To understand the escape point, First we will begin with 8D methodology:
What is 8 D:
The 8 D (8 Disciplines) is a problem solving tool / methodology widely used in industries. It is mainly used for corrective action processes in both manufacturing and service industries. This tool focuses on correct root cause and permanent corrective and preventive action, It follows the systematic 8 steps methodology for problem solving. Most of the automotive industries are using 8 D form for identifying the correct root cause and eliminating the recurring problem by implementing appropriate corrective and preventive action. Most of the customer complaints are handled through the 8 D processes to identify the correct root cause to reduce or eliminate the CoPQ (Cost of poor quality).
8 D approach as follows: (All Ds are not explained, D4 is explained to answer the question of escape point)
What is Escape point in 8 D process:
Here D4 is considered as an “escape point”. Here We isolate and verify each root cause against problem description and test the data. Isolate and verify the location in the process where the real root cause could have been detected but not detected hence the problem transferred to next stages. This point is called an escape point.
Any processes there shall be a barrier to stop / identify the defect, If the defect is not detected in the first stage or real root cause at first level then the cause shall transfer and become a defect hence the escape point shall be identified during the 8 D process to make permanent solution.
D4 is one of the most vital and important D in the 8 D process. The reason is to identify and verify the real root cause of the failure in the process or product. There are many causes related to one problem like Y = f(X1,X2,X3…...Xn). Here we need to find the right X to identify and validate the causes. This shall not be done through brainstorming or nominal group techniques, We may use 5 Whys or cause and effect diagrams, to map causes against the problem identified.
Main activities involved in D4:
This step consists of performing the failure analysis and investigation needed to determine the root cause of the problem:
A structured method such as cause and effect matrix, is / is not table, or 5 – why technique is required for root cause identification.
The detailed description of the actual defect / failure mechanism shall be given, to show that the failure has been fully understood. ASK as many WHYs to ensure the real root cause is addressed.
The Is/Is Not tool and the cause and effect matrix should be revised to assist in root cause analysis and more details become known.
Other root cause analysis tools such as hypothesis testing or quick DOE’s can also be employed to help determine the exact root cause of the problem. All details should be included in the 8D as attachments.
WHYs should be described clearly.
Subsequent WHY must answer the question “Why” for the previous why statement, leading to the actual ROOT CAUSE.
Do not just put in disconnected statements to point to the root cause you think it is.
The maximum amount of evidence must be provided to show that 1)That the root cause is the real culprit behind the problem 2) That all the other potential causes can be excluded.
Escape Root Cause Description:
Similarly as above, identify (with 5 Whys) the reason why we didn’t detect it.
Was the process control plan not comprehensive?
Think carefully about why the problem escaped.
Careful not to blame the operator as most often it is a weak system that allows the operator to make a mistake without providing help to detect the actual error and prevent it from occurring.
Description of Root Cause to WHY not predicted:
Why was it not predicted in the FMEA, consider the following questions to arrive at your root cause.
Was no FMEA created for this process/system
Current FMEA not good enough, review needed?
Modifications to the system over the years were not updated?
Is the control chat evaluation done or not? Out of control limits points to be checked thoroughly and appropriate action shall be initiated as and when needed.
Main benefits of 8 D:
Team orientation and engagement
Lesson learned can be shared with other business line or product line
Can create a database for problems and causes
To bring the process under control
Better understanding on system change
Example of 8 D form:
Bowling chart: It is a visual way to monitor and address the company KPI or the policy deployment objectives. This chart will provide quick update of the organization by viewing this chart.
This tool is extensively used in lean organization.
Objectives / KPI are derived from Vision, Mission and Policy, These all are inter related and having strong link from one another.
There are 3 levels of KPI:
- Measurable KPIs - High level KPIs to see the healthiness or strategy level objectives of an organization of an organization.
- Manageable KPIs - Its measured in the local level / Dept. level / at operation level objectives are linked with Measurable KPIs.
- Actionable KPIs- Low level Objectives managed and measured at shop floor level KPIs, If we improve actionable KPIs then automatically manageable and measurable KPI will improve.
Bowling chat can be used any of the above KPIs and mainly focuses on SQDCM (Safety, Quality, Delivery, Cost and Morale) at all levels.
Generally there are 2 rows one for Plan and another one for Actual, There colors are used for visually understand it quickly.
Green : KPI Targets are met
Yellow: KPI Targets are under performing but better than last year
Red: KPI performance meeting the target.