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Meenakshi Balaji Iyer

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  1. Meenakshi Balaji Iyer's post in Shadow Board was marked as the answer   
    Elimination of waste in Lean implementation has a very effective technique of 5S as: 

    “A place for everything and everything in its place” if followed effectively would lead to immense elimination of waste. The time spent in searching the required material would lead to loss of time, energy, and wealth. It is important for us to have the most required material near users.
    Shadow board helps us set the things in order and it provides a dedicates space for each material. It helps get the required material timely and once the usage of the material is completed it should be returned to its location immediately such that It can be easily found in next instance. Since the Shadow board has place for everything, if any material is missing it could be easily identifiable and necessarily refilled  
    Shadow board usage would lead to
    1)    Reduction of wait time
    2)    Increase productivity and efficiency
    3)    Since the missing piece is identified easily it eliminates errors of using incorrect tool
    4)    Standardize, sustained mechanism of handling and maintaining materials
    5)    Reduce cost of loss and re-purchase of material due to frequent monitoring
    6)    Safe workplace as smallest tools which may be sharp are put back in their places avoiding injury
    7)    Clear and tidy workplace
    Shadow boards need to be set up considering following steps
    a)    Chose the area/board/panel
    b)    Arrange/Align the board basis the categorization/family/grouping of tools
    c)     Carve/draw/measure/create area for the tools in the board
    d)    Customize/color code / design the layout of the board, Visual display & document usage
    e)    Arrange the shadow board for usage
    Shadow boards are used in multiple functions/industries. Some examples are as follows:
    These have been proven very useful for the respective business and service lines, contributed minimizing the error/rework/incidents and improving the effectiveness, efficiency and profitability of the business
    The decision of alignment can be done using frequency of usage of tools as follows
    a)    Tools which are never used = Remove from the shadow board and workplace
    b)    Tools which are used rarely = Not to be a part of shadow board but put out of workplace
    c)     Tools which are used sporadically= Not to be on shadow board but put in workplace
    d)    Tools which are used frequently = Put on Shadow board – near the production/operation site
    e)    Tools which are used always = Put on shadow board – reachable distance
    Shadow boards are the very effective visual system to manage tools, parts, and consumables.
  2. Meenakshi Balaji Iyer's post in Timeboxing was marked as the answer   
    Time boxing is one of the principles followed in Agile way of working where a fixed timespan is allocated to perform a specific activity and integrate each time blocks in the entire schedule e.g 10 minutes allocated to any standup call or huddle. It is used in Agile project management activity
    Time boxing would eliminate the option of choice to have idle time, also limited time would end up having more focused attention. Scheduling the time in the daily planner (at activity level) or in the diary would help organize the available time appropriately such that all the events are taken care of and handled well.
    We should not overschedule the day, only timebox basis the available time
    How should we timebox…We should answer the following questions
    A)      Schedule the action
    1)What is the action
    2)How much time it will take
    3)Expected output and when it should be expected
    1)List of action
    2)How long you will take to do the action
           C)  Check output
     1)Is the action complete? If yes check the output, if no, specify reason why incomplete?
    2)Check the output is as desired?
    3)Note the learning from the exercise
    Timeboxing is predominantly used in Scrums during software development       
    Time boxing exercise can be effectively implemented using few instructions
    Control over time
    If during discussion completing the action is priority – the organizer of the meeting should allow completing the action-Soft time shift
    If during discussion the action can be stopped, and discussion can be moved to next important action-the organizer can opt for the shift – Hard time shift
    Time tracker
    Usage of time tracker like stopwatch or timer etc. to ensure timeboxed action would ensure clear communication timely
    Proper schedule of time per action or topic would help proper planning of the content to be completed timely. It also enables preparation and focus on relevant action
    End to end Min & Max time
    Announce the total available time for action/content to get completed timely. This would enable creative ways in which completion of action. Max time length would ensure proper project management
    Timely pause and restart (Breaks) would lead to improved outcome for specific actions hence timeboxed announcement of breaktime would be essential
    Identified action
    One should have clear identification of the time boxed action. Some actions need longer time box requirement than the other, hence appropriate time trigger would lead to smooth completion of action
    Closing time
    Announcement of “Time is up” as indicator would have completion of the time boxed exercise. Such indicator should be at each activity level and for entire action also.
    Proper timeboxing would ensure
    a)       Timely announcement of result/outcome
    b)      Focus on relevant action
    c)       To the point discussion
    d)      Progress which can be measured
    e)      Creatively and innovatively managing the action
    f)        Proper planning of further to do list during the day, time of which can be predictable
  3. Meenakshi Balaji Iyer's post in Jishu Hozen was marked as the answer   
    Total productivity maintenance drives the thought of participation by every stakeholder in the production facilities i.e., it drives the idea that not only the team who manages or maintains the production, other teams or facilities should also participate in the maintenance activity (E.g., participation from leadership till operators)
    The total productivity maintenance work on goals like zero-defects/error, zero-accident/incident, zero-shut down/outage
    To manage each goals there are 8 strong and effective pillars on which the concept of total productivity maintenance is established. The pillars are:
    1.       Continuous improvement
    2.       Autonomous maintenance
    3.       Preventive maintenance
    4.       Training and education
    5.       Startup monitoring
    6.       Quality management
    7.       Administration
    8.       Health & safety management
    All these 8 pillars of TPM works on the lean tool of 5 S (Sort, Shine, set in order, standardize & Sustain)
    One of the key pillars of TPM is Autonomous maintenance also known as Jishu Hozen in Japanese where basically it means independent (Jishu) maintenance through management, protection & veracity (Hozen) by all the stakeholders from top layer management to the workers on the field
    Jishu Hozen in manufacturing is usually used to upscale the operator to make a daily effort to maintain the performance of equipment and processes during the issues identified in the equipment/tool/machine without waiting for the expert or technical support to resolve.
    In normal practice if there is a layer of hierarchy or many departments with scope of work defined, one department would wait for the other interlinking department to bring the solution, however the user of the equipment would know in and out about the equipment and should take charge to maintain them instead of waiting for action from other department i.e., operator should be empowered to maintain the equipment taking responsibility of the equipment. The frequent user of the equipment can generally inspect and identify if there is any functional issue, maintain the equipment through cleanups and frequent oiling or lubrication due to which the performance of the equipment can be enhanced & capacity improved.

    JH shifts the attitude from I, to WE leading to improvement in equipment productivity, efficiency and enhances the skills of the user/operator leading to cultural shift     

    •Manage equipments: •a) Cleaning, b) Identifying flaws/errors,c) Optimizing efficiency,d) Restore to old status
    •Understand equipments: •a) Functionality,b) Monitor-frequent checkups,c) Optimizing efficiency

    The ownership and accountability need to jointly be handled by all layers of the organization.Largely there are 3 layers of management: Upper layer, Middle layer and Lower layer
    How JH works?
    The equipment when purchased has a life span as per the tested laboratory outcome. Beyond the available lifespan the performance of the equipment deteriorates if it is not maintained properly. Such weakened performance could be due to improper handling of the machine. Both these scenario are interlinked as :
    a)       If the equipment is not maintained properly (by Lower layer of management) the machine would have to be replaced with new leading to huge cost of capital and such decision need to be taken by the middle and top layer of management
    b)      If the equipment needs to be managed well by lower layer of management it would involve additional cost of maintenance like more cleaning, lubrication, minute repair from inspection etc. which should be budgeted by top and middle layer management
    Performing both the action would lead to improvement in the life span of the equipment.
    Preventive maintenance is essential part of JH where equipment is inspected regularly to see if there are abnormalities observed and address them on priority to avoid equipment to be a scrap if such issues remain un-actioned leading to increase in cost and dip in the quality/perforance of outcome from the equipment. In order to perform the inspection , checklist is the key document to be maintained at operator’s level and to be managed day to day.
    If AM(JH) is properly management by the operators, the need of technical staff is restricted to the annual maintenance of the equipment and/or during the complete shutdown/break of the equipment. Such scenario is not only observed in the manufacturing industry but also in areas like
    a)       Domestic equipment’s (Fridge, washing machine, TV, Mobile phones & other gadgets are maintained by user and user seek technical help only during extreme stoppage conditions or annual maintenance)
    b)      Infrastructure support & service (VPN connectivity, Network support, application & password management etc. are managed by the user following the self-help user manual and the technical support is consulted during complete shut down or update/upgradation/renewal)
    To ensure the successful implementation of JH we need to ensure:
    Audit can be conducted to check if the JH is implemented successfully at multiple layers of management
    e.g Self inspection, Audit at function/department level, Audit at the leadership head level
    Following checkpoints for implementing the successful JH

    On implementation of JH we can ensure
    a)       A team is identified to perform JH -Training imparted, Expectations set, Plan etc.
    b)      Cleaning- Precautions taken to clean, use kit, Prioritization etc.
    c)       Address issues in equipment-Understand impact, identify source, define frequency of identification
    d)      Establish standard of JH- Preparation of inspection, visually control and monitor, checklist
    e)       Conduct general inspection-Draft schedule, inspection manual/process, identify abnormalities
    f)        Autonomous inspection-Monitor quality/time take/output, Correct abnormalities, follow inspection training and standard module
    g)       Standardize-eliminate waste, check proper flow managed
    h)      Complete independent autonomous management-Streamline routine, enhance operator problem solving skills, perform continuous improvement through company goal alignment,
    The successful implementation of JH can be measured using the calculation of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) parameter. The operational metric of OEE is as follows:
    OEE = Availability rating X Performance rating X Quality rating
    A)Availability rating is calculated in %, indicating the % of time the equipment was available for usage and calculated as:
    Availability rating =( (Available time – Shut down or Break time)/Available time)*100
    E.g if a machine is available for 1000 hrs and there was breakdown for 100 hrs then availability rating will be ((1000-100)/1000)*100= 90% Availability rating
    Performance rating is calculated in %, indicating what is the performance or outcome of the equipment vs what was planned
    Performance rating = (Actual production/Planned production) *100
    E.g if the planned or target for production was 1000units and actual production is 900 units then performance rating will be (900/1000)*100=90% performance rating
    C) Quality rating also measured in% indicates the level of quality of the output i.e Accuracy %
    Quality rating = (Number of defect free part of output/Total produced output or production)*100
    E.g if the total production is 900 units of which defect free are 890 units then quality rating will be (890/900)*100 = 98.88%
    So, Overall equipment effectiveness = Availability rate X Performance rate X Quality rate =
    (0.9*0.9*0.98)*100 = 79.83%
    Such OEE is tracked and measured in a set frequency like weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly etc and expectation is that OEE should have gradual increase indicating the effective implementation of Jishu Hozen.  The more the OEE % the better is JH implemented
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