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Natwar Lal

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    Natwar Lal

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  1. Interrelationship Diagram is a tool that helps identify the drivers and effects (same as Cause and Effect). Prior to using this tool, one would need to identify the potential causes (use any of the tools - Cause and Effect Diagram or an Affinity Diagram). In C&E diagram, the relationship is well established, however, in an Affinity diagram we only get clustered categories of similar ideas. The relationships between these clusters may not be evident. Hence the need for an interrelationship diagram. Instances where this could be used 1. Establish cause and effec
  2. Box-Cox Transformation is the most commonly used method to transform non normal data to normal data. It transforms the original data by applying a power to it (usually denoted by lambda). The value of lambda varies from -5 to 5. Why will we need to transform the data? Short answer to the long theory is because of following two reasons 1. Properties of normal distribution 2. Normality is a pre-requisite condition for parametric statistical analysis If we expect the data to be normally distributed, but it is not, then before we apply the transformation, we
  3. Ansoff Matrix is a marketing tool that is used for deciding the expansion or the growth strategy of an organization. It has been named after Igor Ansoff - the person who first proposed it. In the traditional matrix, there are 4 options for growth. These 4 options are bases on two parameters - Markets and Products. Source: https://www.google.com/search?q=ansoff+matrix&rlz=1C1JZAP_enIN732IN732&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjSi_jlq_noAhXBX3wKHY1jACEQ_AUoAXoECBMQAw&biw=1366&bih=657#imgrc=KKD2JCntBwvxYM The 4 strategies a
  4. PICK stands for Possible, Implement, Challenge and Kill PICK chart is basically a visual tool used for decision making. This tool could be used after brainstorming and may be used not only in Define phase but other phases of Six Sigma Project as well. In fact one could use it without doing a Six Sigma project as well. PICK chart helps ideas that are Possible, Implement, Challenge and Kill basis two criteria 1. Effort in implementation 2. Pay off after implementation Depending on the quadrant where a particular idea falls, that specific
  5. As per Wikipedia, Ben Franklin effect is - a person who has already performed a favor for another is more likely to do another favor for the other than if they had received a favor from that person. This effect appears to be the result of cognitive dissonance, because if we have done a favor for someone, how can we possibly not like the person. Given that this phenomenon works, businesses or individuals could use it to their advantage in following ways 1. Good inter-personal relations 2. Good client vendor relations 3. Customer loyalty 4. Good supplier
  6. Agile development methodology is a process where the product or the service is build up in an incremental and iterative manner. This methodology is successful because of following reasons 1. It breaks the total work into smaller units - called sprints 2. Frequent review of the progress of the work on smaller units - called scrum Sprints are supposed to be closed within a specific time frame and because these are short duration projects, the review and decision making has to be swift. This is where scrum gets introduced. Scrum is a daily team huddle where the progress of t
  7. Excellent way of applying the teachings with the current affairs - using Time Series and Forecasting to forecast the number of new cases for Coronavirus. Basis my research (and I am sure by now everyone knows), that pandemics follow an exponential growth. So, when governments say they want to flatten the curve, they basically mean that the exponential growth should be controlled. Exponential growth happens when base grows not be addition or multiplication but by powers. A to the power of B is an example of exponential growth. E.g. let's assume 1.01 to the power of 2
  8. Confidence Interval is the interval in which the population mean is supposed to fall. Confidence Intervals are determined in all hypothesis tests as we infer something about the population from the sample. Prediction Interval is the interval in which an individual value is supposed to fall. Prediction Intervals are determined when we use statistical tools for predictions. Since Confidence Intervals are estimates for means, there are less chances of going wrong and hence it is smaller. On the contrary, since prediction intervals are point estimates, there are higher chan
  9. Process Capability Assessment is the main step in Measure phase where the Baseline Metric is calculated. Following are the metrics that can be used for assessment 1. Sigma Level Long Term (Zlt or Zoverall) and Sigma Level Short Term (Zst or Zwithin) 2. Pp, Ppk (using overall standard devaition) and Cp,Cpk (using within standard deviation) 3. DPMO, DPU and Defective % Zwithin uses the within standard deviation for calculation while Zoverall uses overall standard deviation for calculation. The difference between within and overall standard deviation is how you perceive
  10. Genchi Genbutsu - "Go and See" to investigate the issue and truly understand the customer situation. It basically refers to go and observe the process where the actual value is being added. As the question suggests, it makes perfect sense to use in in manufacturing however it is a myth that it is only used in manufacturing. As a concept Genchi Genbutsu is domain and industry agnostic. While preparing process maps, we usually tell the participants to create a map of "What the process is" and not "What it should be" or "what you think it is". One of the best means of understanding "W
  11. Looking at the above differences, it becomes clear as to why Test of Equivalence is considered as opposite of Hypothesis testing. Having laid down the differences, there are some similarities as well 1. Both work with samples and apply the concepts of Inferential Statistics (Significance Level, Confidence Intervals etc.) 2. Researcher is interested in Alternate Hypothesis in both (even though the alternate hypothesis are opposite in the two) Choice between hypothesis testing and equivalence will depend on the purpose of the study. Equivalence tests are
  12. Hahaha!! Bench is a victim of not knowing Simpson's Paradox OR Both Bench and Mark are victims of lack of Operational Definition for winning criteria PS - I got to know about Simpson's Paradox from the 2 weekly questions that are asked. So thanks for it. For the uninitiated, go to Forum Dictionary and search for Simpson's Paradox!!
  13. Not sure if Mark is on the Mark this time. It is relatively easier for a BB and/or MBB to switch domains basis their knowledge in business improvement methodologies, however, companies tend to prefer BB / MBBs who have specific domain knowledge as well. Only if companies followed Mark's view.....what say?
  14. Sampling Errors are of two types (as already mentioned in the question) - Biased and Unbiased. Biased Sampling Error - is one which results in a bias in the sample. The effect of this bias is that the result of the sample will not reflect the true nature of the population. There are three sources of such bias 1. Survey Bias: where the survey questionnaire or the process of collecting data is biased 2. Researcher Bias: bias introduced by the researcher of the study 3. Respondent Bias: bias in the responses if the respondent chooses not to give the correct answer
  15. One of the reasons for project failure is 'Lack of Planning' and this not only includes planning for what one is going to do in the project but it also involves planning on how to check that the project is on track. Doing effective tollgates is an excellent mechanism to check the progress and ensure that project is still on the right path. For the tollgates to be effective, one basically has to seek answers to 5W and 1H (What, Why, Where, When, Who and How) Let us look at each element in slightly more detail 1. WHAT - Determine the requirements. What is the purpose of
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