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Arunesh Ramalingam

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Everything posted by Arunesh Ramalingam

  1. In my opinion the OEM should follow the following steps: 1. List the 20 possible reasons for failures as three lists arranged in: decreasing order of criticality (i.e. the most probable root cause) decreasing order of probability of occurrence increasing order of cost to mitigate (The possible reasons could be identified based on a detailed Fault Tree analysis considering every possible cause, even the remotely possible ones , Cause Effect diagrams, fish bone Analysis and so on by a task force team comprising of experts) 2. Focus on the most p
  2. No. Venugopal, Good to read the comments. I never challenged the value project execution experience carries. My contention was always on whether it should be a "Must have/Essential criterion" or Not.
  3. Appreciate Mohan PB's effort in analysing most of the answers and sharing the comments. Valuable comments from Venugopal and many others!! I still do stand by my opinion that it should not be "essential criterion" but should be a "good to have".
  4. My stand is NO. In my opinion it should be a "Good to have" requirement. I strongly feel the following two aspects should be given more importance: 1. The Professional's familiarity and understanding of Lean Six Sigma concepts and his attitude/thought process towards the concept of "Continuous improvement". This aspect would indicate if the person would be able to identify, initiate and promote improvement activities. 2. The Professional's overall job experience. This would highlight his skills related to working in a team, leading projects, ability to communicate w
  5. FOR. "Zero Defect" is a work culture that an enterprise may like to inculcate in the workforce, emphasising that defects are not acceptable and everything should be done “first time right". The implementation of this philosophy depends on: 1. Operational Definition of Zero defect as perceived by the management 2. Efforts taken by the management to communicate the same and ensure it is understood by one and all 3. Time and Money invested by the management in process design and checks, employee training and so on to build and drive the culture.
  6. A process with 100% Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) can be considered efficient or inefficient based on the way RTY is calculated. Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) is the total yield of the entire process calculated by multiplying the yields of all the sub processes. It can be calculated as following: Case 1. RTY = FTY(A) * FTY(B) * FTY(C) (or) Case 2. RTY = FPY(A) * FPY(B) * FPY(C) where A, B, C are sub-processes that constitute the process for which yield is being computed. FTY- is First Time Yield FPY- is First Pass yield First T
  7. Coefficient of Variation (CV) is a statistical measure of the dispersion or spread of data points in a data set around the mean value of the data set. It is the ratio of standard deviation to the mean. It is also called relative standard deviation (RSD). Uses of Coefficient of Variation: Example 1: Comparing the spread around mean in two or more data sets when the Means of the individual data sets vary. CV especially helps in comparing the degree of variation from one data set to another, when Standard deviation (SD) between data the sets may be similar but
  8. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a procedure for determining points where processes, products or designs are most likely to fail and the reason why they would fail. It is used while designing processes (and/or) reviewing and improving an existing process (and/or) for process control. FMEA is essentially a step-by-step procedure to identify each failure mode. Further analysis then helps estimate the effects of failure and devise process control methodologies so that the identified failures can be averted. Process FMEA used to evaluate manufacturing and a
  9. An Operation is any process that takes a few inputs through a few steps and returns a more useful Output. Example: any manufacturing plant, Insurance claim process and so on. Cycle Time is the average length of time of the operation i.e. the time taken by the steps to complete. In other words, it is the time taken from start of work till finished product is ready for delivery. It can be said to be the total Working Time. Lead Time is the entire taken from the request for the product till the delivery is made. It can be said to be the total Wait Time. But the
  10. I support Statements A, E and C and in that same order. I would modify E slightly as listed below. In C, I would, differentiate between Short-term performance valuation goals and long-term corporate vision goals. A. If it is desirable to set an objective of Zero Defect Quality, we should set the goal, but this should primarily be a top-down system driven initiative and not a bottom-up approach. Zero Defect is more of a work culture - a philosophy. It emphasises that defects are not acceptable and everything should be done “first time right”. Implementing such a
  11. Background: Ishikawa (Fishbone) Diagram is a tool used to analyses Causes and their Effect. The Effect is the problem to be solved indicated by the “head” of the fish. While the various possible Causes are brainstormed and listed (categories and sub-categories) on the body of the fish as branches i.e. the “bones”. Hence the name Fishbone diagram. The causes are grouped in categories – Machine, Method, Material, Man, Measurement, Management, Maintenance, Mother Earth (Environment). Subsequently, the various listed causes are given weights indicating their possible co
  12. Segmentation is the process of diving or grouping a set of large number of similar components (set of entire customer base, set of data points, set of all functional components and so on) into logical sub-groups based on some type of common or shared characteristic. In Root Cause Analysis, segmentation helps to reduces (by elimination) the number of suspected process steps or potential problem spots that may be causing the issue/problem being root caused. Successful segmentation would help in cutting out process steps and functional components that may not be involved in creat
  13. Cost of Quality = Cost of Good Quality + Cost of Poor Quality Cost of Good Quality (COGQ) 1. Prevention costs (PC): Costs incurred to prevent and minimize defects, rather than finding and removing them later. Examples: Designing and implementing a quality plan, SP, employee Training. 2. Appraisal (Inspection) costs (AC): Costs incurred during the manufacturing process to ensure that the product/service conforms to quality standards and performance levels. Examples: Maintaining team of Quality inspectors, Inspection, Audits, Field T
  14. I understand, that a Type 1 / Type 2 error or the formulation of the Null / Alternative hypothesis depends on the perspective with which the research question is being pursued. Typically: Null Hypothesis denotes, “There is No Change” or Result After is same as Result Before a modification / change ( any difference is by chance) Alternative Hypothesis denotes, “There is A Change” or Result After is different from Result Before a modification / change. It is research question to be answered. (While formulating the Alternative hypothesis care should be taken to
  15. DMAIC 8D Type of Tool Continuous Improvement Tool Problem Solving tool Description It is reactive and proactive in nature and is used not only on current, known problems, but identifying and controlling all sources of variation that are of significance to product/service cost and quality. It is a reactive approach, that is used to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring p
  16. In any organization, processes are generally designed for the long term, but most of the times only short-term process data is available. Also, short-term data mostly contains only common cause variation, while long -term may contain both common cause variation and special cause variations. Data collection for long term Sigma level calculation would be very difficult as it would need to be collected from several lots, many shifts, many machines and operators and so on. A reliable estimation of the long-term performance of the process can be made, by estimating the variability t
  17. In a data set, an outlier is a piece of data which falls far outside the typically expected variation. It has a marked deviation from other values in the data set. Outliers are an integral and critical part of the data set and they need to be identified and investigated carefully. They can be ignored/removed if and only if it is known or can be concluded with 100% certainty that it was result of error in experiment, documentation and so on. Wrongly removing outliers may result in underestimated variance of the data set. Need to identify an outlier 1. If
  18. The "maturity" of a process is an indication of the extent to which the specific process is explicitly defined, managed, measured, controlled and predictable. It indicates the level to which the process is accepted by the organisation and is documented, understood, followed and is effective. In my opinion, the assessment of the maturity level of a process is critical. It may not be a good idea to invest time, resources and energy into Improvement initiatives on inconsistent processes in an organisation. The efficiency or performance issues of the process might be just due to its in
  19. To identify impactful continuous process improvement activities , the team should listen to four “voices”. These are: Voice of Business (VOB) It denotes the needs, wants, expectations and preferences of the business itself ( or the shareholders, owners, investors of the business) It is obtained from analysis of Financial, competitive and market data. It helps to identify and prioritize future projects and services for revenue growth area, economic value added and market value in line with the strategic goals and objectives of the business. Example KPIs / Metrics
  20. Firstly, I would appreciate their interest in implementing concepts of Lean to eliminate wastes, but I would start with giving them a word of caution that implementing lean is not a onetime exercise but it needs to become a part of the organizational work culture. The management needs to stay committed and be ready to invest time and resources to small continuous improvement activities to see significant returns over time. Without constant monitoring and proper practice, "wastes" will figure out a way to slowly creep back into the process. If a “waste” in the process is
  21. A data distribution tends to have a central or most typical value. This concentration of value around a central location is called central tendency and is commonly defined as: Mean (Interval and Ratio Level Data) Median (Ordinal Level Data) and Mode (Nominal Level data) A variation or spread is a measure of how much the data points in the data set are close to or away from the identified central tendency. In most applications, it is desired that to have minimum variation or data points close to the central tendency. But in some applications a variation (spread
  22. Discrete data type would be preferred over Continuous data type in processes where counting, classification, ranking, categorising may be required,instead of just using the raw process data values. A few examples where, I believe, discrete is the preferred data type although continuous data is available are: 1. Calculating Number of defects or DPMO. Discrete data makes sense when we are talking about the number of defects, or the number of defects per million opportunities (DPMO). We might have continuous data showing dimensions of a product, but it might be just
  23. “Tribal” knowledge is important information/knowledge (that could be related to process, service, repair, troubleshooting, diagnostic procedures, sales, competition, customers, costs and so on) that is known to only certain individuals or groups of individuals within a company, but it is undocumented and is not common knowledge to everyone. It is lost when the people having the knowledge leave the organization and move on. Sometimes knowledge is so deeply ingrained, that it becomes part of the way things are done and it becomes an unconscious competence. This kind of knowledge /ski
  24. Rational Subgrouping is a process of grouping items that were produced under the same set of conditions to measure the variation between the subgroups and within Subgroups. It is a “snapshot” of the process over a very small-time window i.e. samples taken in a time-ordered sequence. The variation measured within a Subgroup is Common Cause variation. The variation measured between Subgroups is Special cause variation. A Rational Subgroup helps an excellence practitioner to differentiate between common cause and special cause variations in a control chart and make correcti
  25. Some of the qualities that I could think of, a Project Sponsor should possess in order to ensure that a Business excellence culture thrives in the organization: 1. Change-leadership skills. They should be open to accepting and drive change and relentlessly challenge the status -quo. 2. Decision making capabilities. They should have the ability to make decisions. Once the data, analysis and recommendations are ready, they need to make the decision and steer the team in the correct direction. Sometimes depending on the social political and economic factors wi
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