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About RajeshGadgil

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    Rajesh Gadgil
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    DGM- After Sales

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  1. During the eighties when we went to a bank to withdraw money we had to fill up a Withdrawal Slip and wait in queue to deposit the slip on a counter and take a token. The withdrawal slip then went to an officer who checked the ledger for balance in the account. The slip then went to another officer who tallied the signature. The slip then reached the cashier who called the token no. to pay up - 4 handoffs Then came the "Teller" who took the withdrawal slip checked the balance and tallied the signature on his computer terminal and paid up. Today we just go to an ATM machine and withdraw cash with zero handoff.
  2. YES. We are hiring a professional in an improvement manager job role. He should not only have undergone classroom training or a certification but also have the requisite experience of successfully executing real life improvement projects. If he has just got training then probably he might be a novice with theoretical knowledge but no practical experience. The greatest skill needed by such a professional is stakeholder management. He needs to take people along because he is moving towards bringing about change and any change is bound to face resistance. Hence he should have people management skills coupled with his knowledge of Six Sigma, Lean etc. People management skills are inculcated through experience. Hence he/she should have executed a few DMAIC/ DMADV projects which would be a proof of his overall skills.
  3. If we meet our objective without really bothering about the amount of resources that we have put in then we can say that we have been effective. If we meet our objective while optimally utilising our resources then we will be said to be Efficient and Effective. For example, I am cutting an apple into six pieces of equal size. I can use a knife and cut into six pieces approximately of equal size. I have been effective but not efficient. If I take an apple cutter and cut the apple in one shot, then I am efficient and effective
  4. As Lean concept helps us to identify different forms of waste, we are also introduced to various Lean manufacturing techniques which guide us to eliminate or reduce waste and improve our profitability. The famous Toyota production system has introduced techniques like Kanban, Kaizen, 5S, JIT, Poka Yoke etc. in order to help us not only identifying waste but also eliminate waste. We will need to employ one or multiple of these techniques within the organisation to eliminate or reduce waste.
  5. Tribal Knowledge refers to the knowledge that is held individually by people within the company. It is knowledge gained by the employees during the course of their work which is within the minds of a few experienced employees and is not documented anywhere. Such knowledge can be useful or sometimes might be detrimental to the company, Since the knowledge is held within the minds of people, there is great risk of losing vital knowledge once such employees leave the company. It is considered detrimental to the long term sustainable growth of the company. Primary reasons for employees keeping the gained knowledge to themselves can be: 1. Sense of insecurity - fear of losing losing their job if others also know what they know 2. Ego/ pride of Employees - who feel that they will gain importance if they have more knowledge 3. Corporate apathy - Companies not interested in institutionalizing knowledge of their people Few of methods to capture tribal knowledge: 1. Identify the knowlegde 2. Identify the people who are good or are holding such tribal knowledge. Such people would be mostly the people who have been with the organisation for a long time. 3. Develop training programmes - Appoint such knowledge champions as trainers for new employees. There can be even cross departmental training programs. This will force knowledge champions to make presentations to train others. This will result in documenting the tribal knowledge which can be transferred across generations Tribal knowledge is like the knowledge acquired by our Dada's and Dadi's from their Dada's and Dadi's and it is held in their minds and not documented. Some of it can be baseless and not useful. However. some of it can be very useful. Like we learn from our Dada and Dadi by listening to them through stories, organisations should develop an ecosystem wherein the young employees interact and engage freely with the senior employees to transfer such tribal knowledge.
  6. Following is a list of few qualities for a Business Excellence Sponsor: 1. He should be good at setting clear, specific and measurable goals which will help to establish accountability for a high performance team 2. Build high levels of trust within team members and stakeholders 3. Enable frank, honest and open communication between all team members 4. Good change management and conflict management abilities 5. Should not be shy of taking risks 6. Should nurture and encourage innovation 7. Should ensure fair reward and recognition and not tolerate mediocrity 8. Should be humane in his approach to understand issues 9. Ethical in his approach 10. Most Important - Should Walk the Talk
  7. During these times of intense competition, corporations world over are trying to woo customers with continuous innovations in their products and services. At the same time working towards continuous improvements in their processes for driving down costs is an equally important priority to improve the bottom lines since clients always want more and more at less and less price. Lean and Six Sigma both are adopted by organisations to drive continuous improvement in their processes and drive down costs. Lean concepts help us to eliminate waste (muda) relying on qualitative techniques like 5S, Kaizen, Kanban etc. Six Sigma is adopted with a goal of reducing variance in processes and relies on quantitative and statistical techniques to understand the central tendencies, ascertain dispersions in data sets, check for specific patterns of data distributions etc. Analysis of Variance, Correlation and regressions analysis is then done to establish whether a hypothesis is true or false. Six Sigma uses statistical techniques for problem solving which is essentially descriptive analysis to understand what has happened or what is happening with a primary objective of process improvement. Business Analytics is the use of statistical techniques for Predictive and Prescriptive analysis gathering customer and competition data at different echelons of business to predict customer behaviour in different situations at different times and for different product or service offerings. Results of good predictive analysis help the business to take appropriate decisions. Business Analytics is therefore a domain which attempts to predict customer behaviour and help companies to take actions to positively influence customer behaviour to help improve top line. Lean Six Sigma is therefore a methodology having a primary objective of improving bottom line through descriptive analysis which is mastered by Six Sigma experts. On the other hand Business Analytics is a methodology having a primary objective to improve top line through predictive and prescriptive analysis. Although the statistical techniques would largely remain the same, it is the change in mindset that would help six sigma experts to become excellent at Business Analytics.
  8. Kano Model is a tool used to assess or estimate the customer satisfaction levels while designing a product or services. It was developed by Dr Noriaki Kano wherein he categorised the customer requirements into five different categories. If the designers too care of these customers requirements while they decided on the features of their products or services then it would result in different levels of satisfaction of the users. 1. Must Be features (Threshold attributes) - These are the features or the attributes of a product or services which are expected by the customer or taken for granted. They would generally not be specified. These are implicit or unstated requirements of the customers. Presence of these features do not result in satisfaction of clients. However, absence of such features sure shot results in dissatisfaction. Example of such features would be decent mileage for a car, decent sound quality of the mobile phone, decent colour resolution a TV etc. These are basic needs. 2. Stated Requirements (Performance or One Dimensional Attributes) - These are normal features that expected by the clients and are spoken about. The clients knows that he wants these features in the product or the service. The presence of these features can satisfy a client and absence would dis-satisfy a client. For example having AC in a car, having free wi-fi in a hotel, having at least 12 hours of battery life for a smart phone etc. 3. Delighters (Excitement Attributes) - These are the features which the client does not normally expect. However, presence of these features results in exponentially increasing the satisfaction levels of a client which is Delighting the client. These are also unstated needs. The client does not know about such needs. However, when he gets it he is very happy. Examples of such needs can be free upgrade to business class while travelling, free subscriptions to certain apps like Netflix etc. 4. Indifferent Attributes - Presence or Absence of these attributes doesn't matter to the clients. It does not either make them happy or sad or result in their satisfaction of dis-satisfaction. Clients are generally neutral about such features. A normal car might have a top speed of 160 kms per hours. However for a city driver it does not matter because he would never drive at 160 kms per hour on busy city roads. 5. Reverse Quality Attributes - Presence of such features results in dis-satisfaction of clients and absence results in satisfaction. It goes to say that all clients are not same. For example if a very high tech smart phone is given to client base of older generation then they might not be able to use it properly which might result in their dis-satisfaction. At times a pop up keeps appearing frequently giving frequent alarms which might irritate the users. Kano model helps us to categorise VOC suitably and helps us to prioritise design efforts and investments based on the requirements of the target clients base. Most important aspect to be realised is that the client expectation of the different attributes is not constant and keeps changing with time. The Satisfiers become dis-satisfiers and deighters become satisfiers over time. Twenty years ago haivng an AC in car was a delighter. Today it is a dis-satisfier. It is a taken for granted feature. A driverless car would probably a delighter in days to come and a dis-satisfer in years to come.
  9. Suppose we are conducting an experiment where we measure the weight of 100 random males and 100 random females. We find that for our sample the mean (average) weight of males is 70 kgs with a standard deviation (SD) of 20 kgs, For females we find that the mean weight is 60 kgs with a SD of 20 kgs. In our sample we find that males weigh more than females (70 kgs vs. 60 kgs), but can we extrapolate these results from our sample to the entire population (all males and all females in the world) and conclude that males weigh more than females on average? Statistical significance answers this question by telling us how likely (probability) it is that an alternate hypothesis (males DON'T weigh more than females) is true for the population. In our example its turns out that this probability (p-value) is 0.0005, which means it is extremely likely (99.9995% confidence) that our original hypothesis (males DO weigh more than females) is true. So we can say our results are 'statistically significant'. Generally it is accepted that if p-value is less than 0.05 our result is statistically significant, and we can say with 95% confidence that our result will hold true for the population. Although this choice of 0.05 cutoff is completely subjective and arbitrary, we can define our own statistical significance based on how much confidence we want to have in your experiment. If on the other hand we got the same means and SDs after conducting this same experiment but this time on a sample of 10 males and 10 females, the p-value would be 0.28, and now we would only have 72% confidence that our hypothesis will hold true for the population, so our result is 'statistically insignificant'.
  10. A process is said to be stable when the variations are always within Upper and Lower Control limits whereas a process is said to be capable when the outputs of the process meet the specifications or the customer requirements. In a Stable process, the Special cause variations would be absent. Only Common cause variations would be affecting the process. In such we may not be sure whether the process is throwing up desired outputs which can meet the client requirements. Therefore we cannot be sure whether it is a capable process. In case the process is capable and not stable, meaning that it may be producing results which do meet desired specifications, however instability of the process may at times throw up results which do not meet the specifications. Hence Stability of a process is extremely important before we can certify a process to be capable process. For example, a train is required to take about 60 mins to run from Station A to Station B as per the railway timetable. So 60 mins is the specified time. However, due to some reason or the other if the train consistently reaches its destination within 90 mins +_ 5 mins then the process would be stable but not capable since it does reach within the specified time of 60 mins and therefore does not meet customer requirement. Now consider another scenario wherein the train reaches it destination at times within 60 mins however, many times it would reach in 60 +- 15 mins. In such condition the process may be capable but not stable. It still does not meet customer requirement consistently. Hence process stability is a pre-requisite to process capability.
  11. Voice of Customer is a key starting point for a six sigma project in the journey towards business excellence. It is aimed at understanding the explicit and implicit requirements of the internal or external customers. These are then translated into Critical to Quality requirements. Listening to the voice of customer helps us in: 1. Configuring the features in our products to meet customer requirements 2. Improve the efficiency in operations by doing away with unwanted features 3. Improve customer experience 4. Get ideas to improve our products or services
  12. Process map is a graphical representation of processes followed in any organisation. Process maps help us to: 1. Gain insight into the processes 2. Understand if there are any bottlenecks or repetitions 3. Brainstorm to check if there are any delays or NVA processes 4. Improve efficiency Different representation like SIPOC, Swimlanes, Value Stream maps have their own advantages and are used accordingly. SIPOC for example is used for high level process mapping during the define stage of the a six sigma project. Swimlanes diagrams are used when we need to break down the sub processes and check who on an individual or a functional level responsible for the process task. Value stream maps help us to understand and differentiate between the Va and NVA process tasks. Use and application of the process maps needs to done according to our requirements.
  13. Correction - It is an action wherein a nonconformity in a process or defect in a product or service is simply corrected. It is an immediate action to reduce the impact of the defect or nonconformity. For example if there is fire then we pour water on it or use the fire extinguisher to put off the fire. In case there is mistake in the invoice sent to the client, we simply strike off and correct the mistake. In case the screen of a TV delivered to the client is broken during delivery due to faulty packaging, the customer is unhappy and we simply replace the TV or the broken screen. Corrective action - It is an action taken to analyse the cause which has resulted in occurrence of the nonconformity and ensure that the non conformity or the defect does not recur. Often a root cause analysis is done to understand the cause of defect and improvement actions put in place to avoid recurrence of the defect. For example, in case of fire, the root cause of why fire happened is analysed; whether there was any inflammable material around, what was the source of spark etc. Corrective action can be taken to ensure the inflammable material is removed, source of spark is eliminated etc. In case of a broken TV, packaging, transportation system, handling is improved so that the screen does not break in transit again. Preventive action - These are steps taken to ensure avoidance of potential defect or potential nonconformity. These are more of proactive actions to ensure any kind of undesirable situation is avoided. For example, all actions which can lead to fire will be well thought off and people will be guided to avoid any fire. Like putting No Smoking sign boards, having confined areas for storing inflammable material, training the relevant staff etc. In case of delivering TV, preventive action will ensure against not only screen breaking but to protect from any kind of defect occurrence. Making procedures and systems for corrective and preventive actions has certain cost implications associated with it. In situations where the nonconformity or a defect is a one off incident or is a low risk wherein the cost of correction would be insignificant as compared to the cost of corrective or preventive actions, we can prefer to go in for correction rather than corrective or preventive actions.
  14. A checksheet is a standardised, structured document used to capture data in real time at the location where it is generated. It is typically a form which is given to people nominated to collect data so that data can be captured uniformly without any ambiguity so that it can be used for analysis at a later date. Concept of check sheet was suggested by Dr. Kauru Ishikawa. It is different from a Check list. Therefore checklist and checksheet should not be confused. Data is generally captured in the form of markings done on a blank sheet. For example: While designing a checksheet we need to be first understand what data needs to be collected and at what stage does it need to be collected. Secondly it should be easy to use and thirdly the data collected should make it easy for analysis. Coming to the real question whether checksheet would remain relevant in this era where automation is creeping-in in every walk of our life, there is no wonder that data collection is also automated. Eliminating human intervention in data collection definitely helps to improve the authenticity and the overall quality of data. Therefore checksheets in physical form may become obsolete in this automation era. However, it is very important for everyone to understand the concept and therefore it should continue as a topic in quality education programs. I would like to emphasize here that it is not the concept that is obsolete and is still very much valid. Therefore the young population needs to be taught about it. Only the manner in which the concept is implemented in changing with time.
  15. W Edward Deming once said, Defect are not free. Someone makes them and get paid for making them. Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ), can simplistically said to the payment made to the people making the defect and then to people who correct the defect. COPQ can be divided into two major categories, Cost of corrective actions and Cost of preventive actions. Cost of Corrective action can be further categorised into Cost of correction for internal failures and Cost of correction for external failures. In addition their can be cost of reputation loss, customer dissatisfaction cost, legal penalties, etc. COPQ adds to the cost of producing goods or services and therefore needs to be managed to have a positive impact on the organisations long term objectives. Examples of Internal failure costs are as follows: Scrap, Rework Failure Analysis Inspection/ Testing of rework Degrading of product - which is then sold at lesser price External failure costs can be: Warranty costs Customer returns Customer complaint resolution Potential loss of customer Appraisal cost: Inspection and testing Tools and equipment used for Inspection and Testing Prevention costs: Process Cotrol Supplier Appraisal Training It is important to keep a tab on the cost of all the above activities. Ideally, prevention should be a fool proof so that Internal or external failures are not encountered. Even though tangible cost of internal and external failure can be taken care of, intangible harm to reputation could be much more.
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