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Meenakshi Balaji Iyer

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  1. Issue tree, also called as logic tree or hypothesis tree is used for systematic problem solving. It is a visual representation of breaking down the larger problems into several questions. Issue tree indicates the relationship between the larger question and the derivation questions hence it becomes clear and structured way to resolve a problem. While constructing issue tree there is an opportunity to explore all possible area which require focus during solving a problem Reference: https://www.myconsultingoffer.org/case-study-interview-prep/issue-tree/ Following steps to be followed in issue tree: Benefits of issue tree a) All possible area & scenarios can be explored b) Structured approach and thought process initiated c) Surfacing various components of the issue, view the entire picture d) Understand how various components are inter-related e) Reach to the probable root cause questions to be answered f) Move from larger and complex questions to the small and simple question through breakdown approach g) Issue tree provides roadmap to solve key questions Different types of issue tree: A) Diagnostic (Breakdown “Why” question)- It is also called Hypothesis tree which identifies all potential root causes of the problem Solution (Breakdown “How” question)- It is also called as Fact tree or Data tree which identifies all potential solutions to the problem How Issue tree is used in problem solving? Ø Through breakdown of questions the Issue tree helps in identifying the root cause of the problem. It also helps in identifying the key potential solutions of the problem Ø Visually it jots down the anatomy of cause and effect for the issue to be resolved Ø It is the most powerful tool to be used in consulting, interview cases to reach to the real issue of the problem Ø It is data driven hence useful in analyzing the facts in detail Ø It follows the approach as follows: define, analyze, describe problem, identify root cause, identify solution, implement solution and measure result hence it is an effective way to problem solving Example: Steps for Issue tree 1. Problem-Cockroaches in house 2. Objective- Drive cockroaches away 3. Issue tree approach- Break down the problem into branches and further subbranches to reach the isolated root cause 4. A principle of “Mutually exclusive and collectively Exhaustive”(MECE) can be used to avoid overlapping questions between 2 branches 5. Testing through hypothesis with data 6. Identify solution Resource: https://mconsultingprep.com/issue-tree/ Some more examples of issue tree https://www.myconsultingoffer.org/case-study-interview-prep/issue-tree/
  2. What is Single-Minute Exchange of Dies? SMED is used to address MURI, Change Over Time Reduction’ (COTR) and ‘Single Minute Exchange of Die’ (SMED) are the concepts used to reduce downtime caused by changeover between jobs, machines or personnel It reduce setup (changeover) time to less than 10 minutes Techniques include: • External setup • Simplify internal setup • Eliminate non-essential operations • Create Standardized Work instructions The set up time is expected to be counted in single digit of minutes and hence the name, SMED SMED aims at speeding up the transition Example a) Transition of an experienced personnel to an incoming person can be termed as a Change Over b) Production Support Shift Changes How does Single-Minute Exchange of Dies help? Iterative development in smaller lots Potential Implementation: Software/Hardware update Periodic replacement of parts Handover / Takeover between the team Migration (Data) One touch Exchange of Dies(OTED): Less than 100 second for change over OTED requires the following actions: – No adjustments – No fastenings – More precision – LCM Single motion change Examples of usage of OTED a) Complete automation of the process in any industry(manufacturing) b) Telecom industry Resource: https://www.leansixsigmadefinition.com/glossary/oted/ Reference: https://elssc.eu/dictionary/oted
  3. Q 407. Iceberg Theory is a literary theory that focuses more on surface elements rather than underlying themes. What are some of the business excellence applications of this theory? Provide examples. Answer: American writer Ernest Hemingway conceptualized the theory of omission which is also called as Iceberg Theory. In Iceberg only the tip of the iceberg is visible above the surface of water, the huge part of iceberg remains underneath the water, this resembles that at the surface only symptoms, actions or events are seen on the tip of iceberg, the real issue, task, or vision will be seen once we penetrate deep inside and understand the situation better. It is the key tool for system thinking Generally, the events seen at the tip of the iceberg is analyzed and solution is provided for the issues observed, but the issue gets repeated, when deep dive, the main problem/cause is identified. While deep dive we reach 5 phases of analysis a) Events- (What has happened): Events are the actions which occur, and we analyze and resolve the event at its face-value but that doesn’t indicate resolution, the event could occur again b) Patterns- (How frequently the event occurs): We see different patterns, trends, sequences over the period leading to the event/symptoms occurring multiple times c) Structures- (What influences the pattern): We see difference influencing factors which occur the patterns. We can establish a clear connection between the structure and pattern such that the structure would influence the pattern to occur multiple times d) Mental Models- (Any transformational model impacted the structure): This is the culture of the organization highly influenced by values, beliefs, morals, attitude which impacts the structure Hence, the reaction of the events is largely depending upon the anticipated patterns or trends appeared due to the design of the structure influenced by the mentor model which is transformed. Which means it starts with evaluating the behavior of the event, moving towards understanding the psychology why the event occurred and lead towards changing the philosophy of how things are managed. Resource: https://untools.co/iceberg-model Iceberg theory is applied widely and are proven effective. Some of the examples are Hence, the deeper meaning of any event should not be at the surface, we should dive deep to understand more before concluding. Business excellence application of this theory can be at all the levels ( Operations, Mid-level management and leadership level) changing the approach of how the event need to be looked at and decision can be made accordingly
  4. Elimination of waste in Lean implementation has a very effective technique of 5S as: “A place for everything and everything in its place” if followed effectively would lead to immense elimination of waste. The time spent in searching the required material would lead to loss of time, energy, and wealth. It is important for us to have the most required material near users. Shadow board helps us set the things in order and it provides a dedicates space for each material. It helps get the required material timely and once the usage of the material is completed it should be returned to its location immediately such that It can be easily found in next instance. Since the Shadow board has place for everything, if any material is missing it could be easily identifiable and necessarily refilled Shadow board usage would lead to 1) Reduction of wait time 2) Increase productivity and efficiency 3) Since the missing piece is identified easily it eliminates errors of using incorrect tool 4) Standardize, sustained mechanism of handling and maintaining materials 5) Reduce cost of loss and re-purchase of material due to frequent monitoring 6) Safe workplace as smallest tools which may be sharp are put back in their places avoiding injury 7) Clear and tidy workplace Shadow boards need to be set up considering following steps a) Chose the area/board/panel b) Arrange/Align the board basis the categorization/family/grouping of tools c) Carve/draw/measure/create area for the tools in the board d) Customize/color code / design the layout of the board, Visual display & document usage e) Arrange the shadow board for usage Shadow boards are used in multiple functions/industries. Some examples are as follows: These have been proven very useful for the respective business and service lines, contributed minimizing the error/rework/incidents and improving the effectiveness, efficiency and profitability of the business The decision of alignment can be done using frequency of usage of tools as follows a) Tools which are never used = Remove from the shadow board and workplace b) Tools which are used rarely = Not to be a part of shadow board but put out of workplace c) Tools which are used sporadically= Not to be on shadow board but put in workplace d) Tools which are used frequently = Put on Shadow board – near the production/operation site e) Tools which are used always = Put on shadow board – reachable distance Shadow boards are the very effective visual system to manage tools, parts, and consumables.
  5. William Herbert Heinrich during 1920-30 saw ~75000 industrial incidents, workplace injury and illness case. He concluded that every 300 near miss has 29 minor and 1 major injury, to eliminate the major injury reduce the near miss cases. Heinrich triangle is pictorial representation of relationship between near miss incident and accidents. This is used to identify where the risk are high and where to investigate to prevent risk Heinrich Theory: 1) Behind every accident there is a cause 2) Accident don’t happen but they are caused 3) 78% of accidents cause due to unsafe act 4) 20% of the accidents are due to unsafe condition Top of the pyramid is more difficult to shift. To reduce incidents, we need to focus on high frequency and severity event The incidents are caused due to 3 broad reasons a) Technical glitch b) Human Performance c) Missing barrier Henrich’s triangle was criticized in recent period a) Due to the # incidents used in the Pyramid stating the value applicable to large datasets, however in limited set the relationship is not 1:29:300 but in 1991 it was 1:1.2 (for 1.2 minor incident, there is 1 serious incident). In 1990 the relationship was indicated as 1:207:1402 and many more such studies leading to limiting the accidental # provided in Henrich’s triangle. b) The focus of human error is to be shifted to poor management. c) The focus on reducing minor incident would lead to ignore serious incidents Henrich’s triangle had following limitations: 1) Statistics cannot be validated: The ratio of Near miss with major incident is not as per recent data availability. 2) Data issue (Skewness/inaccuracy etc.): The dataset might not consider all the available scenario or can be skewed leading to inaccurate ratio. 3) No assumption/potential: The pyramid considered actual cases and not look at the potential risk To overcome the limitations following points can be considered a) Replace traditional Pyramid with latest scenario, data, and sequence b) Collect more data and build model indicating warnings for potential cases also c) Conduct behavioral observation program d) Set up Leading indicator to provide ratio of action item to number of incidents, Behavior to reduction of incidents, Near miss to injury Reference: Bird, F.E., & Germain, G.L. (1996). Practical loss control leadership (Revised edition). Loganville, GA: Det Norske Veritas. Collins, R. (2011, June). Heinrich’s fourth dimension. Difford, P.A. (2011). Redressing the balance: A commonsense approach to causation. Bridgewater, U.K.: Accidental Books Ltd
  6. Product development involves many features / Creative solutions / recommendations as outcome of the development exercise. The project manager need to decide the best fit outcome to be used in the product. There are many prioritization framework used by the product manager like a) CoD(The cost of delay): used in Scaled agile framework(SAFe) delivering most value outcome first b) Kano Model: It indicates customer satisfaction (Delighter, Satisfactory, Neutral, Dis-satisfied) c) MoSCoW Method: (Most have, Should have, Could have, Will have0 requirement of the outcome d) Product tree: Branches are basic requirement product and Roots are to support the requirement, Leaves are new ideas e) RICE: Score basis Reach (# customer benefited), Impact(Quantifiable impact on customer),Confidence(Value to customer),Effort(Resource needed to complete the development) f) Benefit vs effort: Compares value of the outcome with the effort taken and select high value less effort and so on…in descending order g) Weighted shortest job first (WSJF) a SAFe technique How to prioritize? a) Identify common criteria, basic requirement b) Apply trial and error for selection c) Strategic decision with minimum biases to avoid paralysis of analysis What is RICE? The RICE indicates 4 factors used to evaluate the ideas in product development. They are REACH, IMPACT, CONFIDENCE, EFFORT Reach is measured as Count of people or initiative or event for a time E.g. Transaction per month, Client per quarter, calls per day, development per period Impact is measurement of the improvement and quantify the same E.g. High/Medium/Low as 5/3/2, 50% reduction, 10% increase Confidence is measured in %. The high the confidence % the more the control of the project E.g. 100% = High, 50% = Low Effort is measured as score for work done per person per month. If more effort, it is unhealthy, Less effort score the project is in better shape E.g. Reach(R) x Impact(I) x Confidence(C) = RICE SCORE Effort(E) RICE is benefited way of prioritization because: RICE is very effective and shows more comprehensive results RICE is based on actual data RICE also has a factor to measure the value to the customer RICE build scalability However, Rice is well disciplined , Data driven and time consuming
  7. Time boxing is one of the principles followed in Agile way of working where a fixed timespan is allocated to perform a specific activity and integrate each time blocks in the entire schedule e.g 10 minutes allocated to any standup call or huddle. It is used in Agile project management activity Time boxing would eliminate the option of choice to have idle time, also limited time would end up having more focused attention. Scheduling the time in the daily planner (at activity level) or in the diary would help organize the available time appropriately such that all the events are taken care of and handled well. We should not overschedule the day, only timebox basis the available time How should we timebox…We should answer the following questions A) Schedule the action 1)What is the action 2)How much time it will take 3)Expected output and when it should be expected Activity 1)List of action 2)How long you will take to do the action 3)Output C) Check output 1)Is the action complete? If yes check the output, if no, specify reason why incomplete? 2)Check the output is as desired? 3)Note the learning from the exercise Timeboxing is predominantly used in Scrums during software development Time boxing exercise can be effectively implemented using few instructions Sr.No Instruction Description 1 Control over time If during discussion completing the action is priority – the organizer of the meeting should allow completing the action-Soft time shift If during discussion the action can be stopped, and discussion can be moved to next important action-the organizer can opt for the shift – Hard time shift 2 Time tracker Usage of time tracker like stopwatch or timer etc. to ensure timeboxed action would ensure clear communication timely 3 Planning Proper schedule of time per action or topic would help proper planning of the content to be completed timely. It also enables preparation and focus on relevant action 4 End to end Min & Max time Announce the total available time for action/content to get completed timely. This would enable creative ways in which completion of action. Max time length would ensure proper project management 5 Pauses Timely pause and restart (Breaks) would lead to improved outcome for specific actions hence timeboxed announcement of breaktime would be essential 6 Identified action One should have clear identification of the time boxed action. Some actions need longer time box requirement than the other, hence appropriate time trigger would lead to smooth completion of action 7 Closing time Announcement of “Time is up” as indicator would have completion of the time boxed exercise. Such indicator should be at each activity level and for entire action also. Proper timeboxing would ensure a) Timely announcement of result/outcome b) Focus on relevant action c) To the point discussion d) Progress which can be measured e) Creatively and innovatively managing the action f) Proper planning of further to do list during the day, time of which can be predictable
  8. Lean six sigma method is used to improve any metric/performance/process/business in a structured manner by eliminating the waste and/or reducing the variations. A systematic implementation of lean six sigma would lead to cultural change in the organization. The selection of the method to improve depends upon the problem and its solution however all have same objective i.e eliminate waste and reduce variation Methodology Problem Solution Indicator Examples Direct improvement (Kaizen/Justo do it/5S) (Minimum or no analysis/investigation required) Known Known Customer satisfaction, Data, Self-identification a) Change in workplace setup/structure b) Change in process steps/instructions c) Change in system requirement of which is noticeable and easy to implement d) Change through visual management where issues/WIP cases are easily identifiable Lean (Process map study, define opportunity, VSM Improve, Sustain) (If problem is due to process issue and process stability is not available) Known Unknown Customer satisfaction, Data, Self-identification, Process study a) Check bottleneck and highlight through stability check b) Eliminate waste and implement pull c) Initiate continuous flow Six Sigma (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) (If problem is due to process capability issue) Known Unknown Customer satisfaction, Data, Self-identification Statistical proof, $ savings a) Check variations and reduce b) Improve process controls through statistical tools Lean Six sigma (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) (If problem could be due to process as well as data) Known Unknown Customer satisfaction, Data, Self-identification, process study, statistical proof, $ savings a) Check bottleneck and highlight through stability check b) Eliminate waste and implement pull Initiate c) Check variations and reduce d) Improve process controls through statistical tools DMAIC is the most prominent structure used in continual improvement cycle. DMADV is another structure where the phases D(Design) and V(Validate) indicates completely new solution Before we look at the scope of the project it is very essential to funnel down the identified problem and finalize the Goal of the project such that the team is aware of the objective of the project and would look at accurate scoping hence, we have phases in six sigma with following objectives and deliverables (DMAIC) D=Define (Plan for the project, Identify the team and stakeholder involved, create project charter-Business case, Problem and Goal statement, Project scope includes/Excludes, criticality of project) M=Measure (Baseline measurement, collect data, create current process maps)- Process X (X1, X2, X3) A= Analyze (Examine the process and statistically check the data, identify cause, and look for the potential solutions) I=Improve (Implement, Pilot and validate the identified solution (y=f x) C=Control (Check if implemented solutions are sustained, what are the benefits generated out of the improvement, approval of outcome, does it match our expectation from the Goal statement) Following points to be looked at before selecting a project a) Project to be completed within timeframe b) Project should not be high at cost c) Project should be beneficial in terms of business value addition Absence of project scoping would lead to team not aware of the opportunity, cannot implement, cannot measure improvement, cannot validate improvement as start and end point is not defined Project scope helps us a) To know start - end point of improvement, b) Understand areas covered within the project, c) provide focus to the project team d) Correct expectations for the team and stakeholders about the project Once the Big Y is identified Y Identify business Y Y1 Identify Process CTQ Y2 Identify Measurable Y Y Then establish the relationship of y with process and X i.e (Y=F(x) Project scope is decided in Define phase, The scope should have categorization of In-scope and out of scope area such that the team would be able to understand the boundaries of the project, also at the time of project signoff the customer or stakeholder will have complete understanding and expectation of the improvement done within the scope of the project (If scope of improvement is for APAC region, then the stakeholders should not expect improvement to be done in North America or South Africa region as the defined in-scope is only India) Basis the define scope the measurement of the baseline and as – is analysis is done for the in-scope data only, If the out-of-scope data is also a part of analysis it might not solve the purpose of the analysis During baselining of data if project team identifies the scope need to be refined, the team can do so as the DMAIC is the exercise where problem is known and the solution is unknown, hence there is a possibility that the scope might change during measure phase too. The project team must constantly look at such area where re-scoping is necessary and make necessary change in the scope and change management to be implemented. The project team should monitor the project scope at each level such that the team is focused on the right thing Once the project focus is established then the team need to analyze the data/information/process which are in-scope as the analysis of out-of-scope content would lead to cost (of Team and time of the team) and would lead to skewed and inappropriate outcome The solutions identified and Improved basis the in-scope content when implemented properly would lead to meeting the desired GOAL of the project. The sustenance of such improvement would Control the process maintaining the Big Y as desired If the Big Y of the project is not as desired, then the scope of the project needs to be revisited with the reason that the scoping done earlier was not effective and relevant to the project. So, the project will be allowed to revisit the scope at Define, Measure, Analyze and control phase.
  9. Total productivity maintenance drives the thought of participation by every stakeholder in the production facilities i.e., it drives the idea that not only the team who manages or maintains the production, other teams or facilities should also participate in the maintenance activity (E.g., participation from leadership till operators) The total productivity maintenance work on goals like zero-defects/error, zero-accident/incident, zero-shut down/outage To manage each goals there are 8 strong and effective pillars on which the concept of total productivity maintenance is established. The pillars are: 1. Continuous improvement 2. Autonomous maintenance 3. Preventive maintenance 4. Training and education 5. Startup monitoring 6. Quality management 7. Administration 8. Health & safety management All these 8 pillars of TPM works on the lean tool of 5 S (Sort, Shine, set in order, standardize & Sustain) One of the key pillars of TPM is Autonomous maintenance also known as Jishu Hozen in Japanese where basically it means independent (Jishu) maintenance through management, protection & veracity (Hozen) by all the stakeholders from top layer management to the workers on the field Jishu Hozen in manufacturing is usually used to upscale the operator to make a daily effort to maintain the performance of equipment and processes during the issues identified in the equipment/tool/machine without waiting for the expert or technical support to resolve. In normal practice if there is a layer of hierarchy or many departments with scope of work defined, one department would wait for the other interlinking department to bring the solution, however the user of the equipment would know in and out about the equipment and should take charge to maintain them instead of waiting for action from other department i.e., operator should be empowered to maintain the equipment taking responsibility of the equipment. The frequent user of the equipment can generally inspect and identify if there is any functional issue, maintain the equipment through cleanups and frequent oiling or lubrication due to which the performance of the equipment can be enhanced & capacity improved. JH shifts the attitude from I, to WE leading to improvement in equipment productivity, efficiency and enhances the skills of the user/operator leading to cultural shift •Manage equipments: •a) Cleaning, b) Identifying flaws/errors,c) Optimizing efficiency,d) Restore to old status •Understand equipments: •a) Functionality,b) Monitor-frequent checkups,c) Optimizing efficiency The ownership and accountability need to jointly be handled by all layers of the organization.Largely there are 3 layers of management: Upper layer, Middle layer and Lower layer How JH works? The equipment when purchased has a life span as per the tested laboratory outcome. Beyond the available lifespan the performance of the equipment deteriorates if it is not maintained properly. Such weakened performance could be due to improper handling of the machine. Both these scenario are interlinked as : a) If the equipment is not maintained properly (by Lower layer of management) the machine would have to be replaced with new leading to huge cost of capital and such decision need to be taken by the middle and top layer of management b) If the equipment needs to be managed well by lower layer of management it would involve additional cost of maintenance like more cleaning, lubrication, minute repair from inspection etc. which should be budgeted by top and middle layer management Performing both the action would lead to improvement in the life span of the equipment. Preventive maintenance is essential part of JH where equipment is inspected regularly to see if there are abnormalities observed and address them on priority to avoid equipment to be a scrap if such issues remain un-actioned leading to increase in cost and dip in the quality/perforance of outcome from the equipment. In order to perform the inspection , checklist is the key document to be maintained at operator’s level and to be managed day to day. If AM(JH) is properly management by the operators, the need of technical staff is restricted to the annual maintenance of the equipment and/or during the complete shutdown/break of the equipment. Such scenario is not only observed in the manufacturing industry but also in areas like a) Domestic equipment’s (Fridge, washing machine, TV, Mobile phones & other gadgets are maintained by user and user seek technical help only during extreme stoppage conditions or annual maintenance) b) Infrastructure support & service (VPN connectivity, Network support, application & password management etc. are managed by the user following the self-help user manual and the technical support is consulted during complete shut down or update/upgradation/renewal) To ensure the successful implementation of JH we need to ensure: Audit can be conducted to check if the JH is implemented successfully at multiple layers of management e.g Self inspection, Audit at function/department level, Audit at the leadership head level Following checkpoints for implementing the successful JH On implementation of JH we can ensure a) A team is identified to perform JH -Training imparted, Expectations set, Plan etc. b) Cleaning- Precautions taken to clean, use kit, Prioritization etc. c) Address issues in equipment-Understand impact, identify source, define frequency of identification d) Establish standard of JH- Preparation of inspection, visually control and monitor, checklist e) Conduct general inspection-Draft schedule, inspection manual/process, identify abnormalities f) Autonomous inspection-Monitor quality/time take/output, Correct abnormalities, follow inspection training and standard module g) Standardize-eliminate waste, check proper flow managed h) Complete independent autonomous management-Streamline routine, enhance operator problem solving skills, perform continuous improvement through company goal alignment, The successful implementation of JH can be measured using the calculation of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) parameter. The operational metric of OEE is as follows: OEE = Availability rating X Performance rating X Quality rating A)Availability rating is calculated in %, indicating the % of time the equipment was available for usage and calculated as: Availability rating =( (Available time – Shut down or Break time)/Available time)*100 E.g if a machine is available for 1000 hrs and there was breakdown for 100 hrs then availability rating will be ((1000-100)/1000)*100= 90% Availability rating Performance rating is calculated in %, indicating what is the performance or outcome of the equipment vs what was planned Performance rating = (Actual production/Planned production) *100 E.g if the planned or target for production was 1000units and actual production is 900 units then performance rating will be (900/1000)*100=90% performance rating C) Quality rating also measured in% indicates the level of quality of the output i.e Accuracy % Quality rating = (Number of defect free part of output/Total produced output or production)*100 E.g if the total production is 900 units of which defect free are 890 units then quality rating will be (890/900)*100 = 98.88% So, Overall equipment effectiveness = Availability rate X Performance rate X Quality rate = (0.9*0.9*0.98)*100 = 79.83% Such OEE is tracked and measured in a set frequency like weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly etc and expectation is that OEE should have gradual increase indicating the effective implementation of Jishu Hozen. The more the OEE % the better is JH implemented
  10. Why Because analysis: Why Because Analysis (WBA) is a variation of 5 Why analysis which is particularly useful in accident causal analysis. Explain WBA along with its output Why Because Graph (WBG) with an example. Answer: (First I have explained 5why, followed by WBA and graph with example) 5 why analysis (technique of root cause analysis-not a problem-solving technique) is a simple, effective & non-technical way of working towards root cause of the problem using series of questions (Why?) to drill down into successive layer of problem identifying root cause of the problem. This technique was originally developed by Sakichi Toyoda and was later institutionalized by Taiichi Ohno in Toyota motors corporations. Process flow for problem solving technique is: Problem>> Root cause>>Corrective action. The 5 why technique is a part of root cause analysis in this process flow. The 5 why technique address 2 different problems at the same time. A) Why the problem arises? Why problem was not detected before converting into problem? Below are 5 reasons to use 5 Whys: a) Identify the root cause through deep dive in issue b) Prove with analysis the real root cause – not assumption c) Proactively eliminate issues and prevent re-occurrence d) Search for improvement constantly e) Inculcate culture within the team for identifying the issue and root cause When and why 5 Why analysis is used? · To help the team discover underlying causes of the problems and causes related to them · To ensure potential recommendations address causes rather than symptoms · To begin to establish and reinforce the discipline of root cause thinking How to perform 5 Why? Focused problem statement and always ask full questions for each Why including the problem of cause behind it E.g., Customers complain about waiting too long to get connected to staff during lunch hours 1WHY: does this problem happen? Backup operators take longer to connect callers. 2WHY: do backup operators take longer? Backup operators don’t know the job as well as the regular operators do. 3WHY: don’t backup operators know the job as well? There is no special training or job aid to make up for the gap in experience and on the job learning for the backups. 4WHY: isn’t there special training or a job aid? In the past, the organization has not recognized this need 5WHY: hasn’t the organization recognized this need? The organization has no system to identify training needs There are many variants to identify the root causes of the problem: Some of them are as below a) Issue map b) Issue tree c) Ishikawa diagram d) Why – because analysis During 5 why analysis once we reach to the 5th Why and still are in process related cause we might have to perform 1 or 2 more why analysis. If we see that we could identify cause related to system, we should see if similar situation is detected in other processes and same root cause applies in other processes. To confirm if the 5 why is performed correctly organize the collected data in one sentence clearly understood. If the sentence is not clear, revisit the 5 why to identify the gap. How to check the 5 why Is performed correctly? By answering below questions Problem statement: E.g., Customers complain about waiting too long to get connected to staff during lunch hours Due to 5th why The organization has no system to identify training needs Triggered by 4th why In the past, the organization has not recognized this need Because 3rd why There is no special training or job aid to make up for the gap in experience and on the job learning for the backups. Originated from 2nd why Backup operators don’t know the job as well as the regular operators do. Leading to 1st why Backup operators take longer to connect callers. Why-Because analysis also help us understand why the problem was not detected before occurring. It is independent of application domain and helps in analyze the failure of complex systems and accidents caused due to failure It is a method of accident analysis which identifies the cause/causes of accidents to prevent further accidents related to similar cause. These are performed by experts like forensic engineers/scientists, investigators of health/safety etc. through a) Collecting of facts after the problem occurred (accident took place) b) Analyzing the facts chronologically to identify the root cause c) Conclude on the cause of problem (accident) and take corrective actions d) Recommend the preventive action to avoid problems occurring in future (avoid future accidents) These steps are the analysis of root cause – as variation of 5Why analysis and used in industries like shipping, Travel and transportation, infrastructure support, manufacturing, services & all accident/incidents-prone businesses where prevention of potential failure is necessary to avoid business loss As regular investigation, for WBA the first step is to identify the problem statement: The accident, followed by identifying the cause of accident. The results of the investigation are replicable in nature and graphically represented through why-because graph which depicts causal relations between factors of an accident with the causal explanation of accident/incident. The WBA can be performed as: Problem 1st Factor for problem 2nd Factor for problem 3rd factor of problem Preventive action-Counter measurement Customers wait too long to get connected during lunch Call not picked at all Call abounded- customer redial (Unsatisfied customer) X Need to create IVR to record customer request. Arrange for call back facility Call picked by backup and put on hold Lack of protocol on call handling by backup Training material does not cover the call handling scenario Create training module on call handling by front end support service Call picked by backup and transferred to incorrect department Backups lack training of call handling Training need not identified by organization Frequent training need analysis by the organization upgrading the training module for all departments Conclusions: 1. System change- IVR system to track and auto acknowledge calls 2. Specific training to front end support 3. Training need analysis for all departments WBG is cyclic graphs with nodes on graph. At each node (Factor) & each contributing cause (related factor) is necessary to occur the accident/Incident Factors can be events, states, processes, Un-events, and are represented as nodes in the graph. A causal relationship between two nodes, meaning “This node is a necessary causal factor of this other node” is represented by an arrow. WB graph is used to understand what went wrong leading to specific accident/incident and how to avoid its re-occurrence. If we consider the simple example of Ship which sunk (E.g., Titanic) Conclusion: 1.Every ship should have sufficient # of lifeboats basis the passengers in the ship 2.While on sea – SOS rockets should be addressed immediately The WB-Graph provides a rigorous causal explanation of the behavior being analyzed. However, mistakes may be made in constructing the WB-Graph, as with any human activity. To detect such mistakes, WBA provides a formal proof method (Sequencing of events) which allows one to check whether the WB-Graph is correct and relatively complete. Most users of WBA do not feel the need to check their WB-Graphs using the formal proof procedures, but for those who do, it is there. WBA is the only accident analysis method with such a formal consistency/completeness check. NOTE: Picture of the graph was not getting uploaded . It is available in word document
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