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# mohanpb0

Excellence Ambassador

60

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1. ## Weighted Pareto

Apart from “Cost”, there could be other measures like “Amount of Rework involved”. This would depend on not just the type of error but also the point of time in the process life-cycle, when the error is discovered. Cost could depend on the amount of rework involved. Cost can also involve fines or penalties. Further, there could be other factors like, “Show-stopper” or “Non-show-stopper”, with the obvious meaning that a “Show Stopper” error brings the entire process to a grinding halt and hence will warrant higher weight. But the problem with this and other error criticality-based w
2. ## Measure of Dispersion

Standard Deviation indeed has a completeness when measuring dispersion in that every data point in the set is used in the calculation. Would this feature not definitely make it a generally better measure than others like Range, which touches only the two extremities of the data distribution and the Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) which touches just two other points in the distribution? Standard Deviation is a measure that indicates the spread of data from the mean, It is a measure that uses every value in the data set. Range, on the other hand, is the difference between highest and lowest value in
3. ## Risk Priority Number (RPN)

This is a very difficult one to answer for me as I have always been a follower of the concept of quantifying all measures and criteria including Risk and its priority. To me, it is as difficult as trying prove that the sun rises in the west. It is very easy to criticise any measure as being academic including the Risk Priority Number. The RPN by definition has already captured the most relevant features of risk in terms of whether it would materialise at all (Likelihood), if mateialised, whether it would matter at all (Impact) and if it is possible to have an advance warning (Detec
4. ## Launching Lean Six Sigma Effectively

In such a "Catch 22" situation, the POC (Proof of Concept) needs to be scoped judiciously. A Function or a business Line with reduced dependencies (as nil is not possible) on others will need to be identified and a problem which when solved would deliver quantum, breakthrough improvements for that Function needs to be identified. It needs to be clearly projected that the "Top Management" is behind the POC, which is true. The Function selected for the POC and their personnel need to be made to feel special and lucky on being selected for the POC.
5. ## DPMO vs PPM

The difference between PPM and DPMO is that a whole product (part) is the opportunity in PPM, while in some sectors like ITeS, a unit (product) of delivery may contain many opportunities. Situations, where one of the above is a better measure partly depends on defining "better for whom", for the buyer or for the seller. Generally, the broader the definition of opportunity, tougher is the target. For the buyer, a tougher target always goes some way to assure a higher product quality, while for the seller, an easier target means lesser costs and higher profits.
6. ## Measuring Customer Satisfaction for Classroom Training

As the real benefit of a Classroom Training Session is the fulfillment of the trainee's objectives, a C-SAT survey conducted after an appropriate lead time for the benefits of training to kick in would be the best choice. For example, for a Green Belt Training, a survey conducted after 3 to 6 months which is roughly the time required for initiating and completing a Green Belt Project may be the most authentic Measure of Satisfaction. However, as a relatively quicker measure, the satisfied (Or otherwise) trainee is very likely to keep talking about this at work, at home, on social m
7. ## Measures of Customer Satisfaction for after sale service

There is something very different about after-sale service in that, if the sale had been good in terms of both the product and information, there would not have been a need for the customer to come to the outlet again and create a need for an after-sale service in the first place. Thus as there has been some source of dissatisfaction due to which the customer has approached the after-sale service point, measuring KPI No. 2, C-SAT may not be the best option and so this would be a natural fifth choice. By the same logic, even expecting references from a customer forced to
8. ## Complaint Handling - ecommerce

Sr. No. Complaint Handling Aspect Best Practices already followed What more could be done? 1 Simple method Ease of making a complaint Crisp and helpful notes to assist the customer Making the customer not feel guilty about complaining An app downloadable on mobile using which complaints could be made directly 2
9. ## Poka Yoke

Would like to stick to one example of a form required to be filled online following elaborate business rules. The complexity necessitated a check of atleast the critical, sensitive fields, which if mis-filled, could cause fatal errors. Very soon, the usual pressure of targets over-ruled "old-fashioned" quality intents and staff started submitting forms without even a cursory glance at what they had hurriedly keyed in. The Quality team dutifully created a hard copy checklist to be filled in for every form which was supposed to make the Inputter check the entry before checking the re
10. ## Normal Distribution

That the “Normal” in “Normal Distribution” or “Normal Data” means “Natural” rather than the other dictionary meanings like, “Ordinary” or “Typical” or “Regular” or “Usual” or “Standard” would become clearer if the origin of the so called “Normal” distribution is traced. Somewhere in the 18th century C.E. a group of mathematicians and scientists in France were trying for a long time to make sense of a peculiar data distribution they had come across. They realized that one value was occurring most often and also that the other values lesser than and higher than this most frequently o
11. ## Hiring a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Professional

YES “Captaincy is 90% luck and 10% skill. But don't try it without that 10% - Richie Benaud, former Australian Test All-rounder, Cricket Commentator and Author Ambassador Argument Submission Priyer It is necessary to have Lean Six Sigma skills and awareness about it, but executing a DMAIC or DMADV is not necessary. The person can also come from a Lean background and apply his experience derived by following the other methodology cycle followed for Lean projects (12 week cycl
12. ## Project needed but not allowed

Organizations with a full-fledged LSS program can budget part of its projects to be executed jointly by both its own staff and freelancers who may not have such opportunities within their own organization. Their roles will be restricted to Data Analysis and relatively off-line work as the Information Security of these organizations will need to be respected. Another option would be to use a tool to simulate a project and solve it in the tool itself. Another possibility could be solving small issues outside work E.g. reaching the place of work on time every day without a
13. ## Efficient, Effective

"Efficiency" measures the use of inputs for realizing maximum output, a waste process can also be performed efficiently. But nothing is more inefficient than doing efficiently, that which should not be done at all. Effectiveness also brings into focus, the purpose or objective of the process, ensuring that it should be fruitful in the larger scheme of things. The best example of a process that could be efficient without being effective is the “Corrections” or “Repair” processes. The process may be efficiently using resources, but will be effective only if the intelligence it generates leads to
14. ## ARMI / RACI

The RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed) is slightly older and can be traced back to the Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) introduced in the early 1970s. A variation, RASCI or RASIC (Responsible, Accountable, Support, Consulted, Informed) is also used in certain organizations. Both RACI and RASCI are popular as a role documentation tool. The ARMI (Approver, Resource Person, Member, Interested Party) is more Six Sigma in origin. It serves as a tool to list and categorize stake holders in a Six Sigma Improvement Project. Have been using only ARMI in S
15. ## Specification Limits

It is indeed a challenge to visualise even the characteristics of a totally new product, let alone decide their specifications. But following are some of the options available for making the best of an inherently difficult situation. 1. Benchmark on split characteristics The product as a whole is not available in the market as this organization is the pioneer of this. But various features or characteristics of this new product could be available singly or in combinations in various other products already in the market. The specifications for these characteristics could be u
16. ## Rolled Throughput Yield

Based on the calculated Rolled Throughput Yield of 100%, the process cannot be inefficient. But there could be assumptions that are made in this calculation which may reveal the inefficiencies in the process. These assumptions may result in some convenient omissions, which end up boosting the Rolled Throughput Yield to 100%. Sometimes, these assumptions also lower the perceived design efficiency. Some of these assumptions are: 1. Related to available time The equipment or plant is available for operation 24 X 7 = 168 hours in a week, but the Management chooses or there is business
17. ## Hawthorne Effect

Any Industrial Engineer who has attempted to conduct Time and Motion Studies in a factory would have experienced first-hand, the reverse Hawthorne effect of workers trying hard to make work stretch to fill available time, intending to get a smaller quota of daily work. While on the floor, the practice of Rating during Time Study can to some extent help the observer to arrive close to the correct time standard, this alone may not be sufficient to completely nullify the reverse Hawthorne effect. In certain other situations, the fear of being branded as slow, uncooperative or having w
18. ## CV, Coefficient of variation

The Coefficient of Variation (CV) that is also known as the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) is the ratio of the Standard Deviation of a Dataset to its Mean, popularly expressed as a percentage. The CV is a useful metric to compare variations of two datasets with different means. This metric has the advantage of all ratio coefficients in that it acts as a “common denominator” when comparing diverse data sets. Some of the relevant features of the CV are that it is independent of the order of values in the dataset and that it is relevant with only positive values of the
19. ## FMEA

In my humble opinion, there are no distinct advantages or disadvantages of any tool or for that matter anything. Each tool has its unique features, which under some conditions act as advantages and under other conditions act as disadvantages. So is the case with Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) also. The best way to identify the limitations and the conditions under which these limitations are experienced is to do an FMEA on FMEA, the results of which is depicted below. Sr. No. Limitation Counter-measures
20. ## Lead Time, Cycle Time

Lead Time and Cycle Time are as different as chalk and cheese, which is illustrated below. Cycle Time is the total time elapsed from when raw material enters the production process until the finished product is ready for shipment to the customer. Lead Time is the total time elapsed from when a customer expresses a need to when that need is satisfied. Lead time is also the time quoted to customers (more usually in days or weeks rather than in hours or minutes) between the order date and the shipment date. It is actually the total time a customer must wait to receive a pr
21. ## Zero Defects

The journey towards workforce involvement, improvement and goal setting can be successfully completed by the following strategy. 1. IPL – Idea Premier League a. A different kind of IPL, the Idea Premier League with its Management Committee, sub-committees, budgets, infra structure etc. is constituted. b. This IPL Management Committee has been equipped with adequate authority to take and implement process related decisions and is sufficiently staffed for process awareness and authority to change processes. 2. Communication and Socialization of the IPL
22. ## Ishikawa Diagram, Fishbone Diagram, Why-Why Analysis

The effectiveness of any tool is dependent on the user and method use. So is the case with the “Fishbone Diagram (FBD)” or “Cause and Effect Diagram (CED)”. No tool can achieve anything not intended by the user of the tool. A tool can only provide different perspectives to the user to take a decision. It is very much possible for the user to junk the information the tool provides and go by his or her feeling. The “Fishbone Diagram” or “Cause and Effect Diagram” is no exception. Misuse of a tool can also include erroneous use, which could be either a genuine error or an
23. ## Segmentation

Segmentation could be called as the process of dividing the population into distinct subsets or segments that behave in the same way or have similar features. As each segment is homogeneous, they are likely to respond similarly, within. For effective segmentation, segments need to be measurable (The very purpose is to measure effects within a segment and between segments), identifiable (This is mandatory if all data is to be correctly segmented), accessible (The efforts at segmenting should not become more than the benefits obtained by solving the problem), actionable (The segments arrived at
24. ## Quality Costs

Need to strike an equilibrium between these costs There is definitely a need to strike a balance between Prevention & Appraisal Costs on one side and Internal Failure & External Failure Costs on the other. Any investments in an organization need to be justified, preferable in a tangible manner. The best way to justify investments on Prevention & Appraisal Costs would be to assess the Internal and External Failure Costs avoided by the investment. Approach to reach the best scenario Data collection, consolidation, Analysis and Actionable insights
25. ## Type I Error, Type II Error

An old proverb goes, “One man’s candy is another man’s poison”. This is true in the case of Hypothesis testing also. The following situations could be examples for a Type 1 error in one situation being a Type 2 error in another situation, which includes Conditions, Environment, Organization, Point of Time etc. Improved Technology In a factory, a process is presently being run using Technology A. The organization is upgrading this process to Technology B. By this, all products that were produced through Technology A would be produced through Technology B. This progress is being
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