# Natwar Lal

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1. ## 4-Eyes Principle

4 Eyes Principle - it is a risk control method where a set of 4 eyes (or 2 people) must approve or check something before it could be done. The fact that no human being is perfect led to the use and popularity of method. The concept is simple - the odds of two different people making the same mistake at the same time are very very small and NOT ZERO. This is the reasons that there have been instances where some errors have happened even when 2 or more people have checked the same thing. If implemented in the process, will it be value adding or non-value adding? Ideally,
2. ## Pseudo-continuous data

Pseudo continuous data as the name suggests is pseudo continuous i.e. it is actually not continuous (or discrete) but it considered as continuous. Advantages 1. More powerful analytical tools can be used on the data 2. Continuous data tends to follow normal distribution and if it does, we could apply its properties 3. As a Lean Six Sigma practitioner, you need to remember less number of tools :) Dis-advantages 1. Conversion of statistical solution to practical output have a chance of going wrong as the properties of discrete and continuous data are
3. ## Control-Impact Matrix

Control Impact Matrix is a 2D tool which helps in comparing items against two parameters 1. Control that we have over the items 2. Impact (expected) that the item could have on solving the problem In a DMAIC project, this tool is primarily used in Analyze phase for prioritizing the causes that can be focused on. Typically the priority order is as follows 1. Causes in High Control High Impact 2. Causes in High Control Low Impact 3. Causes in Low Control High Impact 4. Causes in Low Control Low Impact There is debate on the order
4. ## Process Door vs Data Door

In order to answer the question 'Why is the problem occurring?", below steps are done in Analyze phase 1. List all potential causes 2. Analyze potential causes 3. Identify critical causes There are 2 approaches that can be deployed for analyzing potential causes. I have summarized both in the table below P.S. the usage of tools is not exclusive i.e. tools can be used either for process or data door depending on the situation. The table only highlights the preferred or the most commonly used tools.
5. ## Golden Ratio

Let us consider two numbers a and b where a is greater than b. If the ratio of the sum of these numbers (i.e. a+b) to the larger number (i.e. a) is same as the ratio of the numbers (i.e a is to be), then these two numbers are said to be in a Golden Ratio. Golden Ratio => (a+b) / a = a / b This is denoted by Greek letter phi ( or ). This ratio comes to an irrational number = 1.618 Applicability of Golden Ratio is found in 1. Nature - sunflower, position of leaves 2. Architecture 3. Art 4. Music 5. Technical Analysis of Stocks
6. ## Interrelationship Diagram

Interrelationship Diagram is a tool that helps identify the drivers and effects (same as Cause and Effect). Prior to using this tool, one would need to identify the potential causes (use any of the tools - Cause and Effect Diagram or an Affinity Diagram). In C&E diagram, the relationship is well established, however, in an Affinity diagram we only get clustered categories of similar ideas. The relationships between these clusters may not be evident. Hence the need for an interrelationship diagram. Instances where this could be used 1. Establish cause and effec
7. ## Box-Cox Transformation

Box-Cox Transformation is the most commonly used method to transform non normal data to normal data. It transforms the original data by applying a power to it (usually denoted by lambda). The value of lambda varies from -5 to 5. Why will we need to transform the data? Short answer to the long theory is because of following two reasons 1. Properties of normal distribution 2. Normality is a pre-requisite condition for parametric statistical analysis If we expect the data to be normally distributed, but it is not, then before we apply the transformation, we
8. ## Ansoff Matrix

Ansoff Matrix is a marketing tool that is used for deciding the expansion or the growth strategy of an organization. It has been named after Igor Ansoff - the person who first proposed it. In the traditional matrix, there are 4 options for growth. These 4 options are bases on two parameters - Markets and Products. Source: https://www.google.com/search?q=ansoff+matrix&rlz=1C1JZAP_enIN732IN732&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjSi_jlq_noAhXBX3wKHY1jACEQ_AUoAXoECBMQAw&biw=1366&bih=657#imgrc=KKD2JCntBwvxYM The 4 strategies a
9. ## PICK Chart

PICK stands for Possible, Implement, Challenge and Kill PICK chart is basically a visual tool used for decision making. This tool could be used after brainstorming and may be used not only in Define phase but other phases of Six Sigma Project as well. In fact one could use it without doing a Six Sigma project as well. PICK chart helps ideas that are Possible, Implement, Challenge and Kill basis two criteria 1. Effort in implementation 2. Pay off after implementation Depending on the quadrant where a particular idea falls, that specific
10. ## Ben Franklin Effect

As per Wikipedia, Ben Franklin effect is - a person who has already performed a favor for another is more likely to do another favor for the other than if they had received a favor from that person. This effect appears to be the result of cognitive dissonance, because if we have done a favor for someone, how can we possibly not like the person. Given that this phenomenon works, businesses or individuals could use it to their advantage in following ways 1. Good inter-personal relations 2. Good client vendor relations 3. Customer loyalty 4. Good supplier
11. ## Scrumban

Agile development methodology is a process where the product or the service is build up in an incremental and iterative manner. This methodology is successful because of following reasons 1. It breaks the total work into smaller units - called sprints 2. Frequent review of the progress of the work on smaller units - called scrum Sprints are supposed to be closed within a specific time frame and because these are short duration projects, the review and decision making has to be swift. This is where scrum gets introduced. Scrum is a daily team huddle where the progress of t
12. ## Exponential function

Excellent way of applying the teachings with the current affairs - using Time Series and Forecasting to forecast the number of new cases for Coronavirus. Basis my research (and I am sure by now everyone knows), that pandemics follow an exponential growth. So, when governments say they want to flatten the curve, they basically mean that the exponential growth should be controlled. Exponential growth happens when base grows not be addition or multiplication but by powers. A to the power of B is an example of exponential growth. E.g. let's assume 1.01 to the power of 2
13. ## Confidence Interval vs Prediction Interval

Confidence Interval is the interval in which the population mean is supposed to fall. Confidence Intervals are determined in all hypothesis tests as we infer something about the population from the sample. Prediction Interval is the interval in which an individual value is supposed to fall. Prediction Intervals are determined when we use statistical tools for predictions. Since Confidence Intervals are estimates for means, there are less chances of going wrong and hence it is smaller. On the contrary, since prediction intervals are point estimates, there are higher chan
14. ## Logical Subgrouping and Capability Analysis

Process Capability Assessment is the main step in Measure phase where the Baseline Metric is calculated. Following are the metrics that can be used for assessment 1. Sigma Level Long Term (Zlt or Zoverall) and Sigma Level Short Term (Zst or Zwithin) 2. Pp, Ppk (using overall standard devaition) and Cp,Cpk (using within standard deviation) 3. DPMO, DPU and Defective % Zwithin uses the within standard deviation for calculation while Zoverall uses overall standard deviation for calculation. The difference between within and overall standard deviation is how you perceive
15. ## Genchi Genbutsu

Genchi Genbutsu - "Go and See" to investigate the issue and truly understand the customer situation. It basically refers to go and observe the process where the actual value is being added. As the question suggests, it makes perfect sense to use in in manufacturing however it is a myth that it is only used in manufacturing. As a concept Genchi Genbutsu is domain and industry agnostic. While preparing process maps, we usually tell the participants to create a map of "What the process is" and not "What it should be" or "what you think it is". One of the best means of understanding "W
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