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  4. There are two best answers to this question. Sudhir Gayakwad and Sourabh Nandi are the joint winners. Congratulations to both. Mohamed Asif's answer is a must read to see how Andon is used in healthcare. Also review the answer provided by Mr Venugopal R, Benchmark Six Sigma's in-house expert.
  5. ANDON is one of the ‘LEAN’ tools used in Manufacturing. It is a highly effective Visual Management tool which enables the operations to run smoothly without bottlenecks. Andon is a system that gives signals to the worker or maintenance or management, like the traffic lights with three colors on top of each level of production assembly line. Whenever there is a problem in the production line, the worker activates the Andon usually by a pulling a chord or button, which automatically halts the production, so that the team can find root cause of the problem and then quickly apply a solution. The warning lights are easily visible, overhead signboard, which also identifies the area where the problem has occurred. The Andon used on production floors has evolved from basic cords and lights to visual boards. These boards provide a quick glance view of production status and easily identifies the location of problems to be addressed. Andons are activated manually or automatically. It is activated manually when a production line worker engages an Andon device like a cord or button. An automatic Andon is instantly activated when a process or machine encounters an inconsistency based on set criteria. Benefits of Andon in Lean Manufacturing, Ø Visibility and transparency in production process Ø Alerts key decision makers about problems in productions line, so that immediate action can be taken Ø Reduces downtime to increase Overall Equipment Effectiveness and helps in quality improvement Ø Saves cost and time Ø Waste reduction Ø Enhanced value for customers because of quality products
  6. Q 286. Why is multicollinearity a problem? How is it detected? What is the right course of action when it is found? Explain with an example. Note for website visitors - Two questions are asked every week on this platform. One on Tuesday and the other on Friday. All questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ Please visit the forum home page at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/ to respond to the latest question open till the next Tuesday/ Friday evening 5 PM as per Indian Standard Time. Questions launched on Tuesdays are open till Friday and questions launched on Friday are open till Tuesday. The best answer is always shown at the top among responses and the author finds honorable mention in our Business Excellence dictionary at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ along with the related term
  7. Andon System The origin of the “Andon” word in Japanese comes from the utilization of traditional lighting equipment employing a burning lamp made out of bamboo and paper. This “Andon” idea translated for manufacturing in Japan. The “Andon” became used as a proof to spotlight an anomaly (i.e., a flashing light). This signal would amplify potential defects in quality. When an error was suspected, an indication board would display a sign to the precise workstation having an issue. The signal event would also show that it stopped the system for the defect and expected the matter to be resolved. Ending an operation when an error was suspected originates from the initial Toyota Production System. The thought behind Jidoka is that by stopping the system, which helps to find a root cause against letting the defect move further down the road and be unresolved. Andon Cord Taiichi Ohno established a radical innovation when he went back to Toyota. At each step of the production line, he placed a rope called the andon cord. Ohno instructed the workers that if they saw a problem, they must immediately pull the cable, which might slow or stop the road so engineers, line workers, and even suppliers could confer and rectify the error. Electronic Andon Board Workshop leaders must be kept up on how smoothly things are moving into their workshops. The earlier they learn of abnormalities or other problems in their workshops, the earlier they will analyze the case and rectify it. Andon (alarm lights) makes an excellent tool for alerting workshop personal and other supervisors to identify problems on the factory floor. Andon is a unique lamp that illuminates issues within the factory. There are four types of andon given in the below figure. 1) Paging Andon Paging andon are often accustomed request supplies of parts for the assembly line. When parts are near to run out at a process, the operator sends out proof that lights the andon. Which also notifies those that operate the parts supply system. The suppliers’ quick movement around the factory in collecting and supplying parts is additionally called “mizusumashi” or beetle. There are two kinds of “whirligig beetle” techniques. One is that the “hire” method, during which a bunch of andon page the carts used for supplying parts. The different technology is that the “taxi” method during which dispersed andon page the carts. The below figure illustrates the “hire” method for paging andon. 2) Warning Andon Warning andon is mainly used on assembly lines and will differ depending upon the length of the road. On short assembly lines, people tend to use “aeroplane andon.” Like the attendee call buttons on passenger seats in commercial aeroplanes, each process within the production line has an emergency call button. When one in every one of these buttons is pressed, the andon board for the mechanical system lights up and shows which process’s button was pressed. Warning andon is mainly used on assembly lines and will differ depending upon the length of the road. On short assembly lines, people tend to use “aeroplane andon.” Like the attendee call buttons on passenger seats in commercial aeroplanes, each process within the mechanical system has an emergency call button. When one in all these buttons is pressed, the andon board for the line lights up and shows which process’s button was pressed. The following may be a detailed description of how “aeroplane andon” is used. The above form of warning andon configuration works tolerably when the mechanical system is brief enough to see all of the andon, processes, and operators. However, longer lines make it impossible to determine the full range and every one of its operators. During this event, the andon are lined up in an exceedingly centralised board, as shown in the figure. 3) Operation Andon Operation andon indicate machine operating statuses. When the device has been stopped, the operation andon shows the explanation for the stoppage. 4) Progress Andon Many assembly lines have short pitch times, like 1- or 2-minute tact intervals. When a range has such a brief tact time, the progress of operations is straightforward to look at just by monitoring the rhythm. It is tough to sense delays in lines with longer tact times, like 10 or 20 minutes. Progress andon enable line operators to measure the progress of their operations. Most progress andon is divided into ten equal sections. Still, the most ideal is to own the assorted stages of the operations correspond in a very level manner to the varied andon sections. When the progress andon board has changed within the case of conveyor lines, the limit switches can also detect the response.
  8. 自働化 - Jidoka - Autonomation Simply means process automatically halts when there are non conformities/irregularities/abnormalities in the system and it can also act as early warning device in manufacturing unit Andon light system is one of the Vital component in Autonomation. In the below reference pic, Andon is used as Visual Management tool to know the status of the production. Legend reference: Green - All Good, Normal Operation > Proceed further Yellow - Warning - Issue Identified, require attention > CAPA required Red - Production halted > Issue not identified; Immediate Supervisor inspection and RCA required Andon systems are commonly used in the below industries: Automotive manufacturing Packaging and shipping Retail Textile Inventory management Medical and Healthcare Example in healthcare: Visual Andon which include lights on Code Blue carts to indicate that they need to be checked for the day and intrusive computer screen alerts for pharmacists that indicate a patient allergy or contraindicated medication. Auditory Andon which beeps alarm on infusion pumps which gives signal stating medication is nearly gone or indicate there is defect with tubing and the audible alarm indicates acute medical emergencies Andon System has wide range of applications and below listed are few: It can Reduce downtime to enhance OEE It could significantly contribute to quality improvements due to shortened downtime Improved communication between operators and engineers Evaluating Incidents and instances from Andon events can lead to Poka Yoke applications Advanced system (@Next-gen Andon systems) can display KPI metrics and data with real-time embedded data Productions systems can be remotely managed by data flowing into tablets and smartphones Improved Productivity Reduced Lead-time Reduction in equipment failure rate Improved customer service Lower Costs However, there are few challenges as well, such as below which needs to be taken care High cost implementation Misunderstanding of automation leads to misapplication Difficulty of small enterprises hiring qualified staff
  9. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The term “Andon” in Japanese means ‘paper lantern’. It is believed that such lanterns were used for providing a visual signal as well to communicate a message over a long distance. The term “Andon” was first used by Toyota for referring to any system or method used for signalling. Andon could be a signal in the form of visual, audio, symbolic or text to provide a notification to the concerned personnel in a workplace or even a public place, as a caution or information about a regular or irregular condition that may require attention or some action to be taken. Andon notification could be for notifying Management, Maintenance, Quality or any other stakeholder in an organization. Andons can provide ‘real-time’ feedback about a process. Incidentally, 'Andon cord' refers to a cord that was used in the manufacturing facilities, which could be pulled by the worker to alert any problem and even stop the line. Andons are very important to be integrated with various lean methodologies like the 5S, Poka Yoke and VSM. They have a wide application and are prevalent in many areas of our day-to-day life. Below are just a few examples of areas of Andon application: Production process – Number displays or Trend charts indicating the performance of a process. Andon warning lights in a production line are sometimes linked with sensors, PLCs and computer databases for automatic triggering of the signals. Floor layout – Yellow / Black markings on the floor indicating the pathways, storage locations, trolley parking locations. Material status identification – Identifying the status of materials, for eg. Waiting for inspection, Replenishment required, Accepted, Rejected etc by tags or color of bins. Cautions – Flashing lights to warn people about an equipment functioning, caution boards to indicate presence of high voltage, slippery surface etc. Office – Monthly stratified sales status against targets, BPM dashboards, Lean Six Sigma projects status, Training schedule and status. Control related – Visual indication of oil levels, battery levels, odometer of a car, Statistical control charts. Hospitals – Patient Admissions, Occupancy details, Healthcare personnel allocation and availability. Banks – Display of currency exchange rates, interest rates, customer token display. Identifying opportunities for Andons in any work place is a continuous improvement activity. The intent should be to identify the simplest possible method that would prove adequately effective and sustainable. Based on the feedback on effectiveness of usage, existing Andon systems need to be improved periodically.
  10. Andon is termed per Japanese as, 'paper lantern'. It is nothing but principles of Jidoka quality control. As name describe 'paper lantern' which was used in olden days to find misses and we call it as a visual management in today's environment to identify the bottlenecks. This system enables the employee or an operator to take action by pulling an andon card throught the assembly line if any abnormalities and any potential bottlenecks. Basically in this andon system, it gives the signals by visuals and based in the visuals an automatic alarm to employee. One of the example is in the hospital is, patients safety systems used in many hospitals. If any abnormalities in the vitals the machine or instrument gives signals so that healthcare professional attend immediately.
  11. Hello Team, Hope you all are well & Fit. How to identify best project (Six Sigma / Lean / Kaizen) through Project Selection Matrix..?
  12. Andon! Everyone knows his child hood stories of Alarms given by elders about not doing something by some typical facial actions, sounds or even by showing something. It was to warn a child for not doing something else he may get hurt, he may get injured or there could be an accident. And it used to work; the child will remember all those actions, alarms and will not go near those things, will not touch and this way his life was saved. He continued the same thing when he was matured enough to teach other children’s. Really a very powerful technique of teaching, alarming and warning someone not to do something or in better way – To Do – “Not go near, Not to Touch etc.” In actual practice happening something wrong, variation in the process, small or major accidents are the part of a regular smooth, nonstop, productive process. We are in manufacturing sector so let us discuss about Manufacturing. § In manufacturing set up there are so many different processes running continuously and at a very high speed. These high speed processes are producing million tons of products or units in million. The pace is such a high; the variation in process will lead to heavy losses. § If there could be a small addition of Friction in heating of moving parts – it can lead to a bigger accident in near future. § If it is not monitored for its output, there could be wastage of resources. Today we are in most competitive, cost conscious, quality conscious, delivery conscious world and will never afford all above wrong things from happening. Fortunately we are in the most advancing era of technology, manufacturing techniques are evolving day by day and we have got a powerful tool at our help to save manufacturing process is – ‘Andon’ Andon – Is the Alarming, Notifying systems developed for managers, Supervisors, workers etc to highlight the health of the manufacturing (or any system) system. Lean production system is the boon to the modern age manufacturing, Andon is also one of the principle developed by lean only. An Andon system is the one of the principle elements of the Jidoka quality control method pioneered by Toyota Production system and therefore now part of the Lean Production approach. Jidoka – Is the automation with human touch or simply Intelligent Automation – It is the combination of Automation and human interference. As fully automatic systems are not cost effective to make it more cost effective and also to produce effective quality products human interference is essential. So – Andon – it gives the workers the empowerment to stop the production line, production machine if any abnormality is detected. There are so many techniques available by which a worker can detect rather come to know about the abnormal operation is the system. A. Audio Visual – With the help of different types of sensors system can detect any sort of abnormality happening in the system. It could be small displacement in the components, it could be more load (stress) coming on the components, it could be temperature variation. There are lots of digital gauges available and they keeps monitoring the system round the clock and keeps alarming the workers, supervisors or even managers about health of the system. With the advancement in automaton there are visual displays (HMI - Human Machine Interface) which gives the exact location where there is malfunction happening. With this alarm ( there is whistle with notification) the operator stops the machine and attend the challenge and avoids major losses. If the challenge on the machine or in the system is sever, even in that case machine stops with alarm and notification display. The operator, maintenance team can act immediately to save the major losses. All these notifications are coded and in SCADA system all those notifications are recorded systematically and gives the frequency of each notification along with the duration it took to rectify. This analysis gives way for Kaizen which leads in reduction in such uncertainty and eventually uniform uninterrupted production. Recently machine learning is also coming to our help by giving or poping notifications before taking any action which may lead to loss of data or any uncerytainty. B. Manual – In so many assembly lines there are provisions to stop the line if there is any abnormality found in any spares, shortages of spares etc. With this complete system gets alarm and work in down the line is adjusted accordingly. Simultaneously the concern department heads get the alarm to replenish the stocks. Manual systems though tedious, troublesome, still essential in some cases. Everyone knows the great Titanic disaster. There are few sensory alarms human eyes, nose and ears detect very rapidly and need immediate action. This is most effective activity only humans can do with inbuilt system. Advantages- The alarms, the moment malfunction or variation in system starts stops the system and major losses are saved. It helps to keep the wastages in control, saves cost and keeps profitability in control. The systematic records of abnormality gives ways for Kaizen Burst and scope for Continual Improvement which the only way to keep progressing towards growth. Once there is continual improvement, there is uniform production at specified productivity which is very essential to maintain oneself in today’s competitive market. It improves moral of the employees with safe working atmosphere. Less defects – less stops, less stops – happy employees, Happy employees – less accidents. Let’s continue to explore!
  13. All, An 'As is' VSM of transaction process of ABC Inc. Also includes - Manpower requirement calculation for 75 calls/ day and 125 calls/day - There are 2 scenarios of different % of escalations to L2 level. Lets build a Future VSM by identifying improvement projects. Regards, Pitchai Trans.Process VSM ABC Inc- Pitchai Aug20.xlsx
  14. Andon is basically an alert system. The term "Andon" is a Japanese word which translates to "Paper lantern". It refers to a system which can easily and quickly notify supervisors, maintenance team members, etc. It's part of Jidoka approach which empowers a non-managerial employee with the authority to stop a process to tackle quality issues. Andon system is mostly placed at the top part of a machine, so that it can be seen easily from any part of the shop floor and is generally integrated with a buzzer sound nowadays . Andon system can have different bright colors like red, orange, green etc where each color and tone of buzzer would have different message for the team. Andon can be activated manually by an operator (by using specific buttons) or it can automatically activated by the equipment (by using sensors) if there's a defect, safety issue, material shortage etc issues which needs immediate assistance. The line stays down untill the issues are corrected. Nowadays andons can have graphical images, text displays, SOS message to smart phones/ tablets of team members. Later these stops are documented and root cause analysis is carried out on the system to ensure these issues are not repeated.
  15. Andon boards have been used majorly in manufacturing.The terminology Andon notifies the management,quality staff that there is a quality related problem. This is more of a visual display and can make use of a cord or a button which can be pulled or pressed by a worker if he feels there is some problem in the production line.This is one of the key principles used in the Toyota production system. The rational is a worker will be specialised in whatever he is working at and so he is best suited to identify any production related issue which can cause problem relate to Quality. There can be alarm raised by a worker regarding safety.This enables the worker to stop production if he knows there are issues and this drives the Quality culture cause he is taking ownership for his work. Some potential reasons why a worker can activate this might be he detects an error or some safety related issues or may be there are some tool or machines which are not working properly.This can be stated as some of the potential reasons.Once the worker has raised an alarm through the Andon board the work is stopped till a solution is found out for the problem.As a practise these problems are documented in a database so that this can be referred in future. Andon board was first used in manufacturing sector but since then it has been widely used in service areas as well :- 1.Andon board can be used in contact centre to show the number of call waiting 2.There is usage in IT department where it can show the internet speed and highlight any problems and act as a visual display 3.This can be used in banks and even have been used in parking lots to show the availability of parking space Manufacturing sector have evolved from using manual Andon boards to Andon lights which can be automated and can help to indicate any abnormalities automatically without human intervention. As we enter in 2021 there is more research happening in this field and the usage and the application is getting defined to new standards by using AI,RPA .
  16. Both the published answers have been selected as the best answer to this question. Also review the answer provided by Mr Venugopal R, Benchmark Six Sigma's in-house expert.
  17. Q 285. What is an "Andon"? Describe some varied applications of Andon Systems. Note for website visitors - Two questions are asked every week on this platform. One on Tuesday and the other on Friday. All questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ Please visit the forum home page at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/ to respond to the latest question open till the next Tuesday/ Friday evening 5 PM as per Indian Standard Time. Questions launched on Tuesdays are open till Friday and questions launched on Friday are open till Tuesday. The best answer is always shown at the top among responses and the author finds honorable mention in our Business Excellence dictionary at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ along with the related term
  18. Queueing Theory Many of us have encountered the frustration of having to await in line. Unfortunately, this experience remains to be popular in crowded, urbanized, “high-tech” environment. We remain in line in our automobiles in traffic jams; we await on-hold for an executive to pick up our phone calls; we wait in line at fast-food joints and we wait in line at outlets to check out. We, as consumers, hardly like these delays, and the organizers of the establishments at which we await also condemn us to wait, since it may yield them business. Why is there awaiting? The claim is straightforward: There is higher need for service than there is a resource for service possible. Why is this so? There may be many reasons; for example, there may be a deficit of servers, it may be infeasible economically for a business to furnish the level of service necessary to limit awaiting, or there may be a space limit to the amount of service that can be provided. We can take these limitations out with the amount of finance, and to know how much service it should then make available, one would need to know claims to such challenges as “How long must a consumer wait? and “How many of us will form within the line?” Queueing theory seeks to clarify these queries through comprehensive analytical analysis. Characteristics of Queueing Systems A quantitative interpretation of a queueing system involves an analytical model of the elemental processes. Most times, six primary characteristics give an acceptable description of the process: Arrival pattern of customers Service pattern of servers Number of servers and service channels System capacity Queue discipline Number of service stages Problems in a Queueing System The ultimate aim of the analysis of queueing systems is to understand the behavior of their underlying processes so we can make informed and intelligent decisions in their management. We can identify three types of problems in this process. Behavioral Problems Statistical Problems Decision Problems Queue discipline / Service disciplines Queue discipline refers to the manner in which it selects customers for service when a queue has formed. (1) First-come, first-served (FCFS) or First in first out (FIFO) Most popular is the first-come, first-served FCFS rule; which is static because no information other than position in line is used to identify the next customer for service. So it serves the customers in the order they arrive. (2) Last come, first served (LCFS) or Last in first out (FIFO) Last come, first served (LCFS), applies too in many inventory systems, because it is less complicated to achieve the closest items which are the last in. The last customers are going to be served first. Goods inside a van usually arranged specified the primary item enter the truck are going to be delivered last. Stacks of pancakes are eaten from the last item on the highest. (3) Processor Sharing (PS) Processor Sharing (PS) within which the server processes all customers (or jobs) simultaneously but works at a slower rate on each job supported the quantity within the system (this is typical in computer systems). Processor sharing discipline is incredibly popular in computers, communication systems and networks. Queueing systems with processor sharing system represent the acceptable models for sharing the resources, e.g., peripherals of a computer or a bandwidth of delivery systems. (4) Priority They will serve particular types of selected consumers early. Business class passengers will join the aircraft early before the economy class. Patients with extreme cases will be served first in the emergency room ahead of ordinary sickness. (5) Shortest job first (SJF) The scheme implements a shortest job first (SJF) in the queue. Shortest Job First (SJF) is also a datum in which we prefer the refining of carrying the smallest execution time for the next execution. This scheduling method can be preemptive or non-preemptive. It significantly reduces the average awaiting time for diverse processes awaiting execution. (6) Preemptive shortest job first (PSJF) In Preemptive SJF Setting, they put activities into the ready queue as they come. A process with shortest burst time begins execution. If a process with a shorter burst time arrives, the current process is taken out or preempted from execution, and it allots the shorter activity to the CPU cycle. (7) Shortest remaining processing time (SRPT) The Shortest remaining time interval discipline (SRPT) is perfect with relevancy minimizing steady-state mean flow time. Under this rule, when employment is to be selected from among those waiting, we choose the one with the bottom remaining interval. An arriving job will preempt the task in process id and providing the interval of the new arrival is a smaller amount than the remaining time interval of the task than in commission. Queue dicipline flow chart:
  19. Benchmark Six Sigma Expert View by Venugopal R The service disciplines as part of the Queuing Theory are applicable to many situations, but very extensively used for CPU scheduling algorithms. 1. FIFO (First In First Out) is a very popular method, also referred as FCFS (First Come First Serve) algorithm in CPU scheduling. FIFO concept is commonly applied on most queues in daily life, say a ticket counter or grocery store billing counter. FIFO is important as part of inventory management, as we would generally like to use or sell materials and products before they become aged, especially when there is a risk of shelf life or obsolescence. For CPU scheduling algorithms, FCFS is preferable when the processes have short burst times. 2. LIFO (Last In First Out) is literally the opposite of FIFO. In day to day life, LIFO is likely to happen when we stack up any material that is expected to be consumed fast with no risk of expiry of obsolescence. For instance, even if a FIFO model is followed by a supermarket or an assembly shop at a batch level to stack their shelves and bins, the consumption of the goods within the batch will happen on a LIFO basis, since the item that has been stacked last has the best reach. LIFO is applied by a business if they want to use their most recent inventory first. If the costs of recent goods may be higher and LIFO will reflect higher inventory costs, meaning less profits and lower tax for that period. LIFO is permitted as an accepted accounting principle in some countries. 3. Processor Sharing - In this approach, all the recipients are served at the same time by sharing of the available resource. It is akin to many households tapping water from a common water tank, with well laid down network of pipes. There is no priority and the available source gets shared by all. Such a scheduling is also referred to as ‘egalitarian processor sharing’ where each client obtains a fraction of the available capacity. The Processor sharing algorithm is considered as a emergence from the ‘Round Robin’ scheduling algorithm. The application of this scheduling discipline making use of internet and other myriad service portals has revolutionized the way world does many activities in the last couple of decades. 4. Priority scheduling- To understand this discipline, let us imagine a queue of patients waiting for seeing a doctor on a FIFO basis. Suddenly, if an emergency case comes in and that patient is given priority, there are two possibilities…. i) the doctor interrupts his session with the current patient and goes to attend to the emergency case – this is pre-emptive ii) the doctor completes the session with the current patient and then attends to the emergency case – this is non-pre-emptive. In the case of CPU scheduling, for multiple processes processed by a CPU, each process will have a priority number assigned. The CPU will start processing the process that arrived first. When another process arrives, the priority numbers will be checked. If it is a non-pre-emptive schedule, the CPU will complete its current process and check the priority numbers of all the available process waiting in the ‘ready queue’. The process with the highest priority will be taken up next. Whereas, if it is a pre-emptive schedule, the CPU will check priority number of new processes as and when they arrive and if a process with higher priority than the current one is available, the CPU will be allocated to that new process and the current process will be moved to the ‘ready queue’ for being resumed later. 5. Shortest Job First - This will be easy to understand if we have understood the ‘Priority’ discipline as explained above. Shortest Job First (SJN) is a non-pre-emptive algorithm where the priority is given based on the execution time, also known as 'burst time'. In this case, the shorter the duration, higher the priority. This finds use for CPU scheduling, where the shorter processes are not made to wait too long, thus reducing the overall waiting time. The SJF algorithm is preferred if many processes come in to the processor simultaneously. 6. Pre-emptive shortest job first - This is a pre-emptive variant of the above discipline, where the current process will be interrupted to accommodate a newly arrived process with shorter duration. The idea is to reduce the overall waiting time and allow faster completion for shorter processes. However, this method is possible only if the processor has knowledge about the burst time for the process. This is not a recommended method if too many short duration processes start coming in between longer duration processes, since it will lead to long waiting time or ‘starvation’ for the longer processes. 7. Shortest remaining processing time - This is a pre-emptive CPU scheduling where; the processing time of new process will be compared with the remaining time of the current process. If the remaining time of current process is lesser than the processing time of the new process, the current process will continue to be executed till completion. On the other hand, if the processing time of the new process happens to be lesser than the remaining time of the current process, the existing process will be pre-empted and the new process will be taken up by the CPU. This discipline can be exercised only if the estimated burst time for the processes are known. This is bit more advantageous than the earlier case of pre-emptive shortest job first, since a current process that has already executed partially and is closer to completion than a new one will be allowed to complete.
  20. Earlier
  21. Let us discuss VSM for Healthcare here
  22. Let us discuss the VSM in transactional service example here.
  23. Queuing Theory: 1. Queuing Theory is mathematical study of waiting time or queues in a model. 2. Queuing theory is used to predict the queue length and waiting time in the simulation for the better business decisions such as planning of resources, space allocation, charges for the premium etc. 3. Queuing is not only applicable to the customers, but also to the product, raw materials, Services, or projects which are lined up. How queuing works? An entity will be arriving to the queuing node, where the entity will be treated by service. But it needs to wait before getting treated and then it will take some duration while it been serviced and then leaves the node. Some applications of Queuing theory: 1. Raw materials are stored and then consumed as per requirement. (Queue length – Inventory | Waiting Time - Capital of WIP/ shelf life) 2. Ships waiting for the clearance. (Waiting time and Service time -Demur-rage) 3. Car parking in the mall (Queue/ service length – Number of Parking slots) Scheduling policies: There are different ways to assign or schedule the next entity to the server which are called as scheduling policies. 1. First in, First out: a. This policy states that the first come will be served at first, which means the entity with longest waiting time will be treated first. b. It is considered as an ethical way to schedule the service for the customers. Token system in Bank or Hospital c. In Manufacturing, First in First out have been considered to keep track on the shelf life of the product. Raw material consumption. 2. Last in, First out: a. This policy states that the last come will be served at first, which means the entity with Shortest waiting time will be treated first. b. It is also stated as stack, It is applicable in most of the cases where you have constraint in such a way that you need to treat the last item first c. In Drive in Racking, We need to pick the last item placed as first. 3. Processor sharing: a. In Processor sharing, more entities will be served at the same time. In this case it can be multiple or as many as possible b. In a mall/ theater, it can accommodate more customers. 4. Shortest Job First: a. Shortest job will be scheduled first , which helps to reduce the queue length. b. In super markets, there will be separate queue for less than 5 billing items, they will treat other customers only after treating the shortest job. 5. Longest Job first: a. Longest Job will be scheduled first. b. In case of Project funding (Project funding as server), Longest job can be allocated with funding to start first. 6. Priority: a. Customers with high priority are treated first. b. It can be primitive (Where customer in service will be interrupted) or non- Primitive. c. Priority can be given in the form of premium queue or even emergency d. Patients at life risk will be treated immediately in hospitals. e. High paid premium queue in the amusement parks. 7. Shortest remaining processing time: a. Customers who have been treated already and having shortest remaining processing time. b. In Banks, after filling the forms, priority will be given to the submission of forms. Key Points: 1. Types of Service facility: Single server, Multiple server with single queue, Multiple server with Multiple queue 2. Queue length, waiting time and service time are the key parameters. 3. Customer Behavior: a. Balking: Customer not joining the queue, because of queue length b. Jockeying: Switching between the queue, considering other queue will be treated faster c. Reneging: Leaving the queue ( which is also called as drop outs)
  24. Sourabh Nandi has provided the best answer to this question by providing business applications of Venn Diagrams along with an example. Congratulations!
  25. Q 284. Seven service disciplines are shown in Queueing Theory at Wikipedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queueing_theory. Starting with FIFO, and ending with "shortest remaining processing time", each of these disciplines serve a purpose. Provide specific examples where these seven service disciplines could be of use. Note for website visitors - Two questions are asked every week on this platform. One on Tuesday and the other on Friday. All questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ Please visit the forum home page at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/ to respond to the latest question open till the next Tuesday/ Friday evening 5 PM as per Indian Standard Time. Questions launched on Tuesdays are open till Friday and questions launched on Friday are open till Tuesday. The best answer is always shown at the top among responses and the author finds honorable mention in our Business Excellence dictionary at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ along with the related term
  26. What is a Venn diagram? John Venn who coined the Venn diagram in 1880 was an English mathematician, logician and philosopher. He also called them Euler diagrams after Leonhard Euler, who checked them out a century before. This is an extraordinarily flexible technique of combining circles useful for identify the contrast between overlapping areas of uniqueness. This representation of how groups relate to one another are generally called “sets”. There must be minimum two number of circles, and also the probability of maximum for many uses is 3. However, there can be more shapes in a diagram based on the number of sets and such a diagram can use unique shapes as per the below figures. Once the circles are interlocked, they reveal discrete areas (in which there’s no overlap). These again compared with the qualities of the overlap areas. Where there are three circles, the central area will show multiple overlapping characteristics. The volume of areas revealed should ideally be kept approximately proportional to their percentage of overlap, in order that the extent of the basic is visually representative. When to use a Venn diagram We often see Venn diagrams in mathematical contexts, but businesses and professionals also use these forms. In each case, the person creating the illustration wants to resolve a controversy, make a crucial decision, predict probabilities or visualize or understand how multiple sets or objects relate to at least one another. Instances when a Venn diagram might be useful in Business Market analysis: A Business Analysis Practitioner might use a Venn’s diagram for basic market research. While using two or more sets of data members within the meeting observe overlapping areas, as those areas contain the business’ target market. Competitor Analysis: A firm might use Venn diagrams to match themselves for their products to their competition. Most times, the business of using the Venn’s diagram may only use two sets of data to work out how they differ from the competition and find any similarities. This helps the business discover what advantages they have already got and specialize in areas where they will make improvements. Product Comparison: Alternatively, a business analyst may create an example with overlapping shapes to weigh the advantages of two or more work ideas. Within the same way that the business analyzes the market, a business analyst will weigh any differences and similarities two or more ideas share to work out which features of a product are the foremost desirable, as shown within the overlapping areas. Decision-Making: The same principles for analyzing two or more product ideas apply to a business’ general decision-making process. Advantages of a Venn diagram A Venn diagram provides the following advantages: It allows an analyst to visualize concepts and relationships between two or more data. It defines complex information into terms that an analyst can understand and represent easily. It helps an analyst to better keep information. Venn diagram symbols “∪ ” Union of two sets. An entire Venn diagram represents the union of two sets. “ ∩ “ Intersection of two sets. This type of intersection shows what items it shares between categories. “ Ac “ Complement of a Set. The compliment is that they don’t represent whatever in an exceedingly set. An classic example of Venn Diagrams; In a survey of the fast-food preferences of three people. We assign these three people as A, B, and C, showing which restaurants they enjoy. A three-circle diagram mostly covers every possibility that they’ll choose a restaurant by one, two, three or no respondents. Scores for Restaurant Survey Results: Restaurant A B C McDonald's 1 0 1 Wendy's 1 1 0 Burger King 0 0 0 In-N-Out 0 1 1 Taco Bell 1 0 1 KFC 0 0 0 A&W 0 0 0 Chick-fil-A 1 1 1 While creating the Venn diagram representing the results, we observed that in A∩B, we’ve Wendy’s because respondent A and respondent B both chose it. Few fast-food restaurants like Burger King, KFC & A&W remain outside the diagram but exist within the universe. Since all the three people have chosen Chick-fil-A, the intersection of all three represents A∩B∩C. So the final Venn diagram will represent in the below figure.
  27. Venn diagram is a visual method ( usually used in set theory) to enable building perspective about a problem or causes. This enables developing appropriate solution for the problem or causes identified by enabling breaking down of whole situation into smaller disparate components. Example hypothetical scenarios 1. Fatal error in transaction processing : Analyst processing transaction is new, type of transaction picked is complex , team leader is on leave; when these three situations come together, there is a high probability of a fatal error happening. At the intersection of these three circles is the red zone, hence such a situation should be mitigated. Venn diagram provides a simplified way of communication such combination of situations to operations staff for watch out. 2. Not meeting our contractual productivity improvement commitment for a client. When probed further basis experience following components surfaced, a) Delivery not meeting basic SLA's (hence there focus was on improving SLA performance b) Process Excellence not having a plan ( used to engage with delivery on adhoc basis) and c) Client team changing priorities frequently. This resulted in a situation of multiple initiatives none crossing the finishing line 3. Looking at which subset is causing maximum issue, example call quality not meeting client expectation. Similar to pareto looking at sub parts of call quality form where team is not able to meet standards. It appeared form had 5 parts and team was meeting/exceeding expectation on 4 parts and significantly missing on one part (Customer experience) - dead air & hold time. In order to resolve calls accurately team members were validating with SME's /Team leads, hence putting customers on hold frequently resulting in significant dip in customer experience.
  28. Sourabh Nandi has provided the best answer to this question for providing the different ways in which Heijunka can be implemented. Another very common tool used for implementing Heijunka is called a "Heijunka Box". Also review the answer provided by Mr Venugopal R, Benchmark Six Sigma's in-house expert.
  29. Q 283. Venn Diagrams represent how groups relate to each other. How can Venn Diagrams be used in problem solving? Explain with example(s) Note for website visitors - Two questions are asked every week on this platform. One on Tuesday and the other on Friday. All questions so far can be seen here - https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/lean-six-sigma-business-excellence-questions/ Please visit the forum home page at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/ to respond to the latest question open till the next Tuesday/ Friday evening 5 PM as per Indian Standard Time. Questions launched on Tuesdays are open till Friday and questions launched on Friday are open till Tuesday. The best answer is always shown at the top among responses and the author finds honorable mention in our Business Excellence dictionary at https://www.benchmarksixsigma.com/forum/business-excellence-dictionary-glossary/ along with the related term
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