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Johanan Collins

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  1. Johanan Collins's post in Human Centered Design was marked as the answer   
    What is Human Centred Design?
    Human Centred Design is a problem-solving approach that develops solutions by taking the human perspective and behaviour into consideration at every level of the design. Its goal is to address and incorporate the preferences, pain points, likes, and dislikes of the user. It was first popularised by the global design firm IDEO who found that the Human Centred Design approach led to quicker, increased profits and fewer products failing to market. It starts with the end-user for whom the solution is being designed and ends with a tailor-made solution that is suitable to their requirements. A product may typically meet either a functional, emotional or social need. The functional need is the actual use of the product whereas the emotional and social needs come from the feeling one gets from possessing a product. For example, it could meet an aesthetic or status need.
    The Human Centred Design approach is akin to the ‘Jobs to be done’ theory by Harvard Business School Professor Clayton Christensen’s which states that people do not buy a product, but hire it to do a specific job or achieve a particular goal. The Human Centred Design approach looks at the design through this framework of the users’ motivations rather than demographic attributes such as income, gender, age, etc.
    The Human Centred Design is so popular in that it has been defined in ISO 9241-210:2019(E) as “an approach to interactive systems development that aims to make systems usable and useful by focusing on the users, their needs and requirements, and by applying human factors/ergonomics, and usability knowledge and techniques. This approach enhances effectiveness and efficiency, improves human well-being, user satisfaction, accessibility and sustainability; and counteracts possible adverse effects of use on human health, safety and performance”.
    It has three phases, viz., the inspiration phase, the ideation phase, and the implementation phase. The Inspiration Phase entails interacting with and learning from the end-user. The designer immerses himself totally into the lives of the people he is designing for, so as to understand their context and need. This will remove preconceived notions, biases, misunderstandings about what the customer actually requires. It sort of gets buy-in from the end-user. This stage requires empathy to understand the emotions and experiences of the customer. It is the designer putting himself into the shoes of the customer, getting a feel of the product asking questions that the customer would ask such as where, when, or the purpose for which they use the product. The ideation phase is used to generate various ideas and prototypes based on the experiences from the inspiration phase. The implementation phase would involve bringing the solution to the end-user.
    Salient Features
    The salient features of Human Centred Design are that it needs empathy, the generation of a large number of ideas through brainstorming or bodystorming, creation of a large number of prototypes along with the end-user.
    It caters to the functional, emotional, and social needs of the end-user right from the start.
    Product designs that follow the HCD approach are generally successful in the market. On the downside, these products have a long lead time for development.
    Benefits
    Even though the time to design and produce the product takes time, the likelihood of the product succeeding in the market is very high.
    Having been designed from the perspective of the end-user, the product has early acceptance in the market.
    Examples
    Zoom.
    Zoom realized the increased need for videoconferencing solutions not only for businesses but educational institutions, religious organizations, individual trainers, etc. Zoom created the virtual learning system through interaction with teachers and students and designed a system that met the varied end users’ requirements. Zoom ensured security and compliance requirements due to young students using its platform, they further build a whiteboard for easy interaction, dashboards to track student engagement, and integration with various learning management systems
    Products used during Commutes
    Designers of products used during commute such as coffee, milkshakes, mobile phones, music devices, etc, have interacted with the end-user to make their products more acceptable to the end-user. For example, Bluetooth-enabled hands-free mobile phones, music player controls on the steering wheel, cup holders in the car, increasing the thickness of the drink have been incorporated into the product based on the end-user requirements.
    Changing Users Requirements during Covid
    Payment and Logistics. With the onset of the pandemic, people had a need for reduced cash payments and increased home delivery of items. Payment and logistics processes have been redesigned to cater to these specific user requirements.
    Electronic Tablets. Tablets were basically being used by the designer community. However, during Covid, the customer base extended to teachers, students, managers, etc. Wacom identified this requirement and through interaction with the end-user incorporated various hardware and software changes in their offerings.
    References
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human-centered_design#:~:text=Human-centered%20design%20%28%20HCD%29%20%5Balso%20Human-centred%20design%2C%20as,perspective%20in%20all%20steps%20of%20the%20problem-solving%20process.
    https://www.iso.org/standard/77520.html Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems
     
    https://www.designkit.org/human-centered-design
     
    https://online.hbs.edu/blog/post/what-is-human-centered-design?tempview=logoconvert
    https://online.hbs.edu/blog/post/jobs-to-be-done-examples?tempview=logoconvert
  2. Johanan Collins's post in Bodystorming was marked as the answer   
    Bodystroming
    Bodystorming is a hands-on method used as a creativity technique in interaction design. It helps the user to empathize with the end-user. The designer subjects him/herself to the experience in order to feel and understand it from the perspective of the customer. In doing so it instills a feeling of empathy for the designer. It could include role-play, drama, and simulation. The process also involves brainstorming using the body which helps in bringing the simulation closer to reality and thus generating better ideas.
    Advantages
    Some of the advantages of bodystorming are it helps with empathy, reflection in the participants, connects the researcher and users, gives a first-hand experience and greater awareness to the designer/researcher
    Disadvantages.
    At times bodystorming may make some users uncomfortable, and when used in a sensitive context can trigger some bad reactions. In this fast-paced world, some designers find body storming to be time-consuming, when similar results can be achieved using machine learning, artificial intelligence, and simulation models. One of the disadvantages of concern is that bodystorming requires experienced and well-trained designers. In case it is done in a non-professional manner, wrong conclusions can be arrived at.
    Use Cases.
    Bodystorming is generally used in the design of physical spaces such as the layout of a store or a clinic. It can also be used in the design of software and physical products. Interestingly, it is also used in scientific research. It has been successfully used to teach, learn, and discover new intradisciplinary boundaries.
    Example from Scientific Research
    In 2009 the dance director, Carl Flink of the American dance company Black Label Movement and a Biomedical engineer of the University of Minnesota got together and created a bodystorming system as a part of the Moving Cell Project. Dance artists and scientists were brought together to rapidly prototype research hypotheses in biomedical engineering using choreographic rules for dancers to follow. Interestingly, bodystorming has proven to increase the speed of scientific research by giving the scientist a psychological sense of empathizing with a molecule.
    In 2018, bodystorming was used at the Neuro-Oncological Symposium to model the recent research.
    In 2019, bodystorming was used in the PSON Annual Investigators Meeting.
    References
    https://study.com/academy/lesson/bodystorming-in-design-thinking-definition-purpose-example.html
    https://think.design/user-design-research/bodystorming/
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodystorming
     
  3. Johanan Collins's post in Hick's Law was marked as the answer   
    Hick’s Law was named after Britisher, William Edmund Hick, and American Ray Hyman. Their background in psychology helped in framing this law.
     
    The law looks very logical in that it states that the more choices a person has, the longer the person will take to reach a decision. The beauty of the law is the mathematical equation that goes with it. That is the time a person takes to reach a decision is a logarithmic function of the number of choices. Since it is a logarithmic function of the number of choices, the increase in time diminishes as the number of choices increase.
     
    A picture that comes to mind is a child selecting an ice cream before a Baskin Robbins Ice-cream shop. Considering the implications of the law, it becomes more relevant when designing a short list and loses its significance as the length of the list increases. Hence Hick’s Law can be used in the design of User Experience (UX). Examples of short list are ‘Action Buttons’ or ‘Navigation Menus’ in an App or website. At times the designer thinks it is wise to include more functionality into his website or app, however, he should use Hick’s law to assess the number of functionalities that he should put into his design. A user of the app/website when encountering too many options is likely to get saturated with the choices available and leave the website quickly. This can be measured through various matrices such as the bounce rate, conversion rate, user engagement, time on site, page views, etc., using various analytics software such as Google Analytics.
     
    Hick’s Law helps in various design decisions, either in the design of physical products, such as the number of buttons on a TV remote, the number of controls in a washing machine, or in software products as the number of links in the header tab of a website. Hick’s law can be applied to the Tree Structure of a menu, to determine both the horizontal width and vertical depth of the menu.
     
    In order to apply Hick’s law, designers should put the choices in categories there by reducing the choices available. Designers can also obscure complexity by breaking down the process into manageable steps with fewer options in each stage.
     
    The formula is
    RT = a + b log2 (n)
    RT – Reaction Time
    n – Number of Stimuli
    a and b – constants that depend on the task/condition

     
    Applicability of Hick’s law to Project Management.
    Hick’s law applies to choices that have an equal probability of selection. This means that the user has no previous knowledge of the choices and is making a choice based on what is presented in front of him. If a user is specifically/intentionally looking for a specific choice or has a certain bias, Hick’s law will not be applicable to him. In this case, the time taken to act is likely to be less than the logarithmic function as calculated by Hick’s Law. In such cases, other decision-making tools such as Pugh Matrix or Analytic Hierarchy Process may be used.
     
    References
    https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/topics/hick-s-law
     
  4. Johanan Collins's post in Iceberg Theory was marked as the answer   
    Iceberg Theory
    The Iceberg Theory is also called the theory of Omission. It is a writing theory that was made popular by journalist and writer Ernest Hemingway. He used his style of writing as a journalist in the writing of his short stories. In doing so, he focused more on the immediate events which were evident on the surface and less on their context. His writing style caused the reader to understand the context of the story in an implicit manner. His minimalistic style of writing caused each reader to contextualize the story within the readers' framework.
    Quoting from Oliver, Charles M “If a writer of prose knows enough of what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water. A writer who omits things because he does not know them only makes hollow places in his writing.”
    The key to the quote by Oliver Charles M is that when the writer omits what he knows the reader is likely to strongly pick up the things omitted by the writer. This adds to the authenticity of the writer. However, when a writer omits things that he does not know, the reader is naturally unable to pick up the things omitted by the writer and it leads to a hollowness and in his writing.
    Application of the Iceberg Theory
    Leadership/Management. Questions such as “Are leaders born or made” or “Is Management an art or science” have been asked through the ages. Advancement of knowledge and technology has shown that through training, patience, and discipline leaders are made and management is more of a science than an art. Leadership qualities span a vast array of attributes such as professional knowledge, integrity, empathy, etc. This inward focus of character and knowledge and an outward focus on people takes time and effort to build making a leader authentic.
    Consultants. Successful consultants are those who have a wide range of knowledge and experience spanning various fields including understanding human behavior. With processes crossing numerous functions, consultants who are experts in a very specific area are unable to optimize solutions. 
    Actors. Great Actors spend months or years researching their part. Good examples of this are Tom Hanks who plays the life of a physically disabled and low intelligence man in the movie “Forrest Gump”, Freddie Highmore who plays the part of a young autistic savant surgical resident in the series and Darsheel Safary who plays the part of a dyslexic child in “Taare Jameen Par”.
    Teachers, Professors. Similarly, teachers and professors with a deep knowledge of not only their subject but related subjects are generally more successful and popular.
    Doctors. With the human body being a diverse spectrum of various systems that interact with each other and with the external environment, a doctor with a deeper knowledge of not only the human body but other external factors is more likely to be successful.
    Conclusion.  The Iceberg Theory brings out the fact that when a person with in-depth knowledge over a wide array of subjects speaks, the information appears to be authentic. On the contrary, when a person with superficial knowledge speaks, his lack of in-depth knowledge, of confidence, of authenticity, etc. will betray him and he will be easily found out.
    References
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg_theory
    Oliver, Charles M. (1999). Ernest Hemingway A to Z: The Essential Reference to the Life and Work. New York: Checkmark. ISBN 0-8160-3467-2.
  5. Johanan Collins's post in Poisson Distribution was marked as the answer   
    The Poisson Distribution is named after the French mathematician Simeon Denis Poisson. It is a discrete distribution that gives the probability of the number of events in a fixed interval of space, time, distance, volume, area, etc. These events should take place independent of each other and at a constant rate. The Poisson distribution is generally used where the number of events is very large and the occurrence of these events is rare. In simple terms it can be described as the average rate at which a specific event happens in a specific time frame, the event will follow a Poisson distribution.
    Assumptions
    k is the number of times the event can occur (k= 0,1,2,3,…..)
    The events are independent of each other
    The average rate at which events occur, are independent of the occurrences and may vary with time.
    Two events cannot occur at the same time.
    Examples
    The number of calls received in a Call Centre every hour.
    The number of decay events that occur from a radioactive source every day.
    No of Accidents in a day on Highway No 4.
    The number of meteorites greater than 0.5-meter dia that strike Earth in a year.
    The number of customers arriving at a Mall between 8 and 9 am.
    Number of Tsunamis that hit the East Coast of India in a decade
    Number Goals in a match.
    Number of Injuries in a football match.
    Number of Hat tricks in a cricket match
    Examples that are not Poisson Distribution
    The arrival of students for a class
    The arrival of spectators for a match.
    These are not Poisson Distributions since the rate of arrival is not constant and the events are not independent of each other since students and spectators come in batches.
    Occurrences of earthquakes may not follow a Poisson distribution since the aftershocks may not be independent of each other.
    Formula
    The formula for Poisson distribution is

    Where
    k is the number of occurrences,
    e = 2.71828 (Euler’s Number)
    Lamda = E(X) [The mean] = Variance(X)
    Lamda can also be taken as the rate for the number of events.
    Poisson Distribution in Management
    Poisson Distribution is generally used to improve operational efficiency.
    Poisson Distribution is used in Queueing Theory as the arrival rate, whereas the Exponential Distribution is used in the Service times.
    Managing Demand. Study of the demand through the Poisson Distribution can help in developing complementary services, managing the reservation system and overbookings such as in hotels and airlines, segmenting demand, offering price incentives, or promoting off-peak demand.
    Managing Supply. Similarly, the study of the supply can help in sharing capacity, take decisions on cross-training of staff, using part-time employees, increasing customer participation, scheduling work shifts, or creating adjustable capacity.
    References
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisson_distribution
  6. Johanan Collins's post in Deductive vs Inductive Reasoning was marked as the answer   
    Deductive reasoning is a scientific method that uses deduction to check or test theories and hypothesis.
     
    Deductive reasoning consists of three steps, premise one, premise two and an inference. For Example, Premise one is all men are mortal, premise two is Sampson is a man. Thus, we infer that Sampson is a mortal.
     
    Deductive Reasoning is the foundation of research and academic research in specific. In academic research we first make claims, gather data, and then test the claims or to be specific the hypothesis.
     
    Inductive Reasoning makes broad claims about an observation. Data is gathered and then conclusions are drawn making it opposite to deductive reasoning.
     
    The main difference between the two forms of reasoning is that deductive makes claims based on theory while inductive makes claims based on observations.
     
    The main way that the two are used in the Lean six sigma world is inductive reasoning is used in Gemba walks and “management by walking around”, where the practitioner is observing the processes and then making decisions. While the entire DMAIC process under six sigma would be grouped under deductive reasoning as the practitioner theorizes a result, gathers data and tests if their results hold true.
  7. Johanan Collins's post in ECRS was marked as the answer   
    ECRS or Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify is a Lean technique. ECRS is used to reduce or eliminate wasteful steps from any business processes, be they a process in manufacturing or a process in the office. ECRS is a method that can be used for fast improvements.
               
    Eliminate: In a process which currently takes a certain number of steps, if we were to eliminate a step it would shorten the process. For funny example would be Tom Smykowski in the 1999 Cult comedy Office space, Tom’s job was to take “the specifications from the customer and bring them down to the software engineers”. The consultants eliminated his job as they had the customers directly send the specifications to the software engineers. A funny example from a cult classic but it does the job of explaining elimination.
     
    Combine: When elimination is not possible, the next step is to see if any of the steps in the process can be combined. A classic example would be the use of macros in Microsoft Excel. By creating a macro of multiple steps when working on a excel file you are combining all those steps together. The analyst does not have to do those steps again as the macro does it for him.
     
    Rearrange: When elimination or combining is not possible, rearrangement of steps is done to make the process safer, easier, or faster. A classic example of rearrangement of steps is Henry Ford’s assembly line for the production of cars. One of the main benefits was the reduction in the assembly of a car from half a day to under an hour.
     
    Simplify: When faced with a complicated process, simplifying steps is undertaken. This done to ensure that the process is easy to understand by the operators. Visual aids are an easy low-cost method of simplification.  
     
    Sources: https://www.creativesafetysupply.com/glossary/ecrs/#:~:text=ECRS%20stands%20for%20Eliminate%2C%20Combine,processes%20or%20even%20office%20procedures.
    https://www.lean.org/LeanPost/Posting.cfm?LeanPostId=1245
  8. Johanan Collins's post in ECRS was marked as the answer   
    ECRS or Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify is a Lean technique. ECRS is used to reduce or eliminate wasteful steps from any business processes, be they a process in manufacturing or a process in the office. ECRS is a method that can be used for fast improvements.
               
    Eliminate: In a process which currently takes a certain number of steps, if we were to eliminate a step it would shorten the process. For funny example would be Tom Smykowski in the 1999 Cult comedy Office space, Tom’s job was to take “the specifications from the customer and bring them down to the software engineers”. The consultants eliminated his job as they had the customers directly send the specifications to the software engineers. A funny example from a cult classic but it does the job of explaining elimination.
     
    Combine: When elimination is not possible, the next step is to see if any of the steps in the process can be combined. A classic example would be the use of macros in Microsoft Excel. By creating a macro of multiple steps when working on a excel file you are combining all those steps together. The analyst does not have to do those steps again as the macro does it for him.
     
    Rearrange: When elimination or combining is not possible, rearrangement of steps is done to make the process safer, easier, or faster. A classic example of rearrangement of steps is Henry Ford’s assembly line for the production of cars. One of the main benefits was the reduction in the assembly of a car from half a day to under an hour.
     
    Simplify: When faced with a complicated process, simplifying steps is undertaken. This done to ensure that the process is easy to understand by the operators. Visual aids are an easy low-cost method of simplification.  
     
    Sources: https://www.creativesafetysupply.com/glossary/ecrs/#:~:text=ECRS%20stands%20for%20Eliminate%2C%20Combine,processes%20or%20even%20office%20procedures.
    https://www.lean.org/LeanPost/Posting.cfm?LeanPostId=1245
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