface, we should dive deep to understand more before concluding. Business excellence application of this theory can be at all the levels ( Operations, Mid-level management and leadership level) changing the approach of how the event need to be looked at and decision can be made accordingly

5. ## Heinrich's Accident Triangle

William Herbert Heinrich during 1920-30 saw ~75000 industrial incidents, workplace injury and illness case. He concluded that every 300 near miss has 29 minor and 1 major injury, to eliminate the major injury reduce the near miss cases. Heinrich triangle is pictorial representation of relationship between near miss incident and accidents. This is used to identify where the risk are high and where to investigate to prevent risk Heinrich Theory: 1) Behind every accident there is a cause 2) Accident don’t happen but they are caused 3) 78% of accidents cause due to unsafe act 4) 20% of the accidents are due to unsafe condition Top of the pyramid is more difficult to shift. To reduce incidents, we need to focus on high frequency and severity event The incidents are caused due to 3 broad reasons a) Technical glitch b) Human Performance c) Missing barrier Henrich’s triangle was criticized in recent period a) Due to the # incidents used in the Pyramid stating the value applicable to large datasets, however in limited set the relationship is not 1:29:300 but in 1991 it was 1:1.2 (for 1.2 minor incident, there is 1 serious incident). In 1990 the relationship was indicated as 1:207:1402 and many more such studies leading to limiting the accidental # provided in Henrich’s triangle. b) The focus of human error is to be shifted to poor management. c) The focus on reducing minor incident would lead to ignore serious incidents Henrich’s triangle had following limitations: 1) Statistics cannot be validated: The ratio of Near miss with major incident is not as per recent data availability. 2) Data issue (Skewness/inaccuracy etc.): The dataset might not consider all the available scenario or can be skewed leading to inaccurate ratio. 3) No assumption/potential: The pyramid considered actual cases and not look at the potential risk To overcome the limitations following points can be considered a) Replace traditional Pyramid with latest scenario, data, and sequence b) Collect more data and build model indicating warnings for potential cases also c) Conduct behavioral observation program d) Set up Leading indicator to provide ratio of action item to number of incidents, Behavior to reduction of incidents, Near miss to injury Reference: Bird, F.E., & Germain, G.L. (1996). Practical loss control leadership (Revised edition). Loganville, GA: Det Norske Veritas. Collins, R. (2011, June). Heinrich’s fourth dimension. Difford, P.A. (2011). Redressing the balance: A commonsense approach to causation. Bridgewater, U.K.: Accidental Books Ltd
6. ## RICE Scoring

Product development involves many features / Creative solutions / recommendations as outcome of the development exercise. The project manager need to decide the best fit outcome to be used in the product. There are many prioritization framework used by the product manager like a) CoD(The cost of delay): used in Scaled agile framework(SAFe) delivering most value outcome first b) Kano Model: It indicates customer satisfaction (Delighter, Satisfactory, Neutral, Dis-satisfied) c) MoSCoW Method: (Most have, Should have, Could have, Will have0 requirement of the outcome d) Product tree: Branches are basic requirement product and Roots are to support the requirement, Leaves are new ideas e) RICE: Score basis Reach (# customer benefited), Impact(Quantifiable impact on customer),Confidence(Value to customer),Effort(Resource needed to complete the development) f) Benefit vs effort: Compares value of the outcome with the effort taken and select high value less effort and so on…in descending order g) Weighted shortest job first (WSJF) a SAFe technique How to prioritize? a) Identify common criteria, basic requirement b) Apply trial and error for selection c) Strategic decision with minimum biases to avoid paralysis of analysis What is RICE? The RICE indicates 4 factors used to evaluate the ideas in product development. They are REACH, IMPACT, CONFIDENCE, EFFORT Reach is measured as Count of people or initiative or event for a time E.g. Transaction per month, Client per quarter, calls per day, development per period Impact is measurement of the improvement and quantify the same E.g. High/Medium/Low as 5/3/2, 50% reduction, 10% increase Confidence is measured in %. The high the confidence % the more the control of the project E.g. 100% = High, 50% = Low Effort is measured as score for work done per person per month. If more effort, it is unhealthy, Less effort score the project is in better shape E.g. Reach(R) x Impact(I) x Confidence(C) = RICE SCORE Effort(E) RICE is benefited way of prioritization because: RICE is very effective and shows more comprehensive results RICE is based on actual data RICE also has a factor to measure the value to the customer RICE build scalability However, Rice is well disciplined , Data driven and time consuming
7. ## Timeboxing

Time boxing is one of the principles followed in Agile way of working where a fixed timespan is allocated to perform a specific activity and integrate each time blocks in the entire schedule e.g 10 minutes allocated to any standup call or huddle. It is used in Agile project management activity Time boxing would eliminate the option of choice to have idle time, also limited time would end up having more focused attention. Scheduling the time in the daily planner (at activity level) or in the diary would help organize the available time appropriately such that all the events are taken care of and handled well. We should not overschedule the day, only timebox basis the available time How should we timebox…We should answer the following questions A) Schedule the action 1)What is the action 2)How much time it will take 3)Expected output and when it should be expected Activity 1)List of action 2)How long you will take to do the action 3)Output C) Check output 1)Is the action complete? If yes check the output, if no, specify reason why incomplete? 2)Check the output is as desired? 3)Note the learning from the exercise Timeboxing is predominantly used in Scrums during software development Time boxing exercise can be effectively implemented using few instructions Sr.No Instruction Description 1 Control over time If during discussion completing the action is priority – the organizer of the meeting should allow completing the action-Soft time shift If during discussion the action can be stopped, and discussion can be moved to next important action-the organizer can opt for the shift – Hard time shift 2 Time tracker Usage of time tracker like stopwatch or timer etc. to ensure timeboxed action would ensure clear communication timely 3 Planning Proper schedule of time per action or topic would help proper planning of the content to be completed timely. It also enables preparation and focus on relevant action 4 End to end Min & Max time Announce the total available time for action/content to get completed timely. This would enable creative ways in which completion of action. Max time length would ensure proper project management 5 Pauses Timely pause and restart (Breaks) would lead to improved outcome for specific actions hence timeboxed announcement of breaktime would be essential 6 Identified action One should have clear identification of the time boxed action. Some actions need longer time box requirement than the other, hence appropriate time trigger would lead to smooth completion of action 7 Closing time Announcement of “Time is up” as indicator would have completion of the time boxed exercise. Such indicator should be at each activity level and for entire action also. Proper timeboxing would ensure a) Timely announcement of result/outcome b) Focus on relevant action c) To the point discussion d) Progress which can be measured e) Creatively and innovatively managing the action f) Proper planning of further to do list during the day, time of which can be predictable