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1. Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan's post in Heinrich's Accident Triangle was marked as the answer
Heinrich’s Accident Triangle

In the theory of industrial accident prevention, the accident triangle is known as Heinrich triangle or Birds triangle. The triangle first introduced by H.W Heinrich in 1931 and later expanded by Frank E. Bird (1969), It shows the relationships between Major, Minor and near miss. The triangle proposes that accidents of minor accidents are reduced then the corresponding fall of Major accidents. The triangle is regarded as a corner stone of 20th century work place of health and safety of philosophy. Heinrich’s Law has significant impact on the industrial safely long before OHSA created.

Fig: Heinrich’s 300-29-1 Model and Bird Model

In 1931, H.W Heinrich researched on 75000 no’s work injuries when he worked in an insurance company and wanted to reduce serious/major accidents.  He surprised and notices that similar injuries pattern occurs so regularly.  Then he created Heinrich’s Pyramid also called Heinrich’s Triangle or Heinrich’s Law.  He observed that every 300 near missed event causes 29 minor injuries and one major injury or fatality.  Henry believes that to eliminate injuries, first needed to eliminate the minor incidents.

Fig: The top of the pyramid is most difficult to shift according to Heinrich’s Model

Heinrich’s thoughts if bottom of the pyramids is eliminated will also eliminated the top of the pyramids.  This theory is called the Heinrich’s Law.  This theory is widely used and dissed today. However, from lesson learned from the Heinricks that that it helps to reduce the minor injuries overall but it does not but it does not eliminate the serious risk , injuries and fatalities at all.  Its turn out that the top of the pyramid is most difficult to shift that Henricks found,

It’s truly reduced the most serious incidents, also had to be focuses on Low frequency and high severity of consequences. For example, falls from height, Mobile tower accidents, Fires and explosions. In his experiment illustrates that truly reduces the near misses and minor injuries. But only tells part of the stories. To reduce the serious injury and fatality need to focuses on the low frequency and high severity events.  In these approach together removes all injuries and fatalities.

Heinrich believed and his research presented that majority of accidents (88%) were a result of unsafe acts of workers or caused by human decision. 10 % to unsafe conditions, and rest 2% as unpreventable.  He suggested that and individual’s life experiences and background could influence them to take risks during work accomplishment.  He believed that removing a single casual factor could result in preventing an accident.

In 1966, Frank E Bird analysis on 1.7 million accidents reports from around 300 companies and He amended the triangle showing relationship of one major injury accident caused by 10 minor injury caused by 30 property damage accidents causing accidents that results to 600 near misses.  He claimed that majority of accidents could be predicted and prevented by appropriate innovations.

Limitations and Challenges of Heinrich’s Model :
The Henrich model was unchallenged for many years. However, some recent studies Henrichs equilateral triangle shape was challenged. Some professional believe that the actual shape would depend on the organizational structure and culture.  In 2010 report of a large gas and oil company, the original values of the Henrich’s are true only applied to large datasets and broad range of activities.

Fig:  Most experts and scientist are told parameters are not scientifically accurate today.

Recent Research and study about limitations:
In a study in 1991, in confined spaces the triangle relations were significantly different, 1.2 injuries for each serious major accidents or fatality. In UK mid 1990’s shows the triangular relationships 1 fatality to 207 major injuries, to 1402 injuries causing to three or more days lost in time injuries, to 2754 minor injuries.  Henrich original file was lost since the accident figures could not be proven.

W Edward Deming criticism about the Henrich’s Model:
He criticizes the human actions in work places of most accidents (88%) which is incorrect to him, in fact poor management system causes the majority of the accidents. There is also criticism on the focusing on reducing minor accidents and claim that work place supervisor to ignore more severity and low frequency risk when planning works.

How we can overcome the limitations:
The industries are becoming changes and digitalized. Lot of IOT, POKA YOKE devices and sensing devices are used for safe working environment. Robots are increasingly used in in the hazardous activities. Digital Twin are the breakthrough technologies that can be used for industry sector.

At the end, but an almost century later and in the changed and technological industrial environment and the safety sense has also changed, even today plenty of research relying that by reducing the number of near miss will decrease the major accidents which is based on Heinrich’s Principle.

2. Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan's post in Escape Point was marked as the answer
Escape Point
The escape point is the place in the process of D8 methodology where the root cause of a problem that should have detected the problem but failed to detect so. This considers not only the root cause but also went wrong with the control system in allowing this problem to escape. The 8D problem solving process requires the team to identify and verify escape point at D4 and through D5 and D7. The escape point objective is to improve the ability of the control system so that it can detect the failure or cause if it should occur again. At the end, prevention loop explores the system that permitted the condition that allowed the failure and cause mechanism to exist in the first place.
The PDCA, DMAIC, 8D all approaches have in common following scientific and methodic way to solve the problem. In addition, different phases in each approach can be mapped to the phases of the other ones.

PDCA
DMAIC
8D

Plan
Define
1.       Create team & collect information
2.       Describe the problem

Measure
3.       Interim Containment Actions
Analyze
4.       Identify/Analyze the root cause & Escape Point.
5.       Developing Permanent Corrective Actions (PCA)
Do
Improve
6.       Implementing Permanent Corrective Actions
Check

Control
7.       Define Actions to Avoid Recurrence
8.       Congratulate team
Act

PDCA: The PDCA cycle is the classic problem solving approach in LEAN also called Deming Cycle. PDA is used to solve medium size problems. The Plan phase should have done very carefully that consume high weightage approx. 50% of the total time.  Act phase implies that it will start again as part of continuous improvement.
DMAIC:  The origin of DMAIC problem solving approach is the SIX SIGMA world. This is a 5 Step PDCA used for large problems where huge amount of data is available.  Depending on the complexity and process that need to improve the DMAIC project may exceed more than three months.
8D:   8D is a problem solving methodology design to find the root cause of a problem.  The structured approach formulated a short term fix and implement a long term solution to prevent difficult, recurring or critical problems and also provides transparency, drives a teams approach and increases the chance of solving problem.  8D Methodology helping to explore the control system and allowing the problem to escape. 8D is very popular in manufacturing domain because it is effective and reasonably easy to teach. This is an 8 step PDCA cycle focused on fast reaction to customer complaints such as product failed at the customer end or a delivered component. Usually first three steps should be completed and reported to the customer in three days. PSP is the same thing like 8D but used in the aerospace industries.
Escape point in 8D (D4 through D6):
The escape point in 8D methodology is at D4 and goes through D5 and D7. This 8D methodology requires the team for choose, verify, implement and validate permanent correction actions to address the escape point.

Figure: 8D Problem Solving Methodology stages .
D4-  Review control system and Identify the root cause and escape point. Also, select counter measure  of root cause and escape point.
D5- Developing permanent corrective actions. Selecting control point improvement for the Escape point. Verification of the effectiveness for the PCA and the escape point are required.
D6- Implementing permanent corrective actions.
Escape point approaching in PDCA/DMAIC:
In this step, the verification and implementation of the Permanent Correction Actions (PCA’s) by approaching PDCA/DMAIC to ensure the successful implementation and verified the best permanent correction actions (PCA’s) for the root cause and escape point.
The 8D problem solving process is an approach to find the root cause and escape point and taking necessary actions to ensure that these are eradicated through the effective controls and actions that are embedded in the business operations.
PLAN (Define, Measure, Analyze in DMAIC): The implementation of the permanent Corrective actions (PCA) in attentions to.
-          Validation plan of the Permanent Corrective Actions (PCA)
-          Removing plan of the Interim Containment Actions (ICA) as per part of the implementation of the PCA
-          Integrate and check for side effects
-          Continued monitoring plan for effectiveness of the PCAs
-          Plan for all necessary resources
-          All documentation planning process, training and communication for the implementation for the PCA.
-          Define clearly the team roles and responsibilities
DO (Improve in DMAIC): Initiating the implementation plan for both the root cause and escape point, ensuring that all the necessary steps have been managed and followed.
CHECK (Control in DMAIC): Verify the PCAs have fully implemented and integrated into the operation and business processes. Validate for both the root cause and escape points and will be carried out at this stage and on an ongoing basis. The measures for the effectiveness of the PCAs should use the same measure.
ACT (Control in DMAIC): Check actions on any variation from the plan or expected outcomes.
Validation: Validation is performed usually under defined operating condition on the final product or process. Validation is the proof that is developed after implementation has taken place, over a period of time and must:
-          Follow successful verification & Provide a data driven before and after implementation.
-          Ensure & Check the implementation does not introduce a new problem or side effects

At the end, Escape point can effectively use in DMAIC project also to ensure the product quality released by internal and external customer and subsequently to have one or more non conformities to the product, specification and contract requirements. Also, reduced customer complaints due to fast response. Through elimination of root causes improved quality control system and is highly achievable for business operations.
3. Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan's post in Escape Point was marked as the answer
Escape Point
The escape point is the place in the process of D8 methodology where the root cause of a problem that should have detected the problem but failed to detect so. This considers not only the root cause but also went wrong with the control system in allowing this problem to escape. The 8D problem solving process requires the team to identify and verify escape point at D4 and through D5 and D7. The escape point objective is to improve the ability of the control system so that it can detect the failure or cause if it should occur again. At the end, prevention loop explores the system that permitted the condition that allowed the failure and cause mechanism to exist in the first place.
The PDCA, DMAIC, 8D all approaches have in common following scientific and methodic way to solve the problem. In addition, different phases in each approach can be mapped to the phases of the other ones.

PDCA
DMAIC
8D

Plan
Define
1.       Create team & collect information
2.       Describe the problem

Measure
3.       Interim Containment Actions
Analyze
4.       Identify/Analyze the root cause & Escape Point.
5.       Developing Permanent Corrective Actions (PCA)
Do
Improve
6.       Implementing Permanent Corrective Actions
Check

Control
7.       Define Actions to Avoid Recurrence
8.       Congratulate team
Act

PDCA: The PDCA cycle is the classic problem solving approach in LEAN also called Deming Cycle. PDA is used to solve medium size problems. The Plan phase should have done very carefully that consume high weightage approx. 50% of the total time.  Act phase implies that it will start again as part of continuous improvement.
DMAIC:  The origin of DMAIC problem solving approach is the SIX SIGMA world. This is a 5 Step PDCA used for large problems where huge amount of data is available.  Depending on the complexity and process that need to improve the DMAIC project may exceed more than three months.
8D:   8D is a problem solving methodology design to find the root cause of a problem.  The structured approach formulated a short term fix and implement a long term solution to prevent difficult, recurring or critical problems and also provides transparency, drives a teams approach and increases the chance of solving problem.  8D Methodology helping to explore the control system and allowing the problem to escape. 8D is very popular in manufacturing domain because it is effective and reasonably easy to teach. This is an 8 step PDCA cycle focused on fast reaction to customer complaints such as product failed at the customer end or a delivered component. Usually first three steps should be completed and reported to the customer in three days. PSP is the same thing like 8D but used in the aerospace industries.
Escape point in 8D (D4 through D6):
The escape point in 8D methodology is at D4 and goes through D5 and D7. This 8D methodology requires the team for choose, verify, implement and validate permanent correction actions to address the escape point.

Figure: 8D Problem Solving Methodology stages .
D4-  Review control system and Identify the root cause and escape point. Also, select counter measure  of root cause and escape point.
D5- Developing permanent corrective actions. Selecting control point improvement for the Escape point. Verification of the effectiveness for the PCA and the escape point are required.
D6- Implementing permanent corrective actions.
Escape point approaching in PDCA/DMAIC:
In this step, the verification and implementation of the Permanent Correction Actions (PCA’s) by approaching PDCA/DMAIC to ensure the successful implementation and verified the best permanent correction actions (PCA’s) for the root cause and escape point.
The 8D problem solving process is an approach to find the root cause and escape point and taking necessary actions to ensure that these are eradicated through the effective controls and actions that are embedded in the business operations.
PLAN (Define, Measure, Analyze in DMAIC): The implementation of the permanent Corrective actions (PCA) in attentions to.
-          Validation plan of the Permanent Corrective Actions (PCA)
-          Removing plan of the Interim Containment Actions (ICA) as per part of the implementation of the PCA
-          Integrate and check for side effects
-          Continued monitoring plan for effectiveness of the PCAs
-          Plan for all necessary resources
-          All documentation planning process, training and communication for the implementation for the PCA.
-          Define clearly the team roles and responsibilities
DO (Improve in DMAIC): Initiating the implementation plan for both the root cause and escape point, ensuring that all the necessary steps have been managed and followed.
CHECK (Control in DMAIC): Verify the PCAs have fully implemented and integrated into the operation and business processes. Validate for both the root cause and escape points and will be carried out at this stage and on an ongoing basis. The measures for the effectiveness of the PCAs should use the same measure.
ACT (Control in DMAIC): Check actions on any variation from the plan or expected outcomes.
Validation: Validation is performed usually under defined operating condition on the final product or process. Validation is the proof that is developed after implementation has taken place, over a period of time and must:
-          Follow successful verification & Provide a data driven before and after implementation.
-          Ensure & Check the implementation does not introduce a new problem or side effects

At the end, Escape point can effectively use in DMAIC project also to ensure the product quality released by internal and external customer and subsequently to have one or more non conformities to the product, specification and contract requirements. Also, reduced customer complaints due to fast response. Through elimination of root causes improved quality control system and is highly achievable for business operations.
4. Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan's post in Scope Management in DMAIC Project was marked as the answer
The purpose and scope of DMAIC project:
By implementing the DMAIC Six Sigma methodology, an organization can enhance the efficiency of their products, processes or services. The purpose of Define phase is to understand customer’s needs, identify the problems and opportunities for improvement in the current process and create high-level view of process. Project charter is created to officially start the project that authorizes to apply organizational resources to project activities by the project leader. It also provides direct link between project and strategic objectives of the organization. Project Charter ensures alignment by the stakeholders about the deliverables, milestones, roles responsibilities of everyone in the project.  When the project is approved and signed the project is officially authorized. The charter can have a long term impact on Six Sigma DMAIC projects ultimate success.  Project should focus on proper changes, right deliverables, on time accomplishment
Project scope is a vital part of the project charter in the Define phase of the DMAIC project. Scope describes the product, service, result boundaries and accepted criteria. Scope management is more concerned with defining and controlling what is included and what is not included in the project, the scope may include:
The start time and stop time often outlined in SIPOC diagram The project duration The process boundaries, within scope or out of scope The sub processes involved The locations such as   the states, the territories, the countries, continents Necessity to Change in Scope:
Change request is a formal proposal to modify deliverables or baseline. When issues found when project is being performed then Change request can be raised. Project change request are needed when it is deemed necessary to change the scope of the DMAIC project. Most of the scope changes will affect the budget and schedule of the project. Project leader, sponsors, steering Committee and stakeholders with the standard process for managing changes.
Steps of Change approval:
1.       The Project Leader will make decisions to analyze to proceed with scope changes.
2.       Changing impact on scope will be forwarded to the Steering Committee for review. The Steering Committee will give input and suggestions to the Project Sponsor.
The Project Sponsor will make the final decision, based upon the information provided by the Project leader and the input of the Steering Committee

Project Management Lifecycle & Six Sigma DMAIC methodology both are working on the principle of Plan-Do- Check-Act (PDCA) cycle.  In Project Management Life cycle allows to generate proper change requests initiating phase to control phase. Approved scope changes are controlled and ensured the project remains on schedule, within budget and provides the agreed deliverables to internal and external customer.
• Upon direction from the appropriate authority process change requests executed
• The impact of changes is communicated to appropriate personnel
• Small changes allowed to be managed with a minimum of overhead cost.
In conclusion, in DMAIC project allows to change & manage change (proper & justified) from Define through to Control in every phase of the DMAIC upon proper approval. Scope management with properly defining and controlling what is included and what is not included in the project is necessary to avoid unnecessary scope changes.

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