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  1. Q 274. Minimum Viable Product (MVP) is a popular technique to launch innovations in the market. What is an MVP? Provide some examples of popular products that were launched using MVP but enhanced later. What is an MVP? Definition: - Minimum Viable Product is a development technique in which a new product or website is developed with basic features to satisfy early adopters or to get attention of the consumers. And the final product is released only after getting detailed feedback from initial users. This concept has interpreted by Eric Ries, a consultant and writer on startups. Description: - its most basic version of product a company wants to launch in market like website, Automobile and electronics. Company seeks response of customers/buyers and this technique helps to company in making final product as much better. Key features: - It has three Key distinct features. 1. It will have sufficient features for initial customer/buyers. 2. It will have feedback mechanism to guide future improvement. 3. It demonstrate enough future benefits to customer so that they can adopt product Provide some examples of popular products that were launched using MVP but enhanced later. 1. Farmville game play – Fully leveraged the concept of MVP and new gameplay features developing while progressively improving overall experience. 2. Facebook – It was all about linking students via their colleges and making them post messages to their boards. Concepts was already exists but it shows unstoppable. And there are many more. - Airbnb - Dropbox - Twitter - Groupon - Zappos - Pebble - Amazon - Spotify Thanks to resource:- https://www.techopedia.com/definition/27809/minimum-viable-product-mvp https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/minimum-viable-product https://cxoforest.com/blog/minimum-viable-product-examples/
  2. Three deviations often used together in Toyota Production system that jointly explains inefficient allocation of resources/wasteful practices to be eliminated. This is also called a 3M model of Toyota Production System. These are called be enemies of Lean – Muda (Waste), Muri (Overburden) & Mura (Unevenness). What are these wastes - Muda, Muri and Mura? Muda (Waste): - There are many definition of Muda which helps to understand what Muda is: - 1. It refer to the work which doesn’t add value for customer. 2. Activity that consumes resources but didn’t create values. 3. It doesn’t help business or workers in any ways. 4. It refers to direct obstacle of flow. Two types of Muda:- Type 1 – Non value added activities in the processes but essential for end customer. Example – inspection and safety testing. Type 2 – Non value added activities in the processes but non-essential for end customer. There are eight categories of Waste which can be eliminated as this is not essential for end customer. It has several abbreviation – TIMWOOD(T) , DOWNTIME, WORMPIIT. Here you go with wastes name:- 1. Transport 2. Inventory 3. Motion 4. Waiting 5. Overproduction 6. Over-processing 7. Defects 8. “Non use of resources or Talent” or Intellect. Muri (Overburden): - There are many definition of Muri which helps to understand what Muri is: - 1. Man power or equipment/machines are utilized for more than 100% for task completion. 2. Running higher or harder pace with more force for a longer period than its designed. 3. Overburden, excessiveness, very close to impossible or unreasonableness. 4. Overly difficult or ones that overburden workers. Muri can result from Mura and in some cases from Muda also. Why its causing:- 1. Ineffective training 2. No standards operating procedures 3. Wrong tools/equipment 4. Wrong process 5. No Optimization Long term impacts:- 1. Absenteeism due to illness 2. High attrition rate (people leaving) 3. More breakdowns (as machines will run more than designed capability or less/no time for maintenance) Avoid Muri:- 1. Define standard work 2. Evenly distribute load to avoid overburden 3. Preventive maintenance or Autonomous maintenance Mura (Unevenness): - There are many definition of Mura which helps to understand what Mura is: - 1. Type of waste occurred due to unevenness in production system or services 2. Its unevenness in an operations 3. Non-uniformity or irregularity Mura is a result for existence of any of the seven/eight wastes in system/processes. Why it’s causing:- 1. Fluctuation in customer demand (Basically Production system which can’t handle customer demand) or Uneven workplace 2. Variation in Cycle time 3. Uneven workload 4. Low volume but high product variation 5. Flexibility is more important than volume Long term impacts:- 1. Defects are manufactured 2. Delivery of inconsistent product 3. Capacity loss (at some point of time – Production floor struggle to complete large order and become idle as with less orders) 4. It creates Muri (overburden) and this reduced the efforts of eliminating Muda (8 wastes) Avoid Mura:- 1. Just-In-Time (JIT) 2. Kanban System 3. Pull System 4. Level scheduling 5. Workload balancing 6. Standard work How can the healthcare sector address these wastes? Healthcare is really huge industry and it has different & multiple start and end points which leads to a lot of wastes, unbalance situation and overcrowding in specific causes. Let’s understand one by one how healthcare sector address these wastes especially in this Pandemic situation of COVID19. Muda: - As explained above Muda has eight wastes (TIMWOOD-T) and we can co-relates to current situation of COVID19. 1. Transportation: - Inefficient movement. a. Patient movement from room to lab/diagnostic department or different places i. Example – Limited hospitals or labs are allowed to do the COVID19 test which lead to massive movement from one location to another. b. Daily essential needs moves from storage room to different floor i. Example – Mask and gloves movement from storage room to different floor where COVID19 people are admitted. (Mask and Gloves are most essential for COVID19) c. Medication from pharmacy to different floor as required i. Example – Few specific medicines which are still under trial and used for other diseases 2. Inventory: - Huge inventory in stock, Bulk ordering a. Overstocked Consumption i. Example – Gloves and Mask which has been ordered or kept in bulk keeping in mind that it will be used most. b. Stationary i. Example – Pre-Printed stationary with specific details can’t be used as limited sections are open in hospital during COVID19. ii. Example – Now mostly doctors are going in digital way to see patient. c. Medicines expiry i. Example – Bulk ordering of Medicines which has expiry dates. Since very limited departments are open now days in hospital and People also avoid to come hospital lead to reduce the purchasing of medicines from Hospitals. 3. Motion: - Unnecessary movement of people in hospital. a. Layout i. Example – One doctor has to move from one building to another to see patients as his office is building A but due to pandemic situation Patients have specific COVID ward in building B. b. Goods are not stored where needed i. Example – Gloves/Masks and COVID specific medications are kept in building A whereas patients are kept in building B. c. Testing equipment’s i. Example – Patient movement from building A to building B or on different floors for specific testing. 4. Waiting: - it occurs when the flow is blocked due unavailability of material or due to problems like downtime in specific machines. a. Patients in OPD waiting area i. Example – The queue has increased in this pandemic situation fearing they have COVID19 even they feel minor symptoms. b. Patient waiting Testing i. Example – Testing queue has also increased due to unavailability of enough kits to match the demand of COVID19 testing. c. Patient waiting for test result i. Example – Huge test requests resulting in massive queue of testing d. Patient waiting for admission i. Example – Limited beds in hospital resulted Patient waiting for admission 5. Overproduction: - It occurs when providers to more than it’s needed by the customers. a. Unnecessary diagnostic test i. Example – In this pandemic situation normal flue creates the fear in people and they ask for the COVID19 test fearing they might be suffering with COVID19. b. More medicines orders i. Example – Giving more medicines considering future need 6. Over Processing: - Doing more than it’s required by making it more complex. a. Looking big hospital and highly qualified doctor i. Example – Looking for specialist doctor even in light flu which can be easily recovered by resting at home b. Over testing i. Example – Referring for COVID19 test for each type of flu without looking the symptom’s 7. Defects: - Defects in healthcare can cause a life of human. Let’s understand with below reason why it can be deadly. a. Wrongly diagnosis after test i. Example – Test result of COVID19 were highly ineffective due to bad kits. b. Administrative mistakes (incorrect medication) i. Example – Wrong name mentioned on testing sample c. Wrong codification related to patient i. Example – Wrong name mentioned on test results 8. Talent: - Unutilized resources. a. Not using right resource at right place i. Example – Doctors or nurseys who are really aware to use PPE kit are not being used in COVID19 treatment. ii. Example – Or their ideas are not being implemented which can help to control the cases. Muri (overburden): - As explained above, the Man power or equipment’s are utilized for more than 100% or running higher or harder pace for a longer period than its designed. In Current Pandemic situation what is happening. - Doctor and Hospital staff is working more than 8 hours and in some places doctors and nursing staff is working even more than 12 hrs. (considering as per labor law 8 hrs. are standard time for working) - Cleaning staff in hospital and in factory and offices are working more than defined hours and in some place they are even doing 24 hrs as required due to shortage of man power. Why it’s happening, let understand? - [No Standard Operating Procedure/ Ineffective training] Since there is no specific medication for COVID19 o This needs lot of time to spend on different trials by doctors and testing different ways and medicines - [Wrong process] Life of COVID19 virus is not really know and information is shared based on experience o This is why lot of frequent cleaning and sanitation requires. Mura (Unevenness): - As explained above, Type of waste occurred due to unevenness in production system or services and Mura is a result for existence of any of the seven/eight wastes in system/processes. As explained above there are eight wastes of Muda and they are linked to current pandemic situation fully/partially. Why it’s happening, let understand? - [Fluctuation in customer demand (Basically Production system which can’t handle customer demand) or Uneven workplace] o Currently COVID19 patient are more than the number of available beds in hospitals o Also not every hospital is equipped to handle COVID19 patients - [Variation in Cycle time] o Recovery rate is varying patient to patient - [Uneven workload] o Since limited hospital are allowed to handle COVID19 patient hence the doctors and staff is more loaded as COVID19 patients are coming to only these hospitals. Thanks to resource:- https://theleanway.net/muda-mura-muri https://www.mudamasters.com/en/lean-production-theory/toyota-3m-model-muda-mura-muri https://www.lean.org/lexicon/muda-mura-muri https://www.kaizen.com/blog/post/2018/05/09/muda-mura-muri.html https://blog.kainexus.com/improvement-disciplines/lean/7-wastes-of-lean-in-healthcare
  3. What is a residual in Regression? A Residual is a Perpendicular distance between a data point and the regression line. A Residual is a measure of how well a line fits and individual point. Each data point has one residual. They are positive if they are above the regression line and negative if they are below the regression line. And if the regression line actually passes through the point, the residual at that point is Zero. You get a line of best fit while performing Simple line regression and the data point don’t fall exactly on this regression equation line, but scattered around it. Why is it important to analyze the residuals before assessing the goodness of a Regression Model? It should assess the goodness of the model by defining residuals and examining residual plot because a linear regression model is not always appropriate for the data. - If we violate the assumptions, we risk producing results that can’t be trusted. - If plots display unwanted patterns then can’t trust regression coefficients and other numeric results. - If you do see unwanted pattern in residual plot, it actually represents a chance to improve your model because there is something more that your independent variables can explain. - It generates unbiased Coefficient estimates that tend to be relatively close to the true population values (minimizing the variance). - It helps you determine whether a linear model is adequate for your data. What does it mean if Residuals are non normal or non random? Non Normal This means the hypothesis that they are a random dataset, takes the value No. This means that regression model doesn’t explain all trends and model is not fully explaining the behavior of system. Also in the error in model is not consistent across the full range of observed data. And the amount of predictive ability the have is not the same across the full range of the dependent variable. Hence predictors technically mean different things at different levels of dependent variable. Non Random The Non Random pattern in the residuals indicates that the deterministic portion (Predictor variable) of the model is not capturing some explanatory information that is leaking into the residuals. What could be the possibilities includes in Non Random in residuals. 1. Missing Variable 2. Missing interaction between terms in your existing model 3. Missing higher-order variable terms that explain a non-linear pattern. Thanks to resource:- https://www.statisticshowto.com/residual/ https://statisticsbyjim.com/regression/check-residual-plots-regression-analysis/ https://www.researchgate.net/post/Why_do_the_residuals_need_to_be_normal_when_carrying_out_multi_level_modeling#:~:text=Hi Alex%2C one of the,range of your observed data.
  4. Distinguish Critical Path Method from Critical Chain Method: - Critical Path Method Critical Chain Method Definition: - CPM is an algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities and commonly used in conjunction with the program evaluation and review technique. CPM has developed in the late 1950 by Morgan R Walker. CPM helps to identify critical and non-critical tasks from project’s start to end and helps in short-term prevention. The longest path is known as the critical path, and the duration of the critical path is the duration of the project. Definition: - CCM is based on methods and algorithms derived from Theory of Constraint. It was introduced in 1997 and it has been credited with achieving projects 10%-50% faster and cheaper than traditional methods. Advantages: - 1. Offers a Visual representation of the project activities 2. Provides time to complete the tasks and overall project. 3. Helps in tracking critical activities Advantages: - 1. Removes bottleneck to resolve constraints (Theory of Constraints) 2. Lean: Eliminate wastes & Six Sigma: Reduce Variation 3. Helps in Planning and control process Terms Used & Difference: - Float 1. Calculated Difference between the critical and non-critical path 2. Float is Zero. 3. Can't be used as tool to check Project status. 4. Activities - early start or late start, early finish or late finish possible. 5. Types - Free & Total floats Terms Used & Difference: - Buffer 1. Based on contingencies 2. Buffer is not Zero 3. Can be used to analyze Project status 4. Activities - only a start and an end 5. Types - Project, Feeding & Resource Buffer Method: - CPM is all about Managing activities 1. Resources will be provided whenever they are needed. 2. It’s not useful to gain time by completing an activity as next task can't be stared before its early start time. So you can't utilize the time by completing previous activity early. 3. Member will not start activity till its late start, and utilize the float if an activity has a float. Method: - CCM is all about Managing buffers 1. Consider Resources availability is limited and builds a realistic schedule based available resources. Provides more realistic and better schedule 2. Whenever an activity is completed, you can start the next activity and the time remains will be added as buffer. 3. Buffer is placed at the end of project and each task has its real time. How does Critical Chain method relate with Theory of Constraints or with Lean Management practices? CCM is an outgrowth of the Theory of Constraints to scheduling and managing manufacturing. 1. Theory of Constraints focuses on identifying and fixing bottlenecks to improve throughput and CCM focuses on bottlenecks. Example, Manufacturing Company was facing delay with new product approval. It was found that bottleneck was expert testing engineer to analyze more test results. And Expert testing engineer hiring cost is more than the revenue expected to launch the products to market sooner. 2. CCM is the realizing component to the theoretical TOC which typically has applied through five steps. 3. CCM and TOC both are concentrating more into the micro elements for a specific process. 4. CCM and TOC is more focused on the management of time, duration and uncertainty of Projects. 5. CCM and TOC can have distinguishing and remarkable outcomes for tasks completion and monitoring. 6. CCM focused on bottleneck similar like Lean management practices where Lean management talks about the improvement lean by eliminating the bottlenecks. Thanks to resource:- https://blog.pmsprout.com/critical-path-method-versus-critical-chain-method/ https://www.invensislearning.com/resources/pmp/critical-path-critical-chain-method http://apppm.man.dtu.dk/index.php/Critical_Chain_Theory https://www.ijser.org/researchpaper/A-Comparison-Between-Lean-Implementation-and-Critical-Chain-Management.pdf
  5. Brook’s Law Brook’s Law is: “Adding additional resources to a late software development project will make the project later”. Q1. Whether Brook’s Law applies to delayed Lean Six Sigma Projects? Answer: Yes it applies to Lean Six Sigma Projects. Q2. How Brook’s Law applies to delayed Lean Six Sigma Projects? Answer: Brook’s Law can also be applied to dissimilar types of Projects (could be challenging or methodological projects) where highly skilled and experienced workforce are required. There are following reasons which tells how this Law applies. a. Adding new people in existing projects takes more time for them to become productive. And this what has been called “Ramp Up” time as per Brook’s law. The biggest concern of adding new people in existing running project is: it distract the resources who are already working on the project and this distraction results in productivity loss of old resources and at the same time new resources are not yet contributing. Why existing resources becomes less productive? 1. Existing resources are being used to educate the new added people. 2. They have to spare their work so that training can be conducted for new resources. 3. Temporary movement from existing work to training will stop the focus and work on running project. b. Communication overheads increases as the new resource added. Since everybody on this project needs to be in sync in order to make task aligned. So when new resources are added then more discussion, more meeting to be make everybody in sync and they spend more time to understand others work. Brook’s Law in SIX SIGMA Project If we talk about Brook’s Law in SIX sigma project typically in DMAIC approach the here is the answer. Define & Measure Phase: While Brook’s law doesn’t applies on early stage of project so it can be considered that if we add more people during the Define and Measures phase which is considered as early phase where we define problem statement and getting understand then Brook’s law may not be applies. Analyze, Improve & Control Phases: Let’s understand how it’s applied in these three phases, - Analyze - While working for analyzing and validating and selecting the root cause, one has to be aware with the data collection method along with Problem statement. - Improve - Adding people during improve phase will make project delays as in this phase team is already working on testing and implementation phase and new added people needs complete information about the validation and selection of root cause before understand the testing process. - Control – addition on new people in control phase will surely create some delay as existing resource will be distract to make new people understand the whole project. Simulation of Project Delay & Brook’s Law: - - Project Starts: Planned to Complete in 12 months - Month 10: Project manager proposed to add two new resources in the existing project for targeting to complete this project in 12 Months Whereas Engineers has said that they have already completed 70% of Project and 30% of Project will be completed in next two months. - Month 11: Team has informed that it can’t be completed in month 12 as per commitment. Discussion started on Brook’s law and Project manager added two new resources and postpone to complete this project in 13 months. - Month 13: Project is not yet ready and Engineers recalled to Project Manager for violating Brook’s law of adding new people. Month 14: Project is ready and released late by 2 months. Co-relates why Simulated Project delayed and How Brook’s Law applies: - - Educating New added resources: - Existing/experience (Or Best known project people) resources are being use to educate new resource which distract them from the running project work and consume their work in training work. This makes them less productivity thus its resulting in Project delay. Example – if we explain above simulation, you will see that project was 1 month delay and to cover this 1 month, project manager added two new resources and violated the Brook’s Law. In this case, when existing resources started focusing on education of new people then they would be requiring more time to complete their work and this explains why the project is delayed more. - Multiple Communication: - To make a good and successful project the communication is key and keeping every individual in sync is important. Since new resource have been added in project then more communication require to keep them in sync and also to keep watch on what every individual is doing. This requires ample time to make everybody aware with project details and keep in sync which justify the fact of delaying the project as it distracts the existing resources.
  6. CONWIP CONWIP stands CONstant Work In Progress. CONWIP is a one type of pull system which uses a single global set of cards to control Total WIP anywhere in the system or shop floor. Raw material can enter in CONWIP only when there a demand, it receives through the authorized cards and this same card authorize raw material to move throughout the system till production completion. This cards will only be released when the final product moved out from system and then this card will be used to enter new material in system as per demand. In CONWIP system, WIP is not controlled at the individual workstation level. In CONWIP Card limit the total number of work that can be anywhere in system. In CONWIP system, when demand occurs and material enters in the system, material flows freely similar like Push system and WIP accumulates in front of the bottleneck stations. CONWIP is easier to manage as there is only one set of Global card that needed review and adjustment. Kanban System is more difficult to manage but it support strict WIP Control system as its card control is implemented at workstation level. CONWIP differs from Kanban in three mains ways:- 1. Use of backlog to dictate the part number sequence 2. Cards are associated with all parts produced on a line rather than individual part numbers 3. Jobs are pushed between workstations in series once they have authorized by a card to start at the beginning of the line. Advantages and disadvantages of using CONWIP against KANBAN Advantages of CONWIP against KANBAN 1. Number of Variants Kanban works with high quantity but low variety because every card has permanent number associated with the card. And this works when there is a continuous demand for specific product number. Example – Made to stock parts that sold in large quantity. Above both the examples show single variant product which is easy to manage even with high quantity. In both examples product is unique then Unique Kanban require for this product. As we know Kanban is assigned to a part number then it makes difficult. Here CONWIP wins as it has no part number assigned by default to CONWIP card hence it can be assigned temporarily to CONWIP part even if the part is produced once. And it’s more suitable for made to order parts. Example – Made to order parts that sold in large variety. 2. Better Performance than Kanban In a single line, CONWIP System has better performance than Kanban system with N circulating card. Lets look at with the below explained example. Here we are comparing two Kanban and CONWIP system applied in an assembly system given the same number of circulating cards within the system. Consider an assembly system fed by two fabrication lines with three stations for each fabrication lines as well as the assembly line in below picture. We can see the below picture giving us the simulation results consist of systems throughput and average WIP of both Kanban and CONWIP systems, when the total number of circulating cards within the both systems is identical and equal to 13. In above picture, k denotes the number of kanbans at i station of j fabrication line in the Kanban system. That is, 11 k , 12 k and 13 k denote the number of kanbans at stations 1, 2 and 3 of the first fabrication line, respectively. Similarly, 21 k , 22 k and 23 k denote the number of kanbans at stations 1, 2 and 3 of fabrication line 2, respectively. 1 k and 2 k also denote the number of kanbans at stations 1 and 2 of the assembly line, respectively. So in above picture, average WIP and throughput in the both systems given the same number of cards From the table above, two systems has the same rate of throughput (equal 3.75 parts per hour) and, average WIP equivalent 1.09 and 1.45 parts achieved by Kanban and CONWIP system, respectively. Henceforth, when the total number of cards in both Kanban and 28 CONWIP systems is equivalent, average WIP can be less in Kanban system than in CONWIP given the same level of throughput. Since final demand is unlimited, the number of Kanban’s at the last station of the assembly line is not relevant in Kanban system. Thus, the last station (station 3) is not shown in the above table. Disadvantages of CONWIP against KANBAN 1. Doesn’t manage the sequence Kanban manages production sequence automatically. Kanban system automatically reproduced what is required to produce if this system has enough Kanban for each part type. Whereas CONWIP needs human input to reproduce the required produce. Assume you have a system with 50 CONWIP cards. If someone messes up your backlog priority and puts 50 times the same product as a priority, then your entire system is full with this one product. You cannot even produce something else unless you sell one of the other products. Source:- http://webuser.bus.umich.edu/whopp/Reprint/CONWIPPullAlternative.pdf https://www.informs-sim.org/wsc01papers/122.PDF http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
  7. What is Purple Cow? The principle of the Purple Cow is that it must be remarkable and not just what you see very commonly. This is the term used in Marketing and Sales. What could be remarkable, is your product or services and could be both. Purple Cow term is more appropriate to explain that product or services must remarkable and not commonly used or seen. Its commonly said that better marketing leads to good product sale but its not only thing which makes product best. Advertisements when its come on television are not must to watch and the control remains in users hand and during ads they change the channel to see other things. You can’t attract someone with conventional products, rather you need “a Purple Cow”, it means you need to create something exceptional. Key Elements 1. Largely available advertisement: - while if you think in past and turned on the television or newspaper, you see very limited products being advertised. This rare ads makes user to see easily. Since limited products were advertised then the trust automatically comes on those product. This makes people remember the product and ads. Whereas in current world, you will advertisement everywhere on television, newspaper, hording on road side. It’s largely available which makes really difficult for customer to remember and trust the product. It means traditional ads in mass media become less effective. So if you are launching new product in the world where multiple similar products are already available in market. This means you need to overcome with three hindrances. a. Find a customer base b. Customer feedback for existing product c. Finding final customer 2. Remarkable Product: - In current world, you will find a good alternative of each product/services and to make a distinction between the existing products and the product you are launching then you need a Purple Cow means creating a Remarkable Product. It must be eye catching. There are many examples of Remarkable products available in current world. Few examples like the relaunch of Volkswagen Beetle which was the star few decades ago, launching a Radio with preloaded song system “Saregama Carvaan” a stereotype old type system with recreation and old songs collection with more functions inside it. 3. Flexible for new Change (Taking Risk): - Flexible to accept new changes will always help to survive and succeed. There are many good examples which can explain why flexible/taking risk strategy is safer than avoiding it. Very commonly knows example is NOKIA, they didn’t accepted the change or they didn’t want to take risk to move on Android OS which was free for user and easy to handle, later on we all know the history, One of the best, reliable brand was out of Market even with one of the best technology a decade ago they had. So the message with key element is to take risk with seeing market trend and make strategies accordingly. 4. Focus on customer base: - There will be five group of people who will likely use a product. Innovators, Early Adopters, Early majorities, Late majorities, Lag-gard. Innovators – eager to try new things. Early Adopters – interested in new product. Early and Late Majorities – Take proven product and had majority of customer base. Lag-gard – reluctant for anything and go only as per need basis. You need to make product targeting Early adopters and then go for the good marketing forums. Example if launching new car then it must be presented in Auto Car shows and publish ads in all car magazines. 5. Product Marketing: - Marketing is not just advertising and selling product but its more innovating the product. A good company involve marketing people even in designing phase and employee training to know product in and out. You should have simple slogan which conveys the message in easy way to customers. Example Skoda build a good quality cars with more functions with their competitors and their slogan is “Simply clever” very easy and it pass message behind the product. 6. Market to them who need it for their problem: - let’s understand with example, we go on good search and write something like mobile and search. After reading what we need then we close the website and move on. But there Google ads play a vital role, the very next time when you browse website, the google ads start their work and you will show what you have searched few times ago. They will show the ads of what you exactly needed. 7. Fear of Criticism: - Many companies fears in launching new product due to the fact they might be criticized. But understand Criticism is not failure but it shows that the company is moving safely without taking risk and this is what read in above points that going safe might result in throwing out from market. Here the game changer is Purple Cow to build a remarkable product to avoid failure… Thanks to Source https://lifeclub.org/books/purple-cow-seth-godin-review-summary
  8. What is Planning Poker? Planning Poker is an agile estimating and planning technique that is consensus based. The owner or customer announces an agile user story or explains a feature to the estimators in order to start a poker planning session. Participants (or called estimator) are holding Planning Poker cards with values like 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 20, 40 and 100. The values symbolize the number of story points, working days, or other units in which the team estimates. The participants discuss the quality of product and they ask quality of product related questions with the product owner. When the story has been fully discussed, each participants confidentially selects one card to represent his or her estimation. They open all the cards together which have been received from individual participants. If all participants selected the identical value, that becomes the estimate. If not, the estimators discuss their estimates. The exceptional results must be discussed with their explanations to understand the exceptional difference. Again same process repeated based on discussion, and then open all the cards at same time. This process repetitive till consensus is succeed or participants agrees that estimation planning could be delayed till more information collected. This works as better estimation methodology as it is organized with cross functional or multiple expert concepts/views. Planning poker is mostly used to estimate efforts or relative size of development goals in software development. How is it used in software development? So as explained above that its great to have multiple expert/Cross functional participants/estimators to start poker planning hence in Software development, different stakeholders can be added a team, a product owner, Software developers, UX designers, QA testers, Operational expert, product managers and a common user of similar product from the same organization. Story = User Download a Trial version of Game Step 1 = Cards Estimators are given and identical deck of cards with different numbers and keeping in mind with sequence number based on double the numbers 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 with recommended sequence. Step 2 = Read story Product Manager will read story to the group. Step 3 = Debate Every estimator has heard the story hence its time to discuss. Each estimator describe how they visualize or understand about playing the game and handling the game software, all the they explained require skill sets, and what if any hurdle comes. they debate and ask questions. Step 4 = Estimate After debate/discussion, estimator choose a card from deck to represent their estimate of story points. when everybody is ready, everybody revealed their cards together at same time. The higher a participant’s card is, the more difficult that participant estimates the story will be to complete. Step 5 = Work on Consensus Condition 1 = If all estimators open the same card, then that number becomes the consensus. And group can move on to the next story. Condition 2 = If the cards differ, then the group continues its discussion about the story. Those with higher (or lower) estimates than the rest of the group will explain their reasoning and try to convince their group member to see their view. Once the group concludes new round of discussion, everyone will again review their cards and either keep their previous choice or select a new one. All participants will again reveal their cards at the same time. Thanks to Source: - https://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/agile/planning-poker https://www.productplan.com/glossary/planning-poker/ https://www.visual-paradigm.com/scrum/what-is-agile-planning-poker/
  9. Hammurabi Code Hammurabi codes complied 282 laws that categorizes three signification concepts. - Accountability - Incentives - Manage Risk and Communication Principles Accountability: - Hammurabi put more focus on value of having “Skin in the Game”. When he mentioned skin in the game means existentially accountability of involved parties. And this help parties to give more focus on result and impartiality. Innovative way of someone accountable:- - Bankers who approves loan will be penalized if the borrower becomes defaulter with same values which left to pay by borrower. - Warranty of product replacement under limited period – if the product got faulty within defined ageing then the supplier has to repair/replace it. Incentives: - Hammurabi rules are the first attempt to align incentives in history. Their objective was very clear to give incentive to quality product and no incentive to poor quality. Product has to be made with best quality with predicting the worst conditions. (ie. Bad weather, earthquake, Financial situations) Innovative way of Incentive:- - Incentive could be only paid once the borrower pays minimum 12 installation of his loan. And also it could be tenure based. - Incentive could be based on the criticality of Job as well, like Security personnel’s working in completely different/severe condition could be paid better than other security personnel’s working in normal weather conditions. Comparison could be done between Security personnel’s working in Laddak vs Punjab boarder Risk Management: - Hammurabi rules put more stress of covering risk of risk, meaning put extensive focus on Safety measures. They focus on the customer awareness and customer learning. This awareness and knowledge help to minimize risk. Innovative way of Risk Management:- - Seller has to organize an awareness program with buyers and make aware with all kind risk or safety measures. This makes buyer having good awareness about product and risk with product. Communication principles: - Hammurabi focused on simple communication, he believes that communication has to so simple that from Priest to a common citizen should understand clearly. His focus to make it simple by avoiding lawful complexity and difficult languages. Innovative way of Communication Principles:- - To make communication standard use Visual effect this helps to make better understanding. - Communication has to be more picture and it helps to avoid statements/languages barriers.
  10. 1. Productivity improvement by organizing the maintenance activity of assets according to its current condition and this will help eliminating unwanted/unplanned works. 2. Consistency & accessibility/availability - eliminating significant downtime will help increasing availability and also this helps minimizing operational risk by predictive analysis and transparency of the system condition. 3. Values - Resource planning, Material and Predict maintenance, Execution of Maintenance activities is planned and enhanced routine. 4. Asset Management - Maintaining a good records, Enhancing life of asset by doing data driven root cause analysis and focusing on Daily/weekly maintenance routine, Upgrading assets as when it requires or based on the current health situation (results coming based on root cause analysis). 5. Safety - While doing maintenance activities in planned way or based of defined routines, certainly it improves safety at workplace. Use more visual indicator to show planned activities or defined routine for awareness.
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