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Shrinivas Vampathi

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About Shrinivas Vampathi

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  • Name
    Srinivasa Vampathi
  • Company
    Lufthansa
  • Designation
    Head Of Material Management
  1. CRM: CRM in general means same, rather should mean the same. Yet it means different to different professionals in different industries. This is mainly due to the expectations from different industries that varies. But obviously it is acceptable. CRM typically also connects to the behavior of a person or CRM towards its customer/s. Since the people behavior, be it customer or CRM matters as it is not constant & ever changing, it also matters to differentiate the perspective of understanding the CRM as such. The important point to be noted in this role of CRM is "Relation" & also "Customer" If we just go a bit deep, then the words Customer & also Relation mean very big. & when we connect these two great words/terms, it creates an essence that this could be more on a intangible level. & hence it also creates an essence to customize with respect to industry or any other factor for this matter. This is similar to the word LOVE. Love in general should mean same but Love towards Mother, Love towards Children (OWN) Lover towards Children ( OTHERS) Love our country Love towards wife or girlfriend or any friend all those expression differs. CRM is a same principle with varying expressions in correlation to the behavior & other factors
  2. Lead Time & Cycle Time:- Lead time is the time taken or required for a complete process from the beginning to the end. Where as Cycle time is the time taken or required for a specific process with in the entire process. For example:- Consider a process of delivering a product online; What is the time that a customer has to wait The lead time in this case typically would include 1. Receiving the request from customer 2. Processing the request after verification 3. arranging the shipment 4. Delivery person picks up the product 5. Delivery person carries the product 6. Delivery person handovers the product The above are in general ( and not in detail) In the above The Lead time is the total time taken for all the steps Cycle time is the time taken for any specific step, say transportation time of 2 days from Delhi to BLR. Now where is the confusion. In the above case it could be confused that the lead time for transportation is 2 days. Actually it is right to be considered it as Lead time as we are talking about Lead time of transportation. This could be better called Transportation Lead time & not Transportation Cycle time. But when you talk about the entire process, then we can also say the cycle time of 2 days for transportation in the process. To make it simple, if you consider the process as a whole or entire, then the sub process time could be called as cycle time. As each process is considered as a cycle & many cycles forms a total process.
  3. Zero Defects: Considering the long running process with high workforce involvement. It is desirable that productivity and quality be improved but let us assume that automation is out of question. In that case, my view towards workforce involvement, improvement and goal setting would be with option 'E' E. Workforce if engaged in improvement initiatives, can do wonders. While slogans and rigid targets should be avoided, improvements in quality and productivity should still be expected from workforce. Even after the above is said, it is still needs to be correlated with what type of process that the workforce is involved in. Nothing is impossible in life. Zero defects also not impossible,but it could be very difficult to achieve. Achieving Zero defects even from a process with fully automated is also difficult. But lets assume, Zero defects is not actually Zero but consider our Six Sigma performance level. It is true that where workforce involved, if workers engaged in a fullest manner, it is not difficult. But what matters is how to make them engaged or how to keep them engaged. No tools will help them keep motivated to the fullest, but still there could be something that makes them engaged to the fullest. According to me, it is most important factor to be discussed or considered. Certain things such as Trust, Empowerment, Transparency, Right recognition if given, could help the workers be made fully involved. Finally when we talk about the workforce involvement, it is creating right intentions matters. The sense of ownership is also matters a lot. It could be the right combination of various attributes. Another important that I would like to emphasis is that the emotional content cannot be neglected. Human emotion is the most important thing that every organization needs to be considered. Be it a fully automated or absolutely not automated process. It is not easy to monitor or even to help the emotional part, but still it is important that we keep trying. Yes, if workforce engagement is there, we can still keep our expectation provided other factors mentioned above be considered.
  4. Fishbone Diagram:- Fishbone diagram is used as a tool for finding the root causes of an issue or effect. In this diagram 5 Ms are used as segmentation to identify the root causes under each segment. How can this diagram could be misused ?! It is quite possible that this diagram could be misused in many ways. Few of the possibilities according to me are below. . 1. Suppose while identifying the root causes under each segment, it is quite possible that we usually start from 1 M & just keep going to record all the issues under just one M ( First M). Meaning by the time we move to any 2nd M, we will end up in the situation where we have no further root causes left to record under 2nd M or remaining Ms. 2. Now in order to ensure that we cover all the Ms, we may decide to record say 5 each per M. This is one way of misusing the diagram where we end up recording a minimum count of root causes. In such cases, we may miss out the actual root cause. 3. It is quite possible to misuse the diagram by repeating the the same root causes under each of the 5 Ms, or more than 2 Ms. In such case we may miss out the actual focus required on the cause with respect to the segment. 4. We could also misuse this diagram by using it where it is not feasible to use. Say for example, in certain businesses, the 5Ms are not existing fully or 1 or 2 or 3 Ms are not actually exists. In some service industries, the so called Machines are not at all used, hence using Machine as one of the Ms may lead to in appropriateness of the analysis. The above are few I feel could be some possibilities where the diagram could be miss used.
  5. Quality Costs: Skipping directly to the question on whether incurring on Prevention + Appraisal costs to save on other 2 costs ? My answer would be yes, Incurring on P + A costs would be proactive. An organization can spend on system & subjects as a part of P + A costs, this would still be a kind of assets rather than incurring costs on Internal & External failure costs. Failure costs would be more critical in terms of cost as these cost would usually be very high. Sometimes too high. Is there an need to reach equilibrium on P + A costs & failure costs ? I don’t think we should try for this. Because the failure is connected to customer & Market. It will be of more risk to even go to that stage. My approach would be to invest on prevention & Appraisal costs. There could be still some chances that the failure would happen & we need to incur costs, but by extremely taking care of Prevention & Appraisal parameters, the risks could be minimized.
  6. Type 1 & Type 2 error: Type 1 error is one that happens when we reject a true null hypothesis Type 2 error happens when we fail to reject a false null hypothesis. Now what is true null Hypothesis: A true null Hypothesis is the one which hypothesize the true nature/facts of an issue or a thing.. For example:- Decision to go out based on whether it rains outside or not. We want to go outside: this is our requirement, but the decision will be based on Hypothesis testing. Risk that can be taken say is 5%, meaning if the chances that it rains up to 5%, then we shift to Alternate hypothesis, meaning we go outside. If the chance is more than 5%, we remain inside, meaning we remain in Null. From the above example:- if we have to say that the error:- Actual status -- The chances of raining is more than 5%: Type 1 error : The chances of raining is more than 5%: But we go out. Actual Status – The chances of raining is not more than 5%: But we assume it will be more & remain inside, this is false null Hypothesis. Type 2 error: The chances of raining is not more than 5%, but we don’t go outside. Meaning we missed to meet our requirement : Type 2 error, we could not reject the false null Hypothesis. Can Type 1 error be considered as Type 2 error in a different situation ? Could be considered but I feel if the requirement changes. in above case, if we want to go outside for a rain dance, meaning we can only go if it rains. In that case the errors could be considered vice versa. Basically it all depends on what we require. the perspective will only change based on the requirement. For example:- we accept the lot if the length of the fabric is not less than 45 cms. : We do not accept the lot if the length of the fabric is less than 45 cms Different situation leads to different requirement. hence said.
  7. 8D Problem Solving Methodology or system is also another kind of a system that helps solving problems. DMAIC is a very good system maybe with some more additions or refinement required,. I believe the 8D is also already incorporated in DMAIC. Hence I feel it is also good enough that we use DMAIC itself. Now since this comparison question has come up, .... 8D is also a detailed problem solving system, it uses several techniques such as 5 Whys, Fault tree, fish bone, etc.. DMAIC also uses the above techniques. But DMAIC does it with a more systematic manner by using D M A I C flow. DMAIC definitely needs more refinement by incorporating more elements but still, it is wonderful methodology to find right solutions to problems.
  8. Control Limits: For defects data obviously the UCL makes a lot of sense. I feel the importance of LCL in C or U chart is mainly to see the anticipated defects / non confirmaties that could occur going forward. This will help us to see or identify the assignable cause for defects. In C chart the LCL is set for one defect. LCL could be set Zero also.But there are some instances where LCL is relavent to be kept & in some situations not.
  9. Sigma Level: The literal meaning of the term itself means a lot. It is the determination of the level of deviation/s in the process measured statistically. This is accompanied with suitability of interpretation with deviations per million. Since it is accompanied with the suitability with a million outputs, the requirement for short & long term arises. Because 1 million out puts or more than 1 million needs a considerable amount of time. sometimes months or years or decades or even more. Also it is not common that the outputs of a million or more than a million happens in a short period of time, meaning it takes a considerable amount of time as well, and hence the deviations or differences in the product/service values are likely to occur & could be crucial for the overall interpretation. Hence the Shift of 1.5 Sigma might have agreed after a several detailed & regular analysis & after incorporating a lot of experience. Even though both can be measured separately , it is more appropriate to practically consider that the shift is common & likely in all the process where a longer time period is required to get a million of outputs. In case of a manufacturing setup or production setup, a lot of parameters leads to the shift of the value of the MEAN itself. This could be for various reasons. 1. Wear & tear of the tools & equipment 2. Fatigue of workers 3. Seasons or seasonolity 4. Varying temperature 5. Variations in the raw material specifications & other input parameters 6. The absolute gravitational forces & natural forces themselves 7. Time itself - Time is a bigger factor that leads to all the changes 8. Social & emotional factors 9. Many more.. Hence all these factors are very likely, the consideration of the SHIFT is crucial. It is not necessary that it has to be only 1.5 Sigma. It can be any other value such as 1.0 Sigma, or 0.9 Sigma, or even 2.0 Sigma. In order to accurately choose, we need to go in detail of what & why the shifts could be there.
  10. Outlier: An outlier is a value or an observation that lies abnormal to the usual set of data or lies far away from the normal set of data or values. It is important rather very necessary to identify the outlier in order to have a right acceptable or considerable conclusion from the data or values. Outlier can also be called exception. Exceptions as it is said are abnormal to the usual way & hence any conclusion drawn from the data or values containing exceptions or outliers shows unsuitability of the facts & interpretations. It is very important to identify the outliers to have a right interpretation of the facts or values towards considerably analysis of the facts or values. For example:- 300 Indians: 299 always attends the meeting on time , very punctual. whereas one individual always late by 10 min to all the meetings. Now we cannot conclude that all Indians are always not punctual just because one person always ends up late. The one who is always late could be an outlier. Blood pressure of 40 healthy people is checked & all the values falling between 80 to 110 except ones whose value falls between 200 to 240. Using scatter plot or Box plot, the outliers could be identified. If there are more than on outliers, I feel Pareto analysis and Histogram could also be helpful. Outliers if also considered for the factual analysis could lead to entirely wrong results.
  11. Seven Wastes of Lean: Waste is the one which doesn't add value to what customer pays. Elimination of wastes in the below said 7 categories is important for any organization. The 7 wastes consist of: Waiting Over Production Rejects Motion Processing Inventory Transport 1. Waiting Whenever goods are ideal, just waiting for the next step to happen, it is a waste. Much of a product’s lead time is tied up in waiting for the next operation; this is usually because material flow is poor, production runs are too long. The layout planning is not good. 2. Overproduction Overproduction is a waste actually to produce & keep before it is actually required. Overproduction is highly costly to a manufacturing plant. This creates excessive lead times, results in high storage costs, and makes it difficult to detect defects & makes it difficult to cope with demand changes. 3. Rejections or defects Rejections are utterly called real wastes. Reworking or even scraping are a tremendous cost to organizations. Associated costs include quarantining inventory, re-inspecting, rescheduling, and capacity loss. In many organizations the total cost of defects is often a very high percentage of total cost of manufacturing. Through employee involvement and Continuous Process Improvement (CPI), there is a huge opportunity to reduce defects at many facilities. 4. Motion ( Unnecessary Motion) This waste is related to ergonomics. Whenever a motion is useless or excess, it is a waste. It is seen in all physical movements such as bending, stretching, walking, lifting, and reaching. These are also health and safety issues. Jobs with excessive motion should be analyzed and redesigned for improvement with the involvement of plant personnel. 5. Processing (not appropriate Processing) High asset utilization rather than low-cost automation. Improper layouts leads to in appropriate processing. Use of inappropriate techniques, use of over sized machines all causes the over processing. Use of small and appropriate machines & equipment could avoid this waste. 6. Inventory Work in Progress is a direct result of overproduction and waiting. Excess inventory tends to hide problems on the plant floor, which must be identified and resolved in order to improve operating performance. Excess inventory increases lead times, increases costs, consumes productive floor space, delays the identification of problems, and inhibits communication. 7. Transporting Transport is the movement of materials from one location to another, this is a waste as it adds zero value to the product., resulting in another organizational cost that adds no customer value. Transportation can be difficult to reduce or avoid but by determining the right sequence of which processes should be next to each other. Additional Wastes: Waste of underutilized resources Waste of underutilized talents Waste of not using the knowledge & experience
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